Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3 Communities and Biomes"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 3 Communities and Biomes Section 2, Part 1Aquatic Biomes
2BiomesA large group of ecosystems that share the same type of climax community.
3Aquatic Biomes Approx. 75% of Earth is covered by water. 3 Main Aquatic BiomesMarine BiomesEstuaries – Mixed WatersFreshwater Biomes
4Marine Biomes – Open Oceans Differ in abiotic factors, such as:Salinity, depth, light, and temperatureLarge amounts of biomass.Mostly extremely small to microscopic organisms, which larger organisms depend on.PlanktonSmall organisms that drift and float.Include autotrophs, diatoms, eggs, and juvenile stages of marine animals.Serve as the base of all aquatic food chains.
5Zones Photic Zone Shallow enough for sunlight to penetrate. Exist along coastlines.Include bays, rocky shores, sandy beaches, mud flats, estuaries, and coral reefs.
6ZonesAphotic ZoneDeeper water that never receives sunlight.
7EstuariesCoastal body of water, partially surrounded by land, in which freshwater and saltwater mix.Salinity changes with the tides and the amount of freshwater brought in by rivers.Because of salinity changes, a wide range of organisms can live in estuaries.
8Salt Marsh EcosystemsDominated by salt-tolerant smooth cordgrass, salt marsh hay, or eelgrasses.Grasses grow so thick that their stems and roots form a tangled mat that traps food and provides a “nursery” habitat for small developing snails, crabs, and shrimp.These organisms feed on suspended decaying material.Attract predators, such as birds.
9Intertidal ZonesThe portion of the shoreline that lies between the high and low tide lines.Size of the zone depends upon the slope of the land and the difference between high and low tides.Intertidal ecosystems have high levels of sunlight, nutrients, and oxygen.
10Intertidal Zones Differs in rockiness and wave action. Rocky Sandy Waves constantly threaten to wash organisms into deeper waters.Organisms such as snails and sea stars have adaptations that act by suction to hold onto rocks.Barnacles secrete a strong glue which helps them stay anchored.SandyClams, worms, snails, and crabs survive by burrowing in the sand.
11Tide Pools Pools of water left when the water is a t low tide. Can isolate organisms that live in the intertidal zone until the next high tide.Can vary in nutrient and oxygen levels from one time of day to another.
12Marine BiomesAs you move into deeper water, the ocean bottom is less affected by waves and tides.Nutrients washed from land by rainfall and runoff contribute to the abundant life and high productivity.
13Coral Reefs One of the most diverse ecosystems. Formed over long periods of time from the calcium carbonate shells secreted by corals.Very fragile ecosystem.
14Freshwater Biomes Rivers and Streams Quicker flowing streams and rivers have higher oxygen content.Higher nutrients and plant life exist in slower moving parts.
15Lakes and Ponds Organisms Temperature Sunlight Cattails, tadpoles, aquatic insects, turtles, worms, crayfish, insect larvae, whirligig beetles, dragonflies, and fish.TemperatureDecreases with depth.Sunlight
16Wetlands Marshes and Swamps Bogs Found inland and in coastal regions. Highly productive and are the source of food for many migratory birds.Have flowing water.Swamps have trees. Marshes do not.BogsGet their water supply form rain.No flowing water.