Presentation on theme: "Mr. Whites US History 1. Main ideas: The Harding administration appealed to Americas desire for calm, peace, and normalcy after the war, but resulted."— Presentation transcript:
Mr. Whites US History 1
Main ideas: The Harding administration appealed to Americas desire for calm, peace, and normalcy after the war, but resulted in scandal Consumer goods fueled the business boom of the 1920s as Americas standard of living soared, though the prosperity had weaknesses and flaws. Big questions: How did the scandals of Hardings presidency lead to a loss of credibility for Harding? How did Coolidge and Hoovers administrations use government to foster business and industry? What were signs of increased prosperity and a higher standard of living in the United States? What were signs of weakness in the economy in the 1920s?
Warren G. Hardings administration worked to encourage peace and deal with post-war issues.
After the war, Warren G. Harding held the Washington Naval Conference to discuss naval disarmament between the great powers The U.S. suggested that they, Britain, Japan, France, and Italy decrease naval armaments All nations agreed to the Kellogg-Briand pact, but there was no way built into the agreement to enforce the treaty
As a result of the war, Britain and France had debts to the U.S. – had taken out loans to pay for the war Britain and France planned to use German war reparations to pay these debts However, Germany was increasingly not able to pay the war reparations When Germany defaulted on its loans, France invaded the Rhineland in Germany To avoid further conflict, the United States agreed to lend money to Germany, to pay Britain and France, to pay the United States
Hardings administration was plagued by scandals that resulted in a loss of credibility.
Harding had a great deal of trouble as president He appointed political cronies and friends to his cabinet – the Ohio Gang. Many of these men got rich off government graft, kickbacks Harding also had a great deal of trouble understanding the problems of his presidency – often couldnt make a decision
The government had set aside oil reserves at Teapot Dome, Wyoming, for the use of the U.S. Navy Albert B. Fall, secretary of the interior, had the reserves transferred from the department of the Navy to the department of the Interior The reserves were leased to two private oil companies Fall received nearly $400,000 in loans, bonds, and cash as gifts Fall was found guilty of bribery – this basically destroys Hardings credibility Harding dies shortly thereafter and Calvin Coolidge takes over as president
Coolidge and Hoovers administrations used government to foster business and industry, which flourished.
Both Calvin Coolidge and his successor, Herbert Hoover, adopted pro-business government policies Used protective tariffs to foster American business Worked to keep taxes low Worked to make credit available to business that wanted to expand
The automobile industry grew in the United States at this time More and more people owned cars More cars resulted in changes in society Rural families could go into the cities for shopping and entertainment Families could now travel long distances for vacations Women and young people found new freedoms with the automobile Workers could now live further away from their jobs – urban sprawl results The automobile came to be a cultural symbol of prosperity
Henry Fords innovate assembly line methods had sped up mass production Cars could be produced cheaper – more people could afford them Cars could be produced more quickly – expanding markets Fords Model T was a great example of using these assembly-line methods Parts were completely interchangeable; basically nothing was hand-crafted As production increased, Ford streamlined and offered the car only in black
The airplane also grew as a means of transportation In the United States, the plane was first used to carry mail – first flight was a failure, but it caught on gradually As the science of weather forecasting caught on, planes began to carry radios and navigational instruments In 1927, Pan American began transatlantic flights
As industry flourished, Americas standard of living rose. However, many signs pointed to a superficial prosperity
Industry had grown during World War I and continued to be strong after the war The United States produced more consumer goods as time went on Electricity and electrical conveniences and appliances grew Advertisers, to sell their products, began to use psychology and related methods to encourage people to buy their products
Even though the U.S. seemed prosperous, many signs pointed to weaknesses in the economy Consumer goods were growing; not as much growth in heavy industries The income gap between the rich and poor grew – sign of a weak, small middle class Iron and railroad industries werent making much profit Farmers werent making much money, either, and many had taken out loans to meet World War I production
Spurred by this consumer spending, more and more people began to buy goods on credit, instead of cash An installment plan was an arrangement to buy a product and pay over time for an interest rate More and more people used credit to buy goods; some went into debt that they couldnt pay Some economists pointed to this as the sign of a weak economy, but many people felt that the economy was strong.
Remember our big questions: How did the scandals of Hardings presidency lead to a loss of credibility for Harding? How did Coolidge and Hoovers administrations use government to foster business and industry? What were signs of increased prosperity and a higher standard of living in the United States? What were signs of weakness in the economy in the 1920s? So… Harding lost credibility as a president because… One way that Coolidge and/or Hoover fostered business or industry was… One of the signs of increased prosperity and a higher standard of living in the U.S. was… One of the signs of weakness in the economy in the 1920s was…