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Chapter 3 Communities and Biomes Section 2, Part 1 Aquatic Biomes.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3 Communities and Biomes Section 2, Part 1 Aquatic Biomes."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 3 Communities and Biomes Section 2, Part 1 Aquatic Biomes

2 Biomes A large group of ecosystems that share the same type of climax community.

3 Aquatic Biomes Approx. 75% of Earth is covered by water. Approx. 75% of Earth is covered by water. 3 Main Aquatic Biomes 3 Main Aquatic Biomes –Marine Biomes –Estuaries – Mixed Waters –Freshwater Biomes

4 Marine Biomes – Open Oceans Differ in abiotic factors, such as: Differ in abiotic factors, such as: –Salinity, depth, light, and temperature Large amounts of biomass. Large amounts of biomass. –Mostly extremely small to microscopic organisms, which larger organisms depend on. –Plankton Small organisms that drift and float. Small organisms that drift and float. Include autotrophs, diatoms, eggs, and juvenile stages of marine animals. Include autotrophs, diatoms, eggs, and juvenile stages of marine animals. Serve as the base of all aquatic food chains. Serve as the base of all aquatic food chains.

5 Zones Photic Zone Photic Zone –Shallow enough for sunlight to penetrate. –Exist along coastlines. –Include bays, rocky shores, sandy beaches, mud flats, estuaries, and coral reefs.

6 Zones Aphotic Zone Aphotic Zone –Deeper water that never receives sunlight.

7 Estuaries Coastal body of water, partially surrounded by land, in which freshwater and saltwater mix. Coastal body of water, partially surrounded by land, in which freshwater and saltwater mix. Salinity changes with the tides and the amount of freshwater brought in by rivers. Salinity changes with the tides and the amount of freshwater brought in by rivers. Because of salinity changes, a wide range of organisms can live in estuaries. Because of salinity changes, a wide range of organisms can live in estuaries.

8 Salt Marsh Ecosystems Dominated by salt-tolerant smooth cordgrass, salt marsh hay, or eelgrasses. Dominated by salt-tolerant smooth cordgrass, salt marsh hay, or eelgrasses. –Grasses grow so thick that their stems and roots form a tangled mat that traps food and provides a nursery habitat for small developing snails, crabs, and shrimp. These organisms feed on suspended decaying material. These organisms feed on suspended decaying material. Attract predators, such as birds. Attract predators, such as birds.

9 Intertidal Zones The portion of the shoreline that lies between the high and low tide lines. The portion of the shoreline that lies between the high and low tide lines. Size of the zone depends upon the slope of the land and the difference between high and low tides. Size of the zone depends upon the slope of the land and the difference between high and low tides. Intertidal ecosystems have high levels of sunlight, nutrients, and oxygen. Intertidal ecosystems have high levels of sunlight, nutrients, and oxygen.

10 Intertidal Zones Differs in rockiness and wave action. Differs in rockiness and wave action. –Rocky Waves constantly threaten to wash organisms into deeper waters. Waves constantly threaten to wash organisms into deeper waters. –Organisms such as snails and sea stars have adaptations that act by suction to hold onto rocks. –Barnacles secrete a strong glue which helps them stay anchored. –Sandy –Clams, worms, snails, and crabs survive by burrowing in the sand.

11 Tide Pools Pools of water left when the water is a t low tide. Pools of water left when the water is a t low tide. –Can isolate organisms that live in the intertidal zone until the next high tide. –Can vary in nutrient and oxygen levels from one time of day to another.

12 Marine Biomes As you move into deeper water, the ocean bottom is less affected by waves and tides. As you move into deeper water, the ocean bottom is less affected by waves and tides. Nutrients washed from land by rainfall and runoff contribute to the abundant life and high productivity. Nutrients washed from land by rainfall and runoff contribute to the abundant life and high productivity.

13 Coral Reefs One of the most diverse ecosystems. One of the most diverse ecosystems. Formed over long periods of time from the calcium carbonate shells secreted by corals. Formed over long periods of time from the calcium carbonate shells secreted by corals. Very fragile ecosystem. Very fragile ecosystem.

14 Freshwater Biomes Rivers and Streams Rivers and Streams –Quicker flowing streams and rivers have higher oxygen content. –Higher nutrients and plant life exist in slower moving parts.

15 Lakes and Ponds –Organisms Cattails, tadpoles, aquatic insects, turtles, worms, crayfish, insect larvae, whirligig beetles, dragonflies, and fish. Cattails, tadpoles, aquatic insects, turtles, worms, crayfish, insect larvae, whirligig beetles, dragonflies, and fish. –Temperature Decreases with depth. Decreases with depth. –Sunlight Decreases with depth. Decreases with depth.

16 Wetlands Marshes and Swamps Marshes and Swamps –Found inland and in coastal regions. –Highly productive and are the source of food for many migratory birds. –Have flowing water. –Swamps have trees. Marshes do not. Bogs Bogs –Get their water supply form rain. –No flowing water.


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