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Cues, Questions and Advance Organizers Karen Richardson.

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1 Cues, Questions and Advance Organizers Karen Richardson

2 Cues and Questions A way to help students use what they already know about a topic A way to help students use what they already know about a topic Activate prior knowledge Activate prior knowledge Cues are “hints” about what they are going to learn Cues are “hints” about what they are going to learn Questions elicit from students what they already know Questions elicit from students what they already know Cueing and questioning account for 80% of what occurs in a classroom Cueing and questioning account for 80% of what occurs in a classroom

3 Selected Research Results Synthesis Study Focus No. of ES Ave. ES Percentile Gain Stone, 1983 Cues Hamaker, 1986 Questions Guzzetti, Snyder and Glass, 1993 Cues & Questions

4 Research and Theory Cues and questions should focus on what is important as opposed to what is unusual. Cues and questions should focus on what is important as opposed to what is unusual. “Higher level” questions produce deeper learning than “lower level” questions. “Higher level” questions produce deeper learning than “lower level” questions. “Waiting” briefly before accepting responses has the effect of increasing the depth of student answers. “Waiting” briefly before accepting responses has the effect of increasing the depth of student answers. Questions are effective learning tools even when asked before a learning experience. Questions are effective learning tools even when asked before a learning experience.

5 Classroom Practice Explicit Cues: straightforward ways of activating prior knowledge: tell them what they’re going to learn Explicit Cues: straightforward ways of activating prior knowledge: tell them what they’re going to learn Inferential questions about things, people, actions, events, and states of being the students are studying Inferential questions about things, people, actions, events, and states of being the students are studying Analytical questions Analytical questions Analyze errors Analyze errors Construct support Construct support Analyze perspectives Analyze perspectives

6 Advance Organizers Developed by David Ausubel (1968) Developed by David Ausubel (1968) Relevant and inclusive introductory materials Relevant and inclusive introductory materials Bridge the gap between what the learner already knows and what he needs to know Bridge the gap between what the learner already knows and what he needs to know

7 Selected Research Results Synthesis Study Focus No. of ES Ave. ES Percentile Gain Stone, 1983 Expository Narrative Skimming Illustrated

8 Research and Theory Advance organizers should focus on what is important as opposed to what is unusual.* Advance organizers should focus on what is important as opposed to what is unusual.* “Higher level” organizers produce deeper learning than “lower level” organizers. “Higher level” organizers produce deeper learning than “lower level” organizers. Advance organizers are most useful with information that is not well organized Advance organizers are most useful with information that is not well organized Different types of advance organizers produce different results. Different types of advance organizers produce different results.

9 Classroom Practice Expository advance organizers Expository advance organizers Narrative advance organizers Narrative advance organizers Skimming as a Form of Advance Organizer Skimming as a Form of Advance Organizer Graphics Advance Organizers Graphics Advance Organizers


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