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Propaganda Techniques Ten Commandments of Propaganda 1) Divide and Conquer a)More small groups are easier to pit against each other 2) Tell the people.

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Presentation on theme: "Propaganda Techniques Ten Commandments of Propaganda 1) Divide and Conquer a)More small groups are easier to pit against each other 2) Tell the people."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 Propaganda Techniques

3 Ten Commandments of Propaganda 1) Divide and Conquer a)More small groups are easier to pit against each other 2) Tell the people what they want a)Pander to the masses 3) The bigger the lie, the more people will believe it a)Make statements grandiose and loud 4) ALWAYS appeal to the lowest common denominator a) It’s O.K. to “dumb it down”

4 Ten Commandments of Propaganda (cont) 5)Generalize as much as possible a)Paint in broad strokes 6) Use "expert" testimonial a)Have someone known or relatable “pitch” it 7) Refer often to the "authority" of your office a)Remind public of knowledge and power

5 Ten Commandments of Propaganda (cont) 8) Stack the cards with "information" a)Use as much supportive evidence as possible 9) A confused people are easily led a)More informed means more skeptical 10) Get the "plain folks" onto the "bandwagon" a)Appeal to the common man & he will follow

6 List of Propaganda Techniques 1. Slogans 2. Name Calling 3. Glittering Generalities 4. Transfer 5. Testimonials 6. Appeal to Authority 7. Bait and Switch 8. Bandwagon 9. Red Herring 10. Fear 11. Loaded Language or Emotional Words 12. Repetition 13. Appeal to Numbers, Facts, and Statistics 14. Logical Fallacies or False Analogies 15. Circular Arguments 16. Euphemisms 17. Snob Appeal 18. Plain Folks 19. Big Lie 20. Scapegoats 21. Card Stacking 22. Black and White

7 Keystone Mandated Propaganda Strategies 1.Name-Calling 2.Bandwagon 3.Red Herring 4.Emotional Appeal/Loaded Words 5.Testimonial 6.Repetition 7.Glittering/Sweeping Generalizations 8.Circular Arguments 9.Appeal to Numbers, Facts, and Statistics

8 Slogan

9 A catchword or phrase loaded with emotion Jingle--A musical phrase the audience will remember Often sells through repetition Clever and easy to remember Stays with you a long time Often a melody you already know “ Trust Sleepy’s For the ‘rest’ Of your life”

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11 Whose slogan is: “Maybe she’s born with it, maybe it’s…”

12 Whose slogan is: “I’m Loving It”

13 Whose slogan is: “Have it Your Way.”

14 Whose slogan is: “Live in your world, play in ours.”

15 Whose slogan is: “Challenge Everything.”

16 Whose slogan is “Good to the last drop.”

17 Whose slogan is: “Thousands of Possibilities. Get Yours.”

18 Whose slogan is: “Expect More. Pay Less.”

19 Whose slogan is: “Breakfast of Champions.”

20 Whose slogan is: “A Diamond is Forever.”

21 Slogan Example They’re GRRRRRRREAT!

22 Name-Calling Know for Keystone

23 Name-Calling The name-calling technique links a person, or idea, to a negative symbol. A way of smearing an opponent Intent is to damage opponent It also arouses suspicion of opponent Intention is to create an uneasy feeling Used to try to avoid supporting their own opinion with facts. Rather than explain what they believe in, they prefer to try to tear their opponent down. Used by politicians and product companies The most obvious type of name calling involves bad names. For example, consider the following: Communist Fascist CriminalLiar TerroristBum

24 Candidates for the 2008 Presidential election used name calling in their ads, as in past elections. Barack Obama says that John McCain has “same old politics, same failed policies”. Obama implies that McCain is not the best choice and he doesn’t have the best solutions to America’s problems. Name Calling: Examples

25 Name-Calling: An attack on a person instead of an issue.

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27 Republicans have begun to emphasis Barack Obama's middle name Hussein in an attempt to spread doubts about his patriotism and raise fears among voters that he is a closet Muslim.

28 Propaganda Techniques 2 Name Calling (negative names or adjectives)

29 Name-Calling

30 "The Jew: The inciter of war, the prolonger of war."

31 Glittering or Sweeping Generalities Know for Keystone

32 Glittering Generalities The Glittering Generality is, in short, Name Calling in reverse. The Glittering Generality device seeks to make us approve and accept without examining the evidence. Uses important-sounding "glad words" – little or no real meaning. Used in general statements that cannot be proved or disproved. – Words like "good," "honest," "fair," and "best" are examples of "glad" words.

33 Glittering Generalities Virtue Words: We believe in, fight for, live by virtue words about which we have deep-set ideas. – Civilization – Christianity – Good – Proper – Right – Democracy – Patriotism – Motherhood – Fatherhood – Science – Health – Love

34 Glittering Generalities in Text STATEMENT: “We are at a crossroads for human destiny! We must chose a true leader for our city.” EXPLANATION: The attempt here is to get the audience emotionally connected to the subject through use of words such as “destiny” and “leader.” WHY IT IS PROPAGANDA: The candidate may or may not be a good leader. The text provides no evidence to suggest actual positive qualities.

35 Glittering Generalities This propaganda technique provides glowing claims but nothing to back up the claims. For instance, “This is the best car on the road.” A generality is a vague (not very specific) word, phrase, or statement. Examples: better, best, good tasting, awesome, refreshing… A glittering generality is one that has a feel-good quality to it.

36 Glittering Generalities in Media STATEMENT: “Change We Can Believe In.” PROPAGANDA : The audience is meant to be lured in by the promise of “change.” The idea is catchy and attractive, but without substance or evidence.

37 Glittering generalities: Examples A positive (yet actually vague) word to describe a political stance too. Politicians often use glittering generalities so they do not actually have to discuss how they will solve problems; however, if we elect them, they will solve our problems. …and yes, even the Navy has used them.

38 Glittering Generalities Examples: – Coca-Cola: It’s “the Real Thing” – United Airlines is your ticket to “Friendly Skies” – Politicians referring to the “middle class”—it sounds attractive, but nearly everyone considers him or herself to be in the middle class

39 Glittering Generalities “A growing body of evidence suggests.” Up to 50 % off! Dove chocolate claims it is an “experience like no other.” Propel Water sells itself as the fitness water. Its current slogan is “Fit has a feeling.” Can you get even emptier and vaguer “Glittering” because it’s falsely attractive Often used by politicians

40 Glittering Generalities Glittering generalities are words that are patriotic, attractive, or catchy but don’t really say anything: honor, glory, love of country, and freedom. When examined closely, these words have little meaning and little relationship to what they advertise.

41 Propaganda Techniques 3. Glittering Generality (Good adjectives / names)

42 Glittering Generalities "Open the door to freedom! Put a strong man at the helm! Out of the swamp! Forward with the powers of renewal!”

43 Glittering Generalities

44 Transfer

45 Transfer: Attempt is made to transfer the prestige of a positive symbol to a person or an idea. – For example, using the American flag as a backdrop for a political event makes the implication that the event is patriotic in the best interest of the U.S.

46 Transfer Projecting good or bad qualities from one person or group onto another The positive or negative association will “rub off” on the other person or group – Politicians posing next to the flag, with veterans, or troops. – An ad for a dietary supplement features a researcher in a white lab coat with a clip board to make the product appear more scientific

47 Transfer Positive feelings/desires are connected to a product/user Transfers positive feelings we have of something we know to something we don’t. Love/ Popularity Fame Wealth Power Sex Appeal

48 Transfer In the Kerry vs. Bush campaign, an internet circulated showing similar physical characteristics between John Kerry and a Frankenstein monster.

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50 Transfer in Text STATEMENT: “All across the rich, green fields, the towering purple mountains, Americans are discovering Smell-Free Deodorant.” EXPLANATION: The attempt here is to get the audience to consume a certain product because a positive image is associated with the product. WHY IT IS PROPAGANDA: While the product may or may not be high quality, there is nothing regarding quality established by its connection to a positive image.

51 Transfer in Media STATEMENT: Santa says, “Coke Time.” PROPAGANDA : The audience is meant to transfer its positive feelings about Santa into positive feelings about consuming Coke, though the two are in no way related.

52 Transfer

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55 Testimonial Know for Keystone

56 Testimonial: When "big name" personalities are used to endorse a product. – Whenever you see someone famous endorsing a product, ask yourself how much that person knows about the product, and what he or she stands to gain by promoting it.

57 Testimonial A celebrity or expert who endorse a product, candidate, or idea. Think about all of the commercials with celebrities. The celebrity may not always be qualified to speak on the subject.

58 Testimonial Statement endorsing an idea/product by a prominent person. Product can be inside or outside particular field. Musical artists, Sports giants, Actors/actresses

59 Testimonial

60 Testimonial in Text STATEMENT: “Kobe Bryant only drinks Coke.” EXPLANATION: The attempt here is to get the audience to consume a certain product because a celebrity uses the product. WHY IT IS PROPAGANDA: While the product may or may not be high quality, there is nothing regarding quality established by the statement that a celebrity consumes it.

61 Testimonial An important person or famous figure endorses a product.

62 Testimonial Testimonials are quotations or endorsements which connect a famous or respectable person with a product or item.

63 Testimonial in Media STATEMENT: “I choose milk.” PROPAGANDA : Taylor Swift’s choice to drink milk is meant to make the audience members believe milk will help them be beautiful and glamorous as well.

64 Testimonial Recognizing Propaganda Techniques and Errors of Faulty Logic Propaganda Techniques What are Propaganda Techniques? They are the methods and approaches used to spread ideas that further a cause - a political, commercial, religious, or civil cause. Why are they used? To manipulate the readers' or viewers' reason and emotions; to persuade you to believe in something or someone, buy an item, or vote a certain way. What are the most commonly used propaganda techniques? See which of the ten most common types of propaganda techniques you already know. Types: Name calling: This techniques consists of attaching a negative label to a person or a thing. People engage in this type of behavior when they are trying to avoid supporting their own opinion with facts. Rather than explain what they believe in, they prefer to try to tear their opponent down. Glittering Generalities: This technique uses important-sounding "glad words" that have little or no real meaning. These words are used in general statements that cannot be proved or disproved. Words like "good," "honest," "fair," and "best" are examples of "glad" words. Transfer: In this technique, an attempt is made to transfer the prestige of a positive symbol to a person or an idea. For example, using the American flag as a backdrop for a political event makes the implication that the event is patriotic in the best interest of the U.S. False Analogy: In this technique, two things that may or may not really be similar are portrayed as being similar. When examining the comparison, you must ask yourself how similar the items are. In most false analogies, there is simply not enough evidence available to support the comparison. Testimonial: This technique is easy to understand. It is when "big name" personalities are used to endorse a product. Whenever you see someone famous endorsing a product, ask yourself how much that person knows about the product, and what he or she stands to gain by promoting it. Plain Folks: This technique uses a folksy approach to convince us to support someone or something. These ads depict people with ordinary looks doing ordinary activities. Card Stacking: This term comes from stacking a deck of cards in your favor. Card stacking is used to slant a message. Key words or unfavorable statistics may be omitted in an ad or commercial, leading to a series of half-truths. Keep in mind that an advertiser is under no obligation "to give the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth." Bandwagon: The "bandwagon" approach encourages you to think that because everyone else is doing something, you should do it too, or you'll be left out. The technique embodies a "keeping up with the Joneses" philosophy. Either/or fallacy: This technique is also called "black-and-white thinking" because only two choices are given. You are either for something or against it; there is no middle ground or shades of gray. It is used to polarize issues, and negates all attempts to find a common ground. Faulty Cause and Effect: This technique suggests that because B follows A, A must cause B. Remember, just because two events or two sets of data are related does not necessarily mean that one caused the other to happen. It is important to evaluate data carefully before jumping to a wrong conclusion. Errors of Faulty Logic Contradiction:Contradiction: Information is presented that is in direct opposition to other information within the same argument.Example: If someone stated that schools were overstaffed, then later argued for the necessity of more counselors, that person would be guilty of contradiction.Information is presented that is in direct opposition to other information within the same argument.Example: If someone stated that schools were overstaffed, then later argued for the necessity of more counselors, that person would be guilty of contradiction. Accident:Accident: Someone fails to recognize (or conceals the fact) that an argument is based on an exception to the rule.Example: By using selected scholar-athletes as the norm, one could argue that larger sports programs in schools were vital to improving academic performance of all students.Someone fails to recognize (or conceals the fact) that an argument is based on an exception to the rule.Example: By using selected scholar-athletes as the norm, one could argue that larger sports programs in schools were vital to improving academic performance of all students. False Cause:False Cause: A temporal order of events is confused with causality; or, someone oversimplifies a complex causal network.Example: Stating that poor performance in schools is caused by poverty; poverty certainly contributes to poor academic performance but it is not the only factor.A temporal order of events is confused with causality; or, someone oversimplifies a complex causal network.Example: Stating that poor performance in schools is caused by poverty; poverty certainly contributes to poor academic performance but it is not the only factor. Begging the Question:Begging the Question: A person makes a claim then argues for it by advancing grounds whose meaning is simply equivalent to that of the original claim. This is also called "circular reasoning."Example: Someone argues that schools should continue to have textbooks read from cover to cover because, otherwise, students would not be well-educated. When asked to define what "well-educated" means, the person says, "knowing what is in the textbooks."A person makes a claim then argues for it by advancing grounds whose meaning is simply equivalent to that of the original claim. This is also called "circular reasoning."Example: Someone argues that schools should continue to have textbooks read from cover to cover because, otherwise, students would not be well-educated. When asked to define what "well-educated" means, the person says, "knowing what is in the textbooks." Evading the Issue:Evading the Issue: Someone sidesteps and issue by changing the topic.Example: When asked to say whether or not the presence of homosexuals in the army could be a disruptive force, a speaker presents examples of homosexuals winning combat medals for bravery.Someone sidesteps and issue by changing the topic.Example: When asked to say whether or not the presence of homosexuals in the army could be a disruptive force, a speaker presents examples of homosexuals winning combat medals for bravery. Arguing from Ignorance: Arguing from Ignorance: Someone argues that a claim is justified simply because its opposite cannot be proven.Example: A person argues that voucher programs will not harm schools, since no one has ever proven that vouchers have harmed schools.Someone argues that a claim is justified simply because its opposite cannot be proven.Example: A person argues that voucher programs will not harm schools, since no one has ever proven that vouchers have harmed schools. Composition and Division: Composition and Division: Composition involves an assertion about a whole that is true of its parts. Division is the opposite: an assertion about all of the parts that is true about the whole.Example: When a school system holds up its above-average scores and claims that its students are superior, it is committing the fallacy of division. Overall scores may be higher but that does not prove all students are performing at that level. Likewise, when the military points to the promiscuous behavior of some homosexuals, it is committing the fallacy of composition: the behavior of some cannot serve as proof of-the behavior of all homosexuals.Composition involves an assertion about a whole that is true of its parts. Division is the opposite: an assertion about all of the parts that is true about the whole.Example: When a school system holds up its above-average scores and claims that its students are superior, it is committing the fallacy of division. Overall scores may be higher but that does not prove all students are performing at that level. Likewise, when the military points to the promiscuous behavior of some homosexuals, it is committing the fallacy of composition: the behavior of some cannot serve as proof of-the behavior of all homosexuals. Errors of Attack Poisoning the Well:Poisoning the Well: A person is so committed to a position that he/she explains away absolutely everything others offer in opposition.Example: Almost every proponent and opponent on the ban on gays in the military commits this error.A person is so committed to a position that he/she explains away absolutely everything others offer in opposition.Example: Almost every proponent and opponent on the ban on gays in the military commits this error. Ad Hominem:Ad Hominem: A person rejects a claim on the basis of derogatory facts (real or alleged) about the person making the claim.Example: Someone rejects President Clinton's reasons for lifting the ban on gays in the military because of Mr. Clinton's draft record.A person rejects a claim on the basis of derogatory facts (real or alleged) about the person making the claim.Example: Someone rejects President Clinton's reasons for lifting the ban on gays in the military because of Mr. Clinton's draft record. Appealing to Force:Appealing to Force: Someone uses threats to establish the validity of the claim.Example: Opponents of year-round school threaten to keep their children out of school during the summer months.Someone uses threats to establish the validity of the claim.Example: Opponents of year-round school threaten to keep their children out of school during the summer months. Errors of Weak Reference Appeal to Authority:Appeal to Authority: Authority is evoked as the last word on an issue.Example: Someone uses the Bible as the basis for his arguments against specific school reform issues.Authority is evoked as the last word on an issue.Example: Someone uses the Bible as the basis for his arguments against specific school reform issues. Appeal to the People: Appeal to the People: Someone attempts to justify a claim on the basis of popularity.Example: Opponents of year-round school claim that students would hate it.Someone attempts to justify a claim on the basis of popularity.Example: Opponents of year-round school claim that students would hate it. Appeal to Emotion: Appeal to Emotion: An emotion-laden "sob" story is used as proof for a claim.Example: A politician uses a sad story of a child being killed in a drive-by shooting to gain support for a year-round school measure.An emotion-laden "sob" story is used as proof for a claim.Example: A politician uses a sad story of a child being killed in a drive-by shooting to gain support for a year-round school measure.

65 Testimonial

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67 Appeal to Authority

68 Appeals to authority have important and powerful people supporting a candidate or idea. Similar to testimonial Uses military leaders, war heroes, presidents, prime ministers, etc…

69 Appeal to Authority "One People, One Reich, One Führer."

70 Appeal to Authority Recognizing Propaganda Techniques and Errors of Faulty Logic Propaganda Techniques What are Propaganda Techniques? They are the methods and approaches used to spread ideas that further a cause - a political, commercial, religious, or civil cause. Why are they used? To manipulate the readers' or viewers' reason and emotions; to persuade you to believe in something or someone, buy an item, or vote a certain way. What are the most commonly used propaganda techniques? See which of the ten most common types of propaganda techniques you already know. Types: Name calling: This techniques consists of attaching a negative label to a person or a thing. People engage in this type of behavior when they are trying to avoid supporting their own opinion with facts. Rather than explain what they believe in, they prefer to try to tear their opponent down. Glittering Generalities: This technique uses important-sounding "glad words" that have little or no real meaning. These words are used in general statements that cannot be proved or disproved. Words like "good," "honest," "fair," and "best" are examples of "glad" words. Transfer: In this technique, an attempt is made to transfer the prestige of a positive symbol to a person or an idea. For example, using the American flag as a backdrop for a political event makes the implication that the event is patriotic in the best interest of the U.S. False Analogy: In this technique, two things that may or may not really be similar are portrayed as being similar. When examining the comparison, you must ask yourself how similar the items are. In most false analogies, there is simply not enough evidence available to support the comparison. Testimonial: This technique is easy to understand. It is when "big name" personalities are used to endorse a product. Whenever you see someone famous endorsing a product, ask yourself how much that person knows about the product, and what he or she stands to gain by promoting it. Plain Folks: This technique uses a folksy approach to convince us to support someone or something. These ads depict people with ordinary looks doing ordinary activities. Card Stacking: This term comes from stacking a deck of cards in your favor. Card stacking is used to slant a message. Key words or unfavorable statistics may be omitted in an ad or commercial, leading to a series of half-truths. Keep in mind that an advertiser is under no obligation "to give the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth." Bandwagon: The "bandwagon" approach encourages you to think that because everyone else is doing something, you should do it too, or you'll be left out. The technique embodies a "keeping up with the Joneses" philosophy. Either/or fallacy: This technique is also called "black-and-white thinking" because only two choices are given. You are either for something or against it; there is no middle ground or shades of gray. It is used to polarize issues, and negates all attempts to find a common ground. Faulty Cause and Effect: This technique suggests that because B follows A, A must cause B. Remember, just because two events or two sets of data are related does not necessarily mean that one caused the other to happen. It is important to evaluate data carefully before jumping to a wrong conclusion. Errors of Faulty Logic Contradiction:Contradiction: Information is presented that is in direct opposition to other information within the same argument.Example: If someone stated that schools were overstaffed, then later argued for the necessity of more counselors, that person would be guilty of contradiction.Information is presented that is in direct opposition to other information within the same argument.Example: If someone stated that schools were overstaffed, then later argued for the necessity of more counselors, that person would be guilty of contradiction. Accident:Accident: Someone fails to recognize (or conceals the fact) that an argument is based on an exception to the rule.Example: By using selected scholar-athletes as the norm, one could argue that larger sports programs in schools were vital to improving academic performance of all students.Someone fails to recognize (or conceals the fact) that an argument is based on an exception to the rule.Example: By using selected scholar-athletes as the norm, one could argue that larger sports programs in schools were vital to improving academic performance of all students. False Cause:False Cause: A temporal order of events is confused with causality; or, someone oversimplifies a complex causal network.Example: Stating that poor performance in schools is caused by poverty; poverty certainly contributes to poor academic performance but it is not the only factor.A temporal order of events is confused with causality; or, someone oversimplifies a complex causal network.Example: Stating that poor performance in schools is caused by poverty; poverty certainly contributes to poor academic performance but it is not the only factor. Begging the Question:Begging the Question: A person makes a claim then argues for it by advancing grounds whose meaning is simply equivalent to that of the original claim. This is also called "circular reasoning."Example: Someone argues that schools should continue to have textbooks read from cover to cover because, otherwise, students would not be well-educated. When asked to define what "well-educated" means, the person says, "knowing what is in the textbooks."A person makes a claim then argues for it by advancing grounds whose meaning is simply equivalent to that of the original claim. This is also called "circular reasoning."Example: Someone argues that schools should continue to have textbooks read from cover to cover because, otherwise, students would not be well-educated. When asked to define what "well-educated" means, the person says, "knowing what is in the textbooks." Evading the Issue:Evading the Issue: Someone sidesteps and issue by changing the topic.Example: When asked to say whether or not the presence of homosexuals in the army could be a disruptive force, a speaker presents examples of homosexuals winning combat medals for bravery.Someone sidesteps and issue by changing the topic.Example: When asked to say whether or not the presence of homosexuals in the army could be a disruptive force, a speaker presents examples of homosexuals winning combat medals for bravery. Arguing from Ignorance: Arguing from Ignorance: Someone argues that a claim is justified simply because its opposite cannot be proven.Example: A person argues that voucher programs will not harm schools, since no one has ever proven that vouchers have harmed schools.Someone argues that a claim is justified simply because its opposite cannot be proven.Example: A person argues that voucher programs will not harm schools, since no one has ever proven that vouchers have harmed schools. Composition and Division: Composition and Division: Composition involves an assertion about a whole that is true of its parts. Division is the opposite: an assertion about all of the parts that is true about the whole.Example: When a school system holds up its above-average scores and claims that its students are superior, it is committing the fallacy of division. Overall scores may be higher but that does not prove all students are performing at that level. Likewise, when the military points to the promiscuous behavior of some homosexuals, it is committing the fallacy of composition: the behavior of some cannot serve as proof of-the behavior of all homosexuals.Composition involves an assertion about a whole that is true of its parts. Division is the opposite: an assertion about all of the parts that is true about the whole.Example: When a school system holds up its above-average scores and claims that its students are superior, it is committing the fallacy of division. Overall scores may be higher but that does not prove all students are performing at that level. Likewise, when the military points to the promiscuous behavior of some homosexuals, it is committing the fallacy of composition: the behavior of some cannot serve as proof of-the behavior of all homosexuals. Errors of Attack Poisoning the Well:Poisoning the Well: A person is so committed to a position that he/she explains away absolutely everything others offer in opposition.Example: Almost every proponent and opponent on the ban on gays in the military commits this error.A person is so committed to a position that he/she explains away absolutely everything others offer in opposition.Example: Almost every proponent and opponent on the ban on gays in the military commits this error. Ad Hominem:Ad Hominem: A person rejects a claim on the basis of derogatory facts (real or alleged) about the person making the claim.Example: Someone rejects President Clinton's reasons for lifting the ban on gays in the military because of Mr. Clinton's draft record.A person rejects a claim on the basis of derogatory facts (real or alleged) about the person making the claim.Example: Someone rejects President Clinton's reasons for lifting the ban on gays in the military because of Mr. Clinton's draft record. Appealing to Force:Appealing to Force: Someone uses threats to establish the validity of the claim.Example: Opponents of year-round school threaten to keep their children out of school during the summer months.Someone uses threats to establish the validity of the claim.Example: Opponents of year-round school threaten to keep their children out of school during the summer months. Errors of Weak Reference Appeal to Authority:Appeal to Authority: Authority is evoked as the last word on an issue.Example: Someone uses the Bible as the basis for his arguments against specific school reform issues.Authority is evoked as the last word on an issue.Example: Someone uses the Bible as the basis for his arguments against specific school reform issues. Appeal to the People: Appeal to the People: Someone attempts to justify a claim on the basis of popularity.Example: Opponents of year-round school claim that students would hate it.Someone attempts to justify a claim on the basis of popularity.Example: Opponents of year-round school claim that students would hate it. Appeal to Emotion: Appeal to Emotion: An emotion-laden "sob" story is used as proof for a claim.Example: A politician uses a sad story of a child being killed in a drive-by shooting to gain support for a year-round school measure.An emotion-laden "sob" story is used as proof for a claim.Example: A politician uses a sad story of a child being killed in a drive-by shooting to gain support for a year-round school measure.

71 Bait and Switch

72 This technique transfers the readers’ attention from an exciting idea to a less exciting idea. This technique is in some cases against the law.

73 Bait and Switch in Text STATEMENT: “Imagine having more money than you could ever spend! Imagine being rich, famous, and attractive! Dove soap is the first step. EXPLANATION: The attempt here is to get the audience excited (money, fame, & beauty), and then to switch to something not remotely exciting (soap). WHY IT IS PROPAGANDA: While the product may or may not be high quality, there is nothing about soap that will lead to money or fame.

74 Bait and Switch in Media IMAGE: Lipstick marks, pictures of girls, phone numbers, and deodorant. PROPAGANDA : The audience is meant to be lured in by images suggesting a man’s attractiveness to women; attention at the bottom of the add is then switched to deodorant. A link is suggested where none actually exists.

75 Bandwagon Know for Keystone

76 Bandwagon Hop on the bandwagon or else you don’t fit in. Everyone is doing it, so you should too. This technique is contrived peer pressure – no one wants to be left out or behind. Because everyone else is doing something, you should do it too, or you'll be left out. – The technique embodies a "keeping up with the Joneses" philosophy.

77 Bandwagon: “It had to be good to get where it is” 1926

78 Bandwagon: Bandwagon: Everyone else is doing it, so I should too.

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80 Bandwagon Technique Everyone is doing it! You should too!!!

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82 Bandwagon in Media STATEMENT: “More people are smoking Camels than ever before.” PROPAGANDA: The attempt is to make the audience want to join a large number of people.

83 Propaganda Techniques 4. Bandwagon (everyone’s doing it)

84 Bandwagon “Everything and everyone for victory”

85 Bandwagon

86 Everyone listens to the Fuhrer

87 Red Herring Know for Keystone

88 Red Herring Propaganda Technique Definition Red Herring-Distracting with an unrelated point -"winning" an argument by leading attention away from the argument and to another topic.

89 Red Herring  Presenting data or issues that, while compelling, are irrelevant to the argument at hand, and then claiming that it validates the argument.  For instance, I will say America is a great country so you should buy my beer.

90 Red Herring: Propagandists use this diversionary tactic to draw one's attention away from the real subject. Guard against this technique by showing how the argument has gotten off track and bring it back to the issue at hand. Presenting data or issues that, while compelling, are irrelevant to the argument at hand, and then claiming that it validates the argument. Highlighting a minor detail as a way to draw attention from the important issue.

91 Red Herring A red herring is an attempt to distract the reader with details not relevant to the argument. Example: The lawyer of a young man accused of assaulting his girlfriend described the case as a "very minor matter". The lawyer stated that “ninety people died in Iraq today, most of them kids," making his client’s actions “a very minor matter."

92 Red Herring Examples Never-ware cookware will look beautiful on your shelf for generations! (No mention of its cooking value is made.) Mentioning that you did well on your math test when your parents are upset about your English score.

93 Red Herring: Attempts to distract the reader with details not relevant to the argument.

94 Red Herring Video Games: Collecting inventory items or items of scenery (usually meant to distract or take up time from a quest or goal) Never-ware cookware will look beautiful on your shelf for generations! No mention of its cooking value is made.

95 Red Herring What is this an advertisement for?

96 Fear

97 During wartime this technique is used often. It informs people that personal danger is imminent if they do or do not do some specific action.

98 Fear Our fears are displayed. Ideas, candidates, or products are shown to put our fears to rest.

99 Fear

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104 Loaded Language or Emotional Words Know for Keystone

105 Loaded Languages or Emotional Words The use of emotional words is meant to stir the audience’s emotions, making little or no use of facts. Words such as love, adore, hate, care, and/or support may be used to attach the audience’s emotions to a product or idea.

106 Loaded Language or Emotional Words Sometimes an author uses words with strongly positive or negative connotations. Ex.: “Start your day with Morning Glory’s refreshing all-natural juice.”

107 Loaded Language or Emotional Words Words that a lot of people have strong feelings about. Some examples are evil, sweet, soul mate, dangerous, murderer, etc. Use “loaded” words like... – new – improved – best

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109 Loaded Words Whitening Expressions Refreshing Vanilla Mint Get a cool and inviting brushing experience with Crest Whitening Expressions Refreshing Vanilla Mint.

110 Loaded WORDS This billboard advertisement uses the word “irresistible” to appeal to our emotions. The visual is also very appealing.

111 Emotional Words in Text STATEMENT: “If you love your dog, you’ll buy him Eukanuba.” EXPLANATION: The attempt here is to get the audience to attach the emotion of love to a product. WHY IT IS PROPAGANDA: The true love one may feel for a dog has no actual relationship to the purchase of dog food.

112 From a leaflet distributed by the North Korean army, encouraging American soldiers to surrender Emotional Words in Media STATEMENT: “Don’t let your loved ones mourn for you!” PROPAGANDA : The audience is meant to connect its positive emotions for loved ones to the idea of surrendering to the enemy in order to spare its loved ones pain.

113 Emotional or Loaded Words Words such as luxury, beautiful, paradise, and economical are used to evoke positive feelings in the viewer.

114 Emotional Appeal An emotional appeal tries to persuade the reader by using words that appeal only to the reader’s emotions instead of to logic or reason. As previously mentioned, emotional appeals are not always bad, they just should not be the SOLE basis of an argument

115 Emotional Appeal: Tries to persuade the reader’s views based on emotions instead of logic or reason.

116 Army Strong They connect a feeling with this organization. Army strong CnWe6e1o

117 Repetition Know for Keystone

118 Repetition Propaganda Technique Definition Repetition-repeating word/jingle over and over and over and over so that it gets stuck in the head or taken as true

119 Repetition An idea, word, phrase or position repeated in an attempt to elicit an almost automatic response from the audience or to reinforce an audience’s opinion or attitude. Product name is repeated at least four times. Simplicity and Repetition - Keep it simple and say it often enough so people will remember it and believe it

120 Repetition: Attempts to persuade a reader with a repeated message.

121 Repetition A good example of this is the claim that Saddam Hussein was responsible for the terrorist attacks of September 11, No evidence has been found suggesting collaboration between Iraq and the Al Qaeda network, yet Bush administration officials have repeatedly mentioned the two in tandem. As a result, a recent opinion survey by the Council on Foreign Relations shows that more than 40 percent of the American people believe that some or all of the attackers on 9/11 were Iraqi nationals, when in fact none were.

122 Repetition  What is repeated in this ad?

123 Repetition Head On Commercial eNE&feature=related

124 Repetition The product name or keyword or phrase is repeated several times. How many times can you use the word “Fresh?”

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126 Appeal to Numbers, Facts, and Statistics Know for Keystone

127 Appeal to Number, Facts, & Statistics Propaganda Technique Definition Appeal to Number, Facts, & Statistics -Using large numbers or misleading facts and statistics to confuse propaganda technique or persuasive tactic in which the reader is persuaded by showing how many people think something is true

128 Facts and Figures Statistics In this persuasive technique, numbers, tables, and graphs are used to show statistics of both sides.

129 Facts and Figures Facts and Figures – statistics to prove superiority. Magic Ingredients – suggests some miraculous discovery makes product exceptionally effective. Hidden Fears – suggests that user is safe from some danger.

130 Appeal to Number, Facts, & Statistics -“Coroners have found that 80% of people’s colons are blocked with waste.” -“On average, 6 out of 7 dentists prefer Colgate.”

131 Misuse of Facts, Figures, and Statistics Some examples: Average results are reported, but not the amount of variation around the averages. A percent or fraction is presented, but not the sample size as in "9 out of 10 dentists recommend...". Absolute and proportional quantities are mixed as in "3,400 more robberies occurred in our town last year, whereas other cities hand an increase of less than one percent". Graphs are used that, by chopping off part of the scale or using unusual units or no scale, distort the appearance of the result. Results are reported with misleading precision. For example, representing 13 out of 19 students as percent.

132 Appeal to Numbers, Facts, or Statistics: Using stats to persuade a reader.

133 Misuse of Statistics When the statistics are based on a falsehood.

134 Facts and Figures Example An advertisement might read, “This product kills 99% of your germs.” Surveys may be conducted and the results graphed to show people’s opinions.

135 This is an ad that riled AT&T

136 AT&T’s replies in an ad that gives their version of the map….. Why the big difference? Hmmmm…

137 Logical Fallacies or False Analogy

138 Logical Fallacies Sometimes writers use propaganda techniques to intentionally mislead their audience, OR logical fallacies because they use faulty reasoning when forming their argument. Either way, these are NOT effective ways to support an argument.

139 What is a Logical Fallacy? Logic: correct or reliable information; method or reasoning Fallacy: “argument” in which the premise given for the conclusion does not provide the needed degree of support.

140 Logical Fallacies/False Analogy Drawing a conclusion from a series of premises. For example: Religion is good. Wars are fought over religion. Therefore, religious wars are good.

141 False Analogies This is when a comparison is carried to far. Example: "The economy is following the same path as right before the great depression, therefore we will experience a stock market crash soon!"

142 Logical Fallacy Also Includes: Faulty Cause and Effect: Propagandists claim that the use of a product creates a positive result without providing any supporting evidence. Compare and Contrast: Propagandists lead the audience to believe that one product is better than another without offering real proof. This technique is similar to Faulty Cause and Effect.

143 Faulty Cause & Effect Use of a product is credited for creating a positive result.

144 False Analogy Similar to Logical Fallacy False Analogy – compares two things that do not have enough similarities to be a valid comparison

145 Circular Argument Know for Keystone

146 Circular Argument: Very Similar to Logical Fallacies and False Analogies A circular argument states a conclusion as part of the proof of the argument Also sometimes called “begging the question”

147 Circular Argument: States a conclusion as part of the proof of the argument.

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149 Euphemisms

150 The use of words or statements that deter from the meaning, to make it not as bad, and more tasteful to the general public. The Nazis used the term resettlement to describe the mass murder of the Jews.

151 Examples of Euphemisms Phonetic euphemism is used to replace profanities, giving them the intensity of a mere interjection. Shortening or "clipping" the term ("Jeez" for Jesus, "What the-" for "What the hell") Using the first letter ("SOB", "What the eff", "BS"). Sometimes, the word "word" is added after it ("F word," "S word," "B word"). Also, the letter can be phonetically respelled, for example, the word "piss" was shortened to "pee" in this way. Military-style first letter usage where NATO phonetic alphabet words are used in place of letters: "Whiskey Tango Foxtrot" for WTF, "Bravo Sierra" for BS, "Whiskey Foxtrot" for WT (White Trash), etc.NATO phonetic alphabet WTFBSWhite Trash Mispronunciations, such as "Frak," "What the fudge," "Oh my gosh," "Frickin," "Darn," "Oh, shoot," "Be-yotch," etc.Frak Rhymes, such as "What the duck," "Oh, snap!" and "Cheese and Rice."

152 Examples of Euphemisms Figures of speech Ambiguous statements (it for excrement, the situation or "a girl in trouble" for pregnancy, going to the other side for death, do it or come together in reference to a sexual act, tired and emotional for drunkenness) Ambiguous sexual acttired and emotional Understatements ("sleep" for die, "hurt" for injured, etc.) Understatements Metonymy ("lose a person" for dying, "drinking" for consuming alcohol, "men's room" for men's restroom) Metonymy

153 An Example for Euphemism Since war is particularly unpleasant, military discourse is full of euphemisms. In the 1940's, America changed the name of the War Department to the Department of Defense. Under the Reagan Administration, the MX-Missile was renamed "The Peacekeeper.“ During war-time, civilian casualties are referred to as "collateral damage," and the word "liquidation" is used as a synonym for "murder."

154 EuphemismUsage pacification While sometimes used to refer to activities designed to make life more comfortable for civilians, the term can also be used to imply intervention by coercive force, including warfare. Examples: Pacification of Algeria, Pacification of the Araucanía, Pacification operations in German-occupied Poland, and the Pacification of Tonkin. Pacification of AlgeriaPacification of the AraucaníaPacification operations in German-occupied PolandPacification of Tonkin presence "[T]he term 'presence' had been used as a euphemism for 'occupation' during the Cold War." [20] [20] police action In the early days of the Korean War, President Harry S. Truman referred to the United States response to the North Korean invasion as a police action. [21] Similarly, the Vietnam War is also referred to as a "police action" or "security action". [21]Vietnam War humanitarian intervention The Clinton Doctrine of military interventionism argues for involvement in warfare on humanitarian grounds. The Kosovo War is believed to be the first so-called humanitarian war. [22]Clinton DoctrineinterventionismKosovo War [22] [armed] conflict; aggression; action; tension; unrest; crisis These generic words are used in many respects for battles, skirmishes, prolonged wars, and undeclared wars; they may also refer to quasi-wars between peoples and factions that do not amount to a sovereign state or nation. The Wikipedia uses this terminology, e.g. Israeli–Palestinian conflict. The Cold War has been described as a stand-off conflict that was the result of tension. What does and does not amount to war is often open to debate when civil unrest, guerrilla warfare, terrorism, or unconventional warfare is involved.undeclared warssovereign stateIsraeli–Palestinian conflictCold Warcivil unrestguerrilla warfareterrorismunconventional warfare limited kinetic action After the 60-day War Powers Act deadline for congressional authorization to remain involved in the 2011 military intervention in Libya passed, Secretary of Defense Robert Gates refused to call the operation a war; instead describing it as a "limited kinetic action". [23]War Powers Act2011 military intervention in LibyaRobert Gateswar [23]

155 Euphemisms Collateral Damage Final Solution Shell Shock Disassembly

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160 Snob Appeal

161 Snob Appeal— Uses our desire to be better than the average person. Opposite of plainfolks. Aims to flatter Makes assumption/ insinuation that this product/idea is better than others… Thus, those that use it are too. “Avant Garde” ahead of the times. The ultimate driving machine

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163 Snob Appeal 1957

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166 Plain Folks

167 A Plain Folks technique is one in which the speaker presents him or herself as an Average Joe, a common person who can understand the buyer’s concerns. They seller attempts to appear All- American. The most important part of this technique is the seller’s portrayal of themselves as someone who has had a similar experience to the buyer and knows why they may be cautious about buying their product. The buyer gives the seller a sense of trust and comfort, believing that the seller and the buyer share common goals and that they thus should agree with what products to purchase.

168 Plain Folks Opposite of Snob Appeal Identifies product/idea with a locality or country Practical product for ordinary people. Uses a folksy approach to convince us to support someone or something. – These ads depict people with ordinary looks doing ordinary activities. Like a good neighbor …

169 Plain Folks By using the plain-folks technique, speakers attempt to convince their audience that they, and their ideas, are "of the people." Examples:  Bill Clinton ate at McDonald's and confessed a fondness for trashy spy novels.  George Bush Sr. hated broccoli, and loved to fish.  Ronald Reagan was often photographed chopping wood  Jimmy Carter presented himself as a humble peanut farmer from Georgia.  Sarah Palin likened herself to a “hockey mom” in order to connect with average moms across the country.

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171 Plain Folks: “Friends for life” 1935

172 Propaganda Techniques 5. Plain Folks Appeal ( “of the people”)

173 Plain Folks

174 "We are for Adolf Hitler!"

175 Plain Folks

176 Big Lie

177 An outrageous falsehood Captures attention because it’s so outrageous Somehow staggers audience into believing it

178 Reasoning Behind Big Lie Technique "Tell a lie enough times and it will become the truth." — Heinrich Himmler "A big lie is more plausible than truth." — Ernest Hemingway

179 Big Lie Example From World War One

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181 Example of the Big Lie In using the Big Lie technique, Hitler said, essentially: The Jews are an inferior race. The Jews have always been the thieving greedy bankers and money-lenders, bleeding the lifeblood out of our country. Everybody knows that the Jews are the cause of all of our problems, and now that we are imposing the Final Solution, we will soon be much better off without them.

182 Example of the Big Lie And Donald Rumsfeld, Secretary of Defense, said, in speaking of the "Shock and Awe" bombing war that he was waging against Iraq (March 21, 2003): "You don't understand how compassionate our bombing is."

183 Scapegoat

184 A person carrying the blame for others Retreats to prejudice rather than reason Mostly used in the political arena Wins audience through association or sympathy

185 Scapegoat Scapegoating is the practice of blaming an individual or group for a real or perceived failure of others. Minorities are often the targets of scapegoating. First, minorities are often isolated within society and are thus an easy target. Those in the majority are more easily convinced about the negative characteristics of a minority with which they have no direct contact. Unemployment, inflation, food shortages, the plague, and crime in the streets are all examples of ills which have been blamed on minority groups.

186 Scapegoat SCAPEGOAT: This often use with guilt-by-association to deflect scrutiny away from the issues. It transfers blame to one person or group of people without investigating the complexities of the issue. Examples: "Bill Clinton got us into Bosnia", "President Reagan caused the national debt".

187 Scapegoat: examples The Poisonous Mushroom Anti-Semitic children’s book which compared Jews to the poisonous mushrooms of society.

188 Scapegoat: examples According to The Poisonous Mushroom… “The Jews’ God is money.” Just one example of how the Nazis used scapegoating and other forms of propaganda to try to “recruit” Germans and others to their side. Attempt to manipulate the minds of children. Image from the book, Der Giftpilz (The Poison Mushroom), published in 1938 by Julius Streicher. "The God of the Jews is money. To earn money, he commits the greatest crimes. He will not rest until he can sit on a huge money sack, until he has become the king of money."

189 Scapegoat: examples During WWII, even American cartoons used scapegoating as a means of “uniting” Americans…by way of hatred. The Japanese are dehumanized in these cartoons and seen as something almost inhuman. That’s right! Even Bugs Bunny!

190 Ethical Society of St. Louis Scapegoating Appeal to prejudice : using loaded or emotive terms Scapegoating : blaming an individual or group Stereotyping : Name calling or labeling to arouse prejudices.

191 Anti-Semitism - Scapegoating of minorities Following the devastating outcome of WWI and the Wall Street of Crash of 1929, Germany was in a precarious economic position, with hundreds of thousands out of work. To explain this, the Nazis blamed the Jews. The Nazi Party accused them of being a parasitic race that attached itself to capitalist nations to destabilize the economy and culture of their ‘host’ nation. Hitler’s own fanatical anti-semitism became even more pronounced in party policy after the Nazi's rise to power in By blaming a minority racial group for all of the country's ills, the Nazis created a set of scapegoats who could be blamed at every opportunity for almost anything. In posters, art, cartoons and film, the Jews were equated with rats and caricatured as hook nosed misers, stealing money from the honest ‘Aryan’ German workers.

192 Card Stacking

193 Card Stacking: Selective Omission--The process of choosing from a variety of facts only those that support the propagandist’s purpose. Only presents information that is positive to an idea or proposal and omits information contrary to it While the information presented is true, other important information is purposely omitted Used to slant a message. – Key words or unfavorable statistics may be omitted in an ad or commercial, leading to a series of half-truths. – Keep in mind that an advertiser is under no obligation "to give the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth."

194 Card Stacking Although the majority of information presented by the card stacking approach is true, it is dangerous because it omits important information. Card-stacking means giving the positive side for your own point of view, but none of the positive points for your opponent’s position. Card-stacking is not only a common advertising strategy, but also one that young people themselves use frequently as they argue for something they want. The term card-stacking gives supporting reasons for your own point-of-view, and few or none of the reasons that support the opposite point-of-view. You will see politicians use this technique in a speech before an election to win favor or votes. Editorials in a newspaper are also an example of propaganda that uses the card-stacking technique.

195 Card Stacking Examples A politician just happens to be in town when a new school is opening - so they just drop in, hi-jacking the press for their own means. During election periods, political parties will often gag their loose cannons, who might open their mouths and say the wrong things. A minister of a new church sect sets up in a poor area, feeds people who will listen, tells them of how the poor will be saved, and so on.

196 Here’s an example of Card-Stacking:  A lot of people who smoke have lived to be over 90 years old.  People who smoke say that having a cigarette calms them.  The sale of cigarettes generates millions of tax dollars for the government. What’s wrong with these statements?

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198 Card Stacking

199 Card Stacking – making the Coke look just a little better for the uninformed!

200 Black or White

201 Black and/or White Black and White - Presents an issue as having only two choices. If you don’t like one choice, you must choose the other Used to polarize issues, and negates all attempts to find a common ground. – You are either for something or against it – This technique is also called "black-and-white thinking" because only two choices are given.; there is no middle ground or shades of gray

202 Ethical Society of St. Louis Black and White Black and White Fallacy: “If you’re not part of the solution, you’re part of the problem.” Only two choices are possible. I believe this is Black propaganda.

203 Black or White Either/or Fallacy – assumes that there are only two alternatives. Either go to college or forget about getting a good job.


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