Presentation on theme: " Communism ◦ An economic and political system based on a single-party government ruled by a dictatorship ◦ No private property ◦ Government owns factories,"— Presentation transcript:
Communism ◦ An economic and political system based on a single-party government ruled by a dictatorship ◦ No private property ◦ Government owns factories, railroads, other businesses
Americans were tired and wanted normalcy Returning soldiers have no jobs Stressful time in America Leads to nativism – prejudice against foreign- born people and isolationism – pulling away from involvement in world affairs
Red Scare ◦ Successful Communist revolution in Russia (1919) ◦ Communists = “Reds” ◦ Communist Party forms in the U.S. Palmer Raids ◦ Attorney General Mitchell Palmer hunts down suspected political radicals (Communists, anarchists, socialists) Sacco and Vanzetti ◦ Foreigners and immigrants were easy targets ◦ Italian immigrants and anarchists found guilty of robbery and murder
1.What were some the reactions in the U.S. to the perceived threat of communism? 2.What role did General A. Mitchell Palmer play? 3.How were Sacco and Vanzetti affected by the social climate (nativist attitude) of the 1920s
1880s – new immigrants from southern and eastern Europe worked for low wages After WWI there were fewer unskilled jobs Immigrant participation in labor protests
Ku Klux Klan (KKK) uses anti- communism as an excuse to harass “outsiders” Blame national problems on foreigners Members were paid to recruit new members
Emergency Quota Act of 1921 is passed due to nativist pressure Limits immigration from eastern and southern Europe ◦ 2 percent of its pop. in the U.S. in 1890 Prohibits Japanese immigration and violates Gentlemen’s Agreement 500,000 Mexicans immigrants
During WWI the govt. did not allow strikes After the war, wages were not increased Employers said Union members were Communists to keep wages low Major strikes ◦ Boston Police ◦ Steel Mill ◦ Coal Miners
By then end of the 1920s union membership greatly declined ◦ Immigrants worked for low wages ◦ Immigrants spoke many languages -> unions had difficulty organizing them ◦ Most unions did not allow blacks Brotherhood of Sleeping Car unions Mine workers’ unions
1. What were the Palmer raids? 2. What did the Ku Klux Klan advocate? 3. How did the quota system limit immigration? Which groups did it hurt the most? 4. What prompted the steel strike of 1919? 5. For what reasons did union membership decline during the 1920s? 6. What unions were open to African Americans?
How do you feel after getting back from a vacation? Are you glad to get back to your normal routines?
Problems with arms control and war-torn countries 1921 – Pres. Harding invites world leaders to Washington Naval Conference Secretary of State – Charles Evans Hughes – urges U.S., G. Britain, Japan, Italy, and France to not build warships 1928 – 15 countries sign the Kellogg-Briand Pact – renouncing (give up) war as a national policy
Britain and France have to pay back $10 billion to U.S. ◦ Sell goods to the U.S. ◦ Collect reparations from Germany Fordney-McCumber Tariff (1922) ◦ Raises taxes on U.S. imports to 60 percent! ◦ French troops march into Germany to collect ◦ American banker, Charles G. Dawes, negotiates loans ◦ Dawes Plan – American investors loan Germany $2.5 billion who pay Britain and France who pay the U.S. ◦ No one is pleased
Govt. stays out of business affairs and social reform Harding appoints capable and incapable people to his cabinet Ohio Gang = poker playing buddies who use their political power to make money (graft)
Oil-rich public lands at Teapot Dome, Wyoming were set aside for naval use Albert Fall, member of Harding’s cabinet, leases the land to private oil companies and receives $400,000 Convicted of bribery
Warren G. Harding dies suddenly in 1923 One of the least successful presidents
Henry Ford’s Model T
Pres. Calvin Coolidge and then Herbert Hoover are pro-business ◦ Govt. stays out + taxes down + high tariffs on foreign imports Invention of the automobile – 1927 Model T Ford ◦ Paved roads ◦ Garages ◦ Gas stations ◦ Shopping centers ◦ Rural families could travel ◦ Vacation ◦ Young men and women could travel ◦ Urban sprawl = cities spread because people can commute to work ◦ Detroit + Akron = car factories ◦ California + Texas = expansion due to oil
“Parking” for teenagers Status symbol 80% of reg. cars were in the U.S. Common people could afford the Model T
“It will take us a hundred years to tell whether you helped us or hurt us, but you certainly didn’t leave us where you found us.” Has the automobile improved American lives? Why? Why not?
2. Assess Ford’s contribution to industry? 3. Do you think Ford was a good employer? Why or why not?
What products do you use to make your life easier? Imagine life without basic electrical appliances (refrigerator, washing machine, communication devices).
First used in times of peace by U.S. Post Office Transatlantic flights by Charles Lindbergh and Amelia Earhart 1927 Pan American Airways had the first transatlantic passenger flight The Young Airplane Industry
1920 – 1929 – Americans owned 40% of the world’s wealth Annual income rose from $522 to $705 What to do with the “extra” money
Gasoline = cars Electricity = power for factories, cities, suburbs Made life easier and more pleasant Women had more free time
Many Americans believed prosperity would go on forever Factories were producing Corporations were making fortunes Drug, clothing, and drug stores were built
A large income gap is created between workers and managers Railroad industries were not successful New farm machines -> more food -> cheaper prices Installment plan (easy credit) – buy good over an extended time by paying a little up front -> banks provided the rest at low interest rates Americans cared about the present