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Created by The School District of Lee County, CSDC in conjunction with Cindy Harrison, Adams 12 Five Star Schools Adapted by the Foreign Language Cadre.

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Presentation on theme: "Created by The School District of Lee County, CSDC in conjunction with Cindy Harrison, Adams 12 Five Star Schools Adapted by the Foreign Language Cadre."— Presentation transcript:

1 Created by The School District of Lee County, CSDC in conjunction with Cindy Harrison, Adams 12 Five Star Schools Adapted by the Foreign Language Cadre Cues, Questions & Advance Organizers Arlene Dunn David Flecha Debbie Fuchs Cristina Hernandez

2 Participant Outcomes Participants will: Understand the purpose and importance of cues, questions, and advance organizers Identify ways to implement cues, questions, and advance organizers in the classroom Review examples of cues, questions, and advance organizers

3

4 Questions and Cues Discussion questions: What makes a good question? How do you currently use cues in your classroom?

5 Cues and Questions Heart of classroom practice Account for 80% of what occurs in a classroom on a given day Involve explicit reminders/hints about what students are about to experience Activate background knowledge Aid students in process of filling in missing information

6 Generalizations based on research: 1. Should focus on what is important but not what is unusual. 2. Higher level questions produce deeper learning. 3. Increasing wait time increases depth of answers. 4. Questions are an effective tool even before a learning experience. Research and Theory about Questions and Cues

7 Generalization #1: Should focus on what is important but not what is unusual. Unusual may be interesting but can distract from what is important Generalization #2: Higher level questions produce deeper learning. Causes students to restructure info

8 Sample Lower Level Questioning Based on Bloom's Taxonomy, Developed and Expanded by John Maynard I. KNOWLEDGE (drawing out factual answers, testing recall and recognition) II. COMPREHENSION (translating, interpreting and extrapolating) III. APPLICATION (to situations that are new, unfamiliar or have a new slant for students)

9 Sample Higher Level Questioning IV. ANALYSIS (breaking down into parts, forms) V. SYNTHESIS (combining elements into a pattern not clearly there before) VI. EVALUATION (according to some set of criteria, and state why)

10 Now You Practice… Think about a topic you teach. Write a question you could ask students that would engage the students in each of the 6 levels of Bloom’s taxonomy.

11 Blooms Taxonomy for the FL Classroom Knowledge: Identify 21 Spanish speaking countries. Comprehension: Classify Spanish speaking countries according to their geographical location. Application: Explain why Hispanics from different countries might speak a different dialect of Spanish. Analysis: Compare and contrast the exploration of the US vs the exploration of Latin American countries. Synthesis: Predict how American influence is changing the Spanish language. Evaluation: How would you have changed the discovery and exploration of the New World?

12 Webb’s Depth of Model Knowledge Sept 2004 DOE memo regarding Cognitive Classification of Test Items Dr. Norman Webb is a professor at the University of Wisconsin’s Center for Educational Research 3 levels of cognitive complexity – low, moderate, and high

13 Research and Theory about Questions and Cues Generalization #3: Increasing wait time increases depth of answers. Should be several seconds Gives students more time to think Increases discussion and interaction Generalization #4: Questions are an effective tool even before a learning experience. Develops framework

14 Recommendations for Classroom Practice on Questions and Cues a. Use Explicit Cues b. Ask Questions that Elicit Inferences c. Use Analytic Questions

15 Recommendations for Classroom Practice on Questions and Cues a. Use Explicit Cues Preview of what about to learn Activates prior knowledge Should be straightforward Examples:  Tell what lesson is about  Tell what standards/benchmarks will be covered

16 Recommendations for Classroom Practice on Questions and Cues b. Ask Questions that Elicit Inferences c. Use Analytic Questions

17 Two Categories of Questions Inferential Help students fill in gaps from a lesson, activity, reading Analytic Often require students to use prior knowledge in addition to new knowledge to analyze, critique information

18 Inferential Questions Answer is implied Read between the lines Student fills in gaps Use prior knowledge Use new knowledge

19 Inferential Questions Four categories: 1. Things and people 2. Actions 3. Events 4. States

20 1. Things and People What effect does the fairy godmother’s visit have on Cinderella’s life?

21 2. Actions How did Cinderella feel after the ball?

22 3. Events What is the significance of the ball?

23 4. States The fairy godmother changed Cinderella’s outside appearance. What changes probably occurred in the way she felt inside?

24 Activity With a partner, write 2 questions about one of the below topics that could be used to help students make inferences about the topic (can probe about things & people, actions, events, or state of being). OktoberfestReunification of Germany The Berlin WallModern Germany

25 Two Categories of Questions Inferential Help students fill in gaps from a lesson, activity, reading Analytic Often require students to use prior knowledge in addition to new knowledge to analyze, critique information

26 Analytic Questions Require students to analyze and critique the information Require them to use prior knowledge Require them to use new knowledge Designed around highly analytic thinking and reasoning skills Have more than one answer

27 Analytic Questions Three Skills: 1. Analyzing Errors 2. Constructing Support 3. Analyzing Perspectives

28 1. Analyzing Errors If you assume “good wins over evil” as the logic of this story, how might this reasoning be misleading? Use your knowledge of the world to guide your thinking.

29 2. Constructing Support You are Cinderella. What is your argument with your stepmother about why you should go to the ball?

30 3. Analyzing Perspectives Why would someone consider the stepmother to be good? What is your reasoning to support your answer?

31 Check Your Understanding Create a Venn diagram with your table partners that shows similarities and differences between inferential and analytic questions.

32 Advance Organizers An Advance Organizer is an organizational framework teachers present to students prior to teaching new content to prepare them for what they are about to learn. Discussion question: When have you used advance organizers in your classroom? Do a Think-Pair-Share

33 When to use Advance Organizers Group projects Interactive lessons Lectures Homework assignments Class work assignments Other content area instructional activities Almost every activity in the general education and special education classroom

34 Generalizations based on research: 1. Should focus on what is important not unusual. 2. Higher level advance organizers produce deeper learning. 3. Most useful with information that is not well organized. 4. Different types produce different results. Research and Theory about Advance Organizers

35 Generalization #1: Should focus on what is important but not what is unusual. Unusual may be interesting but can distract from what is important Generalization #2: Higher level advance organizers produce deeper learning. Causes students to restructure info

36 Research and Theory about Advance Organizers Generalization #3: Most useful with information that is not well organized. Organizes information within a learning structure Generalization #4: Different types produce different results. 4 Types

37 Recommendations for Classroom Practice on Advance Organizers Use all 4 types of advance organizers 1. Expository 2. Narrative 3. Skimming 4. Graphic Not the only types Advance organizers come in many formats

38 Expository Describes content Written or oral Can include text and/or pictures Helps see patterns Examples: recipes, directions for using a pay phone, directions for using public transportation, how to order a meal, how to shop at the open market, how to shop etc.

39 Narrative Story format Makes personal connections Makes it seem familiar Example: Before beginning a unit about the experience of immigrant groups who moved to the U.S., Mr. Anderson told the story of his grandfather, who immigrated from Sweden.

40 Skimming Preview important information quickly by noting what stands out in headings and highlighted information Pre-reading questions or SQ3R (survey, question, read, recite, review) can be helpful before skimming Example: When beginning a new lesson, gives students 60 seconds to skim an article paying close attention to headings, subheadings, and the first sentence of each paragraph. This helps students become aware of what information they will be learning when they read the article more carefully.

41 Graphic Organizers Type of nonlinguistic representation which visually represents what the students will learn Examples:

42 Graphic Organizers-More Examples Find words that rhyme: Inverted Triangle (going from general to specific):

43 My Ideal Christmas Graphic Organizer Activity Your 9th grade class has just completed a lesson on Christmas Holidays in Hispanic speaking countries. Their task is to write an “essay” describing their ideal Hispanic Christmas Holiday.

44  Count off by 3’s  In your group discuss:  Teachers say they don’t have time to develop cues, questions, and advance organizers. What would you say to them?  Person #3 rotate to a new group and summarize your group’s discussion. Then discuss:.  How could you model the use of these 3 strategies?  Person #2 rotate and summarize. Discuss question:  What are “look fors” in the classroom for effective use of these strategies? Partner Activity


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