Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5 … Defensive Driving"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 5 … Defensive Driving Preventing a collisionMost collisions are caused bymotorist error. A motorist can reducethe chances of a collision by knowingand using the standard collision-prevention formula:Be alert: Never think the other motorist will not make a driving mistake.Be prepared: Learn what to do in any situation when you have to act fast, and always expect the unexpected.Act in time: Try not to panic. Know what to do if something happens suddenlyAggressive Driving/Road RageEmotions can have a great affect on amotorist’s driving. Aggressive driving isdefined as a progression of unlawfuldriving actions, such as speeding,improper or excessive lane changing,or improper passing.Aggressive drivers fail to consider howtheir actions behind the wheel may affectother motorists on the road. When behindthe wheel, a motorist should alwaysremain calm and follow the rules of theroad.
2Causes for a Vehicle to Skid Accelerate too quicklyTurn too fastBrake too hard
3Vehicle Runs off Pavement Slow downRegain controlEase back onto the roadDriving Techniques to Avoid a Collision-Stop-Speed Up-Turn
4Ways to Avoid Hydroplaning Slow downAvoid bad TiresDrive on highest point of road
5Recover from a Tire Blowout Recover from a SkidGrip wheelNo gasNo brakeTurn into the skidRecover from a Tire BlowoutKeep straightEase off road
6Involved in an accident? Expect worstRemain calmCall for helpAlert trafficAsk for assistance
7Driving Distractions and Highway Hypnosis “Trance-Like State”In many cases, collisions are caused by a distractedmotorist. Inattentive motorists often tailgate, go too fast or drift out of their lanes. They ignore traffic signs and signals, road markings, potential traffic hazards, road conditions and other vehicles. Some causes of inattentive driving are:Lighting a cigaretteTrying to fasten a safety belt while drivingReaching across the seat to close a door or look in the glove compartmentReaching for coins in pockets while driving up to a toll boothWatching children or pets in the vehicleTrying to remove a coatReading maps and newspapersEating while drivingAdjusting a mirror while drivingUsing a cellular phone or any other electronic deviceAdjusting the radio or CD playerShavingUsing a computerApplying make-upA tired driver can be as dangerous as a drunk driver.Maggie’s Law, which was enacted in June 2003, makes it illegal to knowingly drivea vehicle while impaired by lack of sleep. This law establishes driving while fatiguedas recklessness under the vehicular homicide statuteYou can help prevent highway hypnosis by following a few simple rules:Don't eat a heavy meal before you drive.Wear comfortable clothing.Talk with your passengers, but not to the point of distraction.Keep your eyes moving and check your mirrors often.Take an interest in all road signs and traffic around you.Take a coffee or walking break every hour.Don't try to drive too far in one day.Avoid driving during your normal sleeping hours.Keep the temperature in your vehicle cool.
83 Second Rule of Following Distance Choose some fixed object ahead of the vehicle in front. The object may be a sign or a tree. Make sure theobject does not distract attention from drivingAs the vehicle in front passes the object, begin counting seconds (one thousand- one, one-thousand-two, one thousand three).If it takes at least three seconds before your vehicle passes the object,a motorist should have enough distance for a sudden stop
9Keep a Safe Distance / Do Not Tailgate Following DistanceKeep a Safe Distance / Do Not TailgateAlthough there is no perfect rule for following distance, the rule of thumb mostoften used is to keep one car length back (about 20 feet) for each 10 miles perhour of speed.Tailgating refers to following too closely behind a vehicle directly in front.Rear-End collisions are the most common type of accident as a result of tailgating.Road Conditions20 mph30 mph40 mph50 mphIdeal2 Car Lengths345Wet Pavement4 Car Lengths6810GravelPacked Snow6 Car Lengths91215Ice12 Car Lengths182430
10HydroplaningWet road surfaces can cause tires to hydroplane, or Ride up on a film of water,starting at about 35 mph, which could cause a motorist to lose control of his/hervehicle. Chances of hydroplaning increase as speeds increase. After 55 mph, tiresmay totally leave the road surface. If tires totally leave the road surface, braking isvirtually impossible, and turning is not possible.To avoid hydroplaning, do not drive onbald or badly worn tires, and slow down when heavy rain, standing water or slush is presentOccurs within the first few minutes of rainfall.When driving through a water puddle, amotorist should test the brakes by pumping them. This will also help to dry the brakes.
11City & Highway Driving City Driving Highway Driving When traveling in a city, heavier traffic and morepedestrians require motorists to be very alert.Drive more slowly and watch for the movementsof others. Motorists must be more careful aboutpedestrians and less-visible vehicles, such asbicycles, motorcycles. Motorists must alwaysstop for pedestrians in a crosswalk.Highway DrivingTraffic accidents and deaths canhappen on highways when theweather is good and the roads aredry. Exceeding the posted speedlimit or driving too fast for roadconditions is one of the mostprevalent factors contributing totraffic collisions. Major highways areusually in good condition. They oftenhave four or more lanes. It is importantto stay alert and drive defensively.Always be ready to react to theunexpected.A motorist should look at least 12 seconds ahead. This means that you should be able to see an object far enough ahead so that it takes at least 12 seconds to get to it. While driving at 25 mph on a clear road in a city, a motorist should be able to see about a block ahead. When traffic is heavy, extra time to react is necessary, which means driving more slowly. By reducing speed, a motorist gains time.Tips for City Driving• If at the middle of a block, check intersections ahead for traffic controls.• When approaching the intersection, reduce speed. Glance left and then right. Be prepared to brake.• When at a crosswalk, a vehicle should be at its lowest speed. A motorist must decide whether to stop or go across.
12Passing Changing Lanes and Passing Using the proper lane is an important part of defensive driving. Be alert to traffic behind.When a lane change must be made, look at the rearview mirror. Glance behind to checkblind spots. Always signal lane changes. Before passing a vehicle or changing lanes,keep the following points in mind:Only pass or change lanes when necessary.Only pass or change lanes if it can be completed without speeding.Keep a safe following distance; do not tailgate.Check traffic ahead and behind.Only pass when signs and pavement markings permit.Signal every lane change.Signal your return to the right lane.Return to the right lane when well ahead of the vehicle that was passed.(A good indication that it is safe to return to the right lane is when thevehicle that was passed is visible in the rearview mirror.)Cancel the turn signal.Being Passed by Another VehicleWhen a motorist is passed by another vehicle, stay in the proper lane and slow down to make the pass easier for the other motorist. Return to normal speed after the passing vehicle is well ahead
13Space Cushion- Maintaining a safe distance around the vehicle to help avoid collisions High BeamsUsed for open country drivingNot to be used in fogConstruction ZonesFines are doubledDesignated by orange signs and/or flashing lightsGas Pedal SticksShift to neutralApply Brakes
14How Do Drivers Communicate? HornHeadlightsTurn/hand signalsEye Contact