2Stowage FactorThe amount of space occupied by a given quantity of any dry commodity in whatever mode of transport (eg: grain in bags or in bulk) is said to be its stowage factor.The stowage factor is the space occupied in cubic feet in the ship’s hold by one ton of cargo. (2.240 lb)In terms of cubic feet per long ton or per metric tonne, but described as cubic meters per tonne.1 Cubic Metre = Cubic Feet
3The lighter a commodity, the more space it will occupy, and therefore, the higher its stowage factor.Corn stowes around 50 cubic feet (1.42 cbm) per tonne in bulk condition, heavier iron ore stowes 15 cubic feet (0.42 cbm).Ship with a “poor cubic” – low ratio of cubic cargo space in relation to available deadweight, would have difficulty in loading a full deadweight cargo of corn, because of insufficient space in her holds.Awkward or squared shapes can not usually fit into every nook and cranny in ship’s holds,thus loosing valuable space through what is known as broken stowage. (spaces between packages, and indeed, any commodity remaining unfilled).
44 main factors to consider in the stowage of cargo: The best possible use > the ship’s deadweight and cubic capacity. (10-15 % of total cubic capacity is allowed for broken stowage)Prevent damage to the ship, a proper distribution of cargo to ensure adequate stability and trim, also it must be properly secured to prevent shifting.Cargo which is fragile, taints very easily, is subject to leakage, scratches easily, has strong odours or is liable to sweat, requires proper segregation.A proper segregation and stowage of different consignments for various ports must be made.
7BULK CARGOBulk cargoes have difficulty in stowage, as they tend to be conveyed in specialized vessels between two portsThey are usually loaded and discharged by mechanical means.Cargoes such as grain, coal are usually carried in bulk and must be adequately ventilated during the voyage, as they are liable to spontaneous combustion.
8GENERAL CARGOGeneral cargoes are conveyed generally in cargo liners,provided with numerous decks, including tween decks, which act as pigeon holds to facilitate stowage.The variety of cargoes conveyed,each with its own characteristics such as fragility,tainting, sweating etc.Also by the wide variety of ports served by the cargo liner.
9UNITISED CARGOUnitisation may increase costs to certain extent as a result of the extra equipment required, but besides;speeding cargo handling operations,reduce pilferage and damage to goods,simplifying tallying (providing the units’ contents are of a uniform quantity)reducing the number of stevedores requireddecresing in some ship types the potential cargo space due to unit shapes and sizes; eg: broken stowage
11Palletisation Pallets are made in various ways. Strengths and sizes, depending on the goods to be supported and the use to which the pallet will be putfor use with cartoons of fruit in reefer shipments requiring perforations to assist with air circulation.The ideal of palletisation was to have every piece of cargo palletised before the shipment.Pallets can be moved around a ship by fork-lift truck and may be limited the number of tiers of height to which they can be stacked.
12ContainerasationThe concept of stowing small items in a large re-usable ‘container’ dates back to the 1960s.The advent of containerasation heralded a revolution in cargo hangling techniques, the ramifications of which are still influencing maritime trade.With pallets, containers can be stacked several tiers high, but care should be taken to clarify the gross weight of each container.
13CONTAINER TYPES AND SIZES General purpose (GP) containers are boxes constructed with walls of aluminium or of thin steel sheeting (with inner plywood fittings).Often ribbed to provide strength and rigidity, with re-inforced corner posts; access being gained via double watertight doors, usually at one end.These boxes are manufactured in a variety of sizes, although an effort to standardise by ISO.
14FCLs LCLs AND ICDsFCL (Full Container Load) means that the container is full. The shipper has the responsibility of packing the goods into the container then closing its doors and attaching a seal.Less than a Container Loads (LCL) cargo is the same as conventional cargo; some container Lines offer an LCL service of their own, while others prefer to encourage NVOCs to consolidate such cargo.The designation Inland Clearence Depot (ICD) handled both FCL and LCL cargo. ICD is often adopted for any depot used to assemble (or distribute) cargo even though the original name implies that it is inland and has a Cutom Offices in attandence to clear the cargo.
15Wheeled and Heavy Units Wheeled units can be divided into twoWheeled units contain cargoWheeled units themselves the cargoWheled units containing cargo:Shortsea RO/ROMedium length RO/RODeepsea RO/RO
16Cars & TrucksMany are exported over shortsea routes eg: Spain to UK, in PCC’s (Pure Car Carriers), RO/RO type vessels.Most cars are moved on longterm contracts; shippers either own or charter on a longterm or spot basis.Vehicles and trucks sales to developing countries lead the introduction of the PCTC(Pure Car and Truck Carrier) built with stronger hoistable cardecks which can be adjusted to accomodate somewhat varied cargoes.CKDs (Cars Knocked Down) are simply created cars in kit form, manufactured by a major producer but exported in this manner for eventual assembly in, or enroute to the country of destination. (trades eg:Japan to S.Africa)
17Heavy Goods Petrochemical machinery or entire desalinisation plants. Heavy Lift Shipoperate either conventionally by lifting goods aboard or ashore,in a roll on/roll off capacity;by submerging itself beneath and then deballasting, and so lifting the unit to be carried (eg: an Oil Rig);a combination of these methods.Turnkey Project; the operation of one or more heavy lift ships undertakes to move several units of equipment large and small, ligth and heavy (eg: a chemical complex).
19GRAINSRequire careful pre-loading inspection, carriage and ventilation.Either in bulk or in bags, grains are liable to heat and/or sweat, especially if damp, when they may germinate or rot.Prior to grain load there is an inspection in the vessel to ensure that she is clean and fit to receive cargo, there is no insect or odour.Handling equipment at loading port is sophisticated (grain elevators, storage silos).
22The Timber Family Timber for the Paper Industry Paper Products PulpwoodWood-ChipsWood-Pulp(paper-pulp)Paper ProductsNewsprintLinerboard/ kraft linerboard (KLB)/ kraft paperSack-craft paper, fluted or corrugated papersWaste-paper
23The Coal FamilyCoalsoft (bituminous),hard (anthracite),manufactured coal products: coal briquettes,peas or beans and patent fuels.** Much of the seaborne trade in coals is confined to large bulkcarriers;eg: Panamax-size and aboveCokePetroleum CokeRaw Petroleum Coke (petcoke (eg: Calcined or calcinated petcoke)Peat
24Major safety considerations; Gas ExplosionSpontaneous Combustion (the longer the coal laden the greater the fire risk)Cargo Shifting at SeaCorrosion of ship’s holds
25Stowage factors of coal vary depending on; The size of the coal.Whether coal is wet or dry.Type of vessel: Mostly transported in bulkcarriers, very little is now carried in tweendeckers.Trimming Process is essential.Origins
26The Fertiliser Family Natural Fertilisers Potash (wood-ash)Potassium.potassium chloride (muriate of potash (MOP)Sulphur (a dangerous cargo in the IMO Dangerous Goods Code)Bulk formed sulphurPrilledLimestoneLime, calcium nitrate,fluorspar (calcium fluoride)NitratesSodium nitratesaltpetre (potassium nitratePhosphateDi-Calcium PhosphateNatural Phosphate (guano)
27The Fertiliser Family Artificial (Compound) Fertilisers Moved either in bulk or in bags.Most are harmless and safe to carry,few can be explosive.Main artificial fertilisers are;Amomonium Nitrate (calcium carbonate(lime salt), calcium ammonium nitrate and/or dolomite.Ammonium SulphateBasic SlagMono-Ammonium PhosphateUrea
29The Ferrous Ores Family Chrome OreHematite, important iron-ore, known also as ferric-oxide.Iron Ore, hematite and magnetite. There are various methods of partly refining iron-ore.Iron concentrateSponge IronSintered Iron OreDirect Reduced IronMagnetiteManganaseNickelPyrites, iron-pyrites or copper-pyrites.
30The Ferrous Ores Family Ferrous AlloysIron ore is widely mixed with other ores and carried as a raw material or after processing of this material as an alloy used for steel making.Ferro-chromiumFerro-manganeseFerro-phosphorusFerro-silicon
31The Mineral Family The Alluminium Family Asbestos The Borates Family The Copper FamilyCopper MatteCopper SlagCopper GranulesCopper ConcentratesFluorsparGranites and ClaysKaolin(China Clay)BentoniteGypsumLeadLimestoneMagnesiumSerpentineMicaPerlite
32The Mineral Family Tin Tar Products Zinc Pumice Salt Sands Barytes IlmeniteOlivineRutileSilver SandZinconTinTar ProductsPitchNapthalane, tar-campor.Zinc
33The Metals Family Steel products a) steel sheet b) beams & gırders Semi-processed materialIngots, alluminium ingots,pig iron,sowsBilletsBloomsSlabsMetal ArticlesCopperIron productsScrapSteel products a) steel sheetb) beams & gırdersc) steel plated) wire rodse) pipes
35Dangerous GoodsIMO, a Dangerous Goods Code has evolved encompassing recommendations as to stowage, carriage, packaging, documentation and labelling of most dangerous commodities.In many parts of the world this Code has been given legal enforcement and embodied into local laws and regulations.
36The Code classifies dangerous goods as follows I: Explosives2: Gases: compressed, liquefied or dissolved under pressure3: Inflammable Liquids4a: Inflammable Solids4b: Inflammable Solids. or substances, liable to spontaneous combustion4c: Inflammable Solids, or substances, which in contact with water emit inflammable gases5a: Oxidisıng substances5b: Organic peroxides6a: Poisonous (toxic) substances6b: Infectious substances7: Radioactive substances8: Corrosives9: Miscellaneous dangerous substances
37Samples for Dangerous Goods Asphalt and pitch in bulk;tar products;petroleum coke;sulphur;caustic soda, soda ash,salt;fishmeal;concentratcs;direct reduced iron;explosives;acids;nuclear and radioactive materials;logs;scrap; turnings; motor blocks;pellets and expellers,