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The Marine Biome by ryan.. Location Cover ¾ of Earth’s surface Includes oceans & coral reefs (an estuaries) Algae supplies world’s O and takes in CO 2.

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Presentation on theme: "The Marine Biome by ryan.. Location Cover ¾ of Earth’s surface Includes oceans & coral reefs (an estuaries) Algae supplies world’s O and takes in CO 2."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Marine Biome by ryan.

2 Location Cover ¾ of Earth’s surface Includes oceans & coral reefs (an estuaries) Algae supplies world’s O and takes in CO 2 Evaporation of sea provides precipitation

3 Oceans Largest of all ecosystems Separated into zones Intertidal Pelagic Abyssal Benthic Image from

4 Intertidal Zone Where oceans meets land Submerged or exposed based on tides Communities are constantly changing Fauna includes worms, clams, crabs, and shorebirds Image from

5 Intertidal Zone Rocky coast Layered out along cliffs Higher areas have less diversity Submerged areas have more species Tidal Pools- warmed by sun Sandy coast Less stratified Mud & sand prevent algae & plants Muddy coast Image from

6 Adaptions Intertidal zones Avoid being swept away or crushed In & out of water Changes levels of salinity Rocky Pounded by waves Niches in pools respond to changing factors Sandy Hold onto something, dig, or shells

7 Wetlands Intertidal zones Water meets land Salt marshes and mangrove swamps Salt marshes Muddy Surrounded by estuaries, bays, or lagoons Migratory birds Food & rest Image fromhttp://www.capecodphotoalbum.com/SandMarsh.jpg

8 Pelagic Zone Open ocean Generally cold, but hard to tell due to thermal stratification Flora includes surface seaweed Fauna includes many fish & some mammals Whales & dolphins

9 Pelagic Organisms Often migratory forage fish Feed on plankton Herring, anchovies, capelin, menhaden Larger fish feed on forage fish Billfish, tuna, oceanic sharks Image from and mpo.gc.ca/sci/herring/hertags/images/herring_venus.jpghttp://www.foodliabilitylaw.com/uploads/image/Tuna%20Picture(1).jpgus.jpg

10 Benthic Zone Below pelagic, but not the deep ocean Bottom is covered in sand, silt and/or dead organisms Temp. decreases with depth Image from

11 Benthic Zone Flora is primarily seaweed Fauna includes bacteria, fungi, sponges, sea anemones, worms, sea stars, fish Nutrient richness supports life Image from seaman.com/Underwater/Belize/StillLifes/TubeSpongesSpikyPuce.jpg

12 Benthos Organisms that live in the benthic zone Many are adapted to live in substrate Live in deep water pressure, can’t survive in upper parts Little light penetration Scavengers and detritivores

13 Abyssal Zone Very cold (3°C), high pressure, high O, low nutrients Supports many inverts & fish Mid ocean ridges (b/w plates) Hydrothermal vents → chemosynthetic bacteria Image from

14 Abyssal Organisms Need to withstand immense pressure 11,000 psi Underslung jaws Sift through sand Includes black swallower, tripod fish, and giant squid Image from

15 Coral Reefs Distributed in warm, shallow water Continental barriers, fringing island, or atolls Image from _french_frigate_shoals_reef_-_many_fish.jpg

16 Coral Reefs Dominant organism is coral Consists of algae and polyp tissue Water is nutrient poor Coral gets nutrients from algae or plankton Other fauna is microorganisms, invertebrates, fish, urchins, octopi, sea stars

17 Factors At all latitudes No elevation changes (ocean level, duh) Air currents affect ocean currents Changes the direction of currents Many different kinds of ocean currents Image from

18 Currents Upwelling Brings cold, nutrient rich water up from depths Deep water currents Sea water cools, becomes saltier and denser and sinks Warm surface currents Driven by winds & rotation Cold surface currents Flow towards equator, driven by atmosphere

19 Currents Global conveyor belt Deep water sinks, then moves south around Antarctica and north to Indian, Pacific and Atlantic Takes a thousand years for water to travel from North Atlantic into the North Pacific Image from

20 Human Problems Pollution 2/3 of major cities are on coasts Kills marine life, threatens human health, algae blooms, beach closures, coral reefs Oceans carry pollution away from entry point Image from

21 Human Problems Carbon Emissions Raises acidity of the oceans “Level that is irreversible in our life times” Affects oceans ability to absorb greenhouse gases More ultraviolet rays Less plankton Goes down through food chain

22 Human Problems Plastic Debris Litter kills off wildlife Cut up can holders Animals mistake for food & ingest 7 billions tons of litter 60% is plastic Last for years Image from

23 Human Problems Oil spills Washes over surface & destroys habitats Recovery takes years Clean up costs millions Overfishing Kills off species Image from

24 Bibliography "Biomes." Animals of the World. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Nov http://www.animalsoftheworld.ecsd.net/biomes.htm "ECO-PROS Human Impact on Oceans." ECO-PROS - Ecology Protectors Society. N.p., 10 May Web. 29 Nov http://www.eco-pros.com/humanimpact.htm "Ocean Planet:Ocean Currents." OceanColor Web - SeaWiFS - JASON - Ocean Planet - In Search of Giant Squid. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Nov http://seawifs.gsfc.nasa.gov/OCEAN_PLANET/HTML/oceanography_currents_1.html Oilvia. "The Marine Biome." Author Stream. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Nov "Marine 3." Thurston High School Springfield Oregon. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Nov http://ths.sps.lane.edu/biomes/marine3/marine3.html "The Marine Biome." University of California Museum of Paleontology. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Nov


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