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The Marine Biome Cycle carbon dioxide and oxygen on Earth

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Presentation on theme: "The Marine Biome Cycle carbon dioxide and oxygen on Earth"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Marine Biome Cycle carbon dioxide and oxygen on Earth
Modifies temperatures changes Home to many organisms Most important: provides stability to the web of life on Earth

2 The World Ocean Even though we name individual oceans, they are all connected so they make up one large body of water-the world ocean it is one large biome with many ecosystems and habitats World ocean is divided into zones based on depth and distance from the shore Depth zones: photic, aphotic, benthic zones Shore distance zones: oceanic, neritic, intertidal zones

3 Oceanic Zone This is the open ocean
Largest zone in the ocean, 90% of the world ocean Ranges in depth: 500 meters to 11,000 meters deep Not much sunlight penetrates into the oceanic zone Photic zone is only at the surface, about 200 m deep Only phytoplankton are the producers They convert CO2 into billions of tons of carbon each year This provides the basic material for the bottom of the food web Plankton is the food source for both large and small ocean animals: fish and whales

4 Aphotic zone-takes up most of the world ocean, but does not have much organism diversity
Limited by absence of sunlight Organisms have to adapt to cold, dark, deep water Feed on pieces of dead organic material that sinks down from surface Detritus-tiny pieces of dead organic material that are food for organisms at the base of an aquatic food web Clams, worms, sponges all feed on detritus

5 Ocean Water Even though all ocean water is connected, it is not all the same Differ in temperature, salinity, and density Water near the equator gets more direct sunlight so it is warmer and more saline and (water evaporates b/c of the sunlight) Water near the poles is colder, and less saline, and more dense It is constantly getting more water from melting glaciers and ice caps

6 Ocean Currents Ocean water flows in similar patterns all year, called currents Currents are driven mostly by winds They are pretty stable and remain the same even though there are small changes Currents can cause water located very close together to be very different Currents allow fish and organisms to travel quickly over long distances Currents have kept pollutants dumped by people concentrated in areas Fish become polluted and humans eat the fish Ocean Dumping Act(1988) banned dumping industrial waste in the ocean

7 Neritic Zones Continental shelf- the shallow border that surrounds the continents Runs b/n the shore and 500 m below the surface of the water Neritic zone- the ocean region b/n the edge of the continental shelf and the low tidemark It’s usually shallow, so gets sunlight for photosynthesis Only 10% of the ocean But are the most productive b/c they get sunlight and are warm Neritic zones include reefs and estuaries

8 Coral Reefs Reef- natural structure built on a continental shelf Coral reefs found in warm, tropical waters Kelp reefs found in cold waters Importance of coral reefs: Home to huge variety of organisms Breeding and feeding place for many fish 1/3 of all ocean fish live on or depend on coral reefs Protects shoreline from erosion Many coral reef organisms have medical benefits

9 Coral reefs are very fragile
Made of calcium carbonate skeletons of millions of tiny corals Top layer is alive Zooxanthellae alga lives inside tissue of coral Alga perform photosynthesis and provide food to coral Human Damage of coral reefs Blast reefs to make harbors Coral is harvested for jewelry Fish are popular for home aquariums Collecting the fish damages the coral

10 Water pollution damage
Toxic chemicals kill coral and organisms Silt, sand, and topsoil wash into the water and make it cloudy, less light for photosynthesis So can look at health of coral reef to determine the quality of water When coral reefs start to die, start to investigate the water quality Estuaries Region where a freshwater source, usually mouth of a river, meets the saltwater of the ocean Water is usually brackish here

11 Nutrients and sediments are mixed here
Many marine organisms breed here, commercially important Function as buffer zone, filter sediments and pollutants from the water Slow down floods and storm water Humans use for boating, fishing, hunting Neritic Zone Production Sunlight can reach it, so photosynthesis occurs Many mineral nutrients wash into the zone from the shore Tides wash in fresh nutrients and O2, and takes away waste

12 Fringe reefs-grows just off shoreline
The reef will keep growing farther out The reef closest to the shore will start to die, creating a channel Forms a barrier reef- reefs that are separated from the shore by a channel Great Barrier Reef in Australia is largest coral reef in world


14 Intertidal Zones This zone located along the shoreline
Alternates twice a day b/n periods of exposure at low tide and periods of submersion at high tide 2 high tides and 2 low tides each day Any organisms living there must be able to withstand these constant changes, and pounding of water Attach to rocks, burrow in sand Often surrounded wetlands: salt marshes and mangrove swamps

15 Salt Marshes Flat, muddy wetlands surround estuaries, bays, and lagoons Mud floor is exposed during low tides, and submerged during high tides Common in US coasts, especially east coast Functions Support migratory bird populations: feeding and resting grounds in b/n journeys Plant life (grasses) support rich community of fish and invertebrates Many shellfish and fish spend part of their life there, so they can be easily captured for sale Plants are their food and protection



18 Salt Marsh Formation Streams flow into an estuary or shallow, neritic water Sediments are deposited at the mouth of the stream, and build up forming a delta the delta begins to sink. Subsidence-the weight of accumulated sediments cause the delta to sink under the water The amount that sinks has to balance the amount that is deposited for a salt marsh to remain This sinking and depositing of sediments causes the river to change its course many times

19 Mangrove Swamps Coastal wetland that occurs only in warm climates
Named after the mangrove plant that lives there Mangroves cannot grow in areas that freeze more than 2 days a year Mangroves can either be a tree or shrub, 800 species total, 10 live in US Most common in US is red mangrove Adaptations Low O2 in swamps Mangroves have roots that grow up and stick out of the water Some have roots that grow high on the trunk, look like stilts

20 Mangrove swamps are being destroyed at a high rates
Make great commercial fish and shrimp ponds Construction projects Waste dumping

21 Review Questions What is the most important thing that the marine biome provides for the Earth? What is the name given to all of the oceans connected together? What are the names of the 3 zones based on shore distance? What is the largest zone, and how much space does it take up? What is detritus? Why is it important? Where is ocean water the warmest? Coldest? What are ocean currents? How do ocean currents contribute to polluting the ocean? What is the neritic zone and how much space does it take up? Why are coral reefs important?

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