3Reaction to the Perceived Threat of Communism An economic and political system based on a single-party government ruled by a dictatorshipNo private propertyGovernment owns factories, railroads, other businesses
4Postwar Trends Americans were tired and wanted normalcy Returning soldiers have no jobsStressful time in AmericaLeads to nativism – prejudice against foreign- born people and isolationism – pulling away from involvement in world affairs
5Reaction to the Perceived Threat of Communism Red ScareSuccessful Communist revolution in Russia (1919)Communists = “Reds”Communist Party forms in the U.S.Palmer RaidsAttorney General Mitchell Palmer hunts down suspected political radicals (Communists, anarchists, socialists)Sacco and VanzettiForeigners and immigrants were easy targetsItalian immigrants and anarchists found guilty of robbery and murder
6What were some the reactions in the U. S What were some the reactions in the U.S. to the perceived threat of communism?What role did General A. Mitchell Palmer play?How were Sacco and Vanzetti affected by the social climate (nativist attitude)of the 1920s
7Quota System1880s – new immigrants from southern and eastern Europe worked for low wagesAfter WWI there were fewer unskilled jobsImmigrant participation in labor protests
8Quota SystemKu Klux Klan (KKK) uses anti- communism as an excuse to harass “outsiders”Blame national problems on foreignersMembers were paid to recruit new members
9Quota SystemEmergency Quota Act of 1921 is passed due to nativist pressureLimits immigration from eastern and southern Europe2 percent of its pop. in the U.S. in 1890Prohibits Japanese immigration and violates Gentlemen’s Agreement500,000 Mexicans immigrants
10Conflicts Between Labor and Management During WWI the govt. did not allow strikesAfter the war, wages were not increasedEmployers said Union members were Communists to keep wages lowMajor strikesBoston PoliceSteel MillCoal Miners
11Conflicts Between Labor and Management By then end of the 1920s union membership greatly declinedImmigrants worked for low wagesImmigrants spoke many languages -> unions had difficulty organizing themMost unions did not allow blacksBrotherhood of Sleeping Car unionsMine workers’ unions
12Assignment 1. What were the Palmer raids? 2. What did the Ku Klux Klan advocate?3. How did the quota system limit immigration? Which groups did it hurt the most?4. What prompted the steel strike of 1919?5. For what reasons did union membership decline during the 1920s?6. What unions were open to African Americans?
14JournalHow do you feel after getting back from a vacation? Are you glad to get back to your normal routines?
15Harding Struggles for Peace Problems with arms control and war-torn countries1921 – Pres. Harding invites world leaders to Washington Naval ConferenceSecretary of State – Charles Evans Hughes – urges U.S., G. Britain, Japan, Italy, and France to not build warships1928 – 15 countries sign the Kellogg-Briand Pact – renouncing (give up) war as a national policy
16Harding Struggles for Peace Britain and France have to pay back $10 billion to U.S.Sell goods to the U.S.Collect reparations from GermanyFordney-McCumber Tariff (1922)Raises taxes on U.S. imports to 60 percent!French troops march into Germany to collectAmerican banker, Charles G. Dawes, negotiates loansDawes Plan – American investors loan Germany $2.5 billion who pay Britain and France who pay the U.S.No one is pleased
18Scandal Hits Harding’s Administration Govt. stays out of business affairs and social reformHarding appoints capable and incapable people to his cabinetOhio Gang = poker playing buddies who use their political power to make money (graft)
19Teapot Dome ScandalOil-rich public lands at Teapot Dome, Wyoming were set aside for naval useAlbert Fall, member of Harding’s cabinet, leases the land to private oil companies and receives $400,000Convicted of bribery
20Warren G. Harding dies suddenly in 1923 One of the least successful presidents
21Section 3: The Business of America Henry Ford’sModel T
22The Impact of the Automobile and Consumer Goods on American Life Pres. Calvin Coolidge and then Herbert Hoover are pro-businessGovt. stays out + taxes down + high tariffs on foreign importsInvention of the automobile – 1927 Model T FordPaved roadsGaragesGas stationsShopping centersRural families could travelVacationYoung men and women could travelUrban sprawl = cities spread because people can commute to workDetroit + Akron = car factoriesCalifornia + Texas = expansion due to oil
23The Impact of the Automobile and Consumer Goods on American Life “Parking” for teenagersStatus symbol80% of reg. cars were in the U.S.Common people could afford the Model T
24Journal“It will take us a hundred years to tell whether you helped us or hurt us, but you certainly didn’t leave us where you found us.”Has the automobile improved American lives? Why? Why not?
25Henry Ford Primary Source Questions 2. Assess Ford’s contribution to industry?3. Do you think Ford was a good employer? Why or why not?
26JournalWhat products do you use to make your life easier? Imagine life without basic electrical appliances (refrigerator, washing machine, communication devices).
27American Industries Flourish First used in times of peace by U.S. Post OfficeTransatlantic flights by Charles Lindbergh and Amelia Earhart1927 Pan American Airways had the first transatlantic passenger flightThe Young Airplane Industry
28America’s Standard of Living Soars 1920 – 1929 – Americans owned 40% of the world’s wealthAnnual income rose from $522 to $705What to do with the “extra” money
29Electrical Conveniences Gasoline = carsElectricity = power for factories, cities, suburbsMade life easier and more pleasantWomen had more free time
33A Superficial Prosperity Many Americans believed prosperity would go on foreverFactories were producingCorporations were making fortunesDrug, clothing, and drug stores were built
34So What Happens?A large income gap is created between workers and managersRailroad industries were not successfulNew farm machines -> more food -> cheaper pricesInstallment plan (easy credit) – buy good over an extended time by paying a little up front -> banks provided the rest at low interest ratesAmericans cared about the present