Presentation on theme: "MODULE 3 THE VEHICLE KEY: * = notes to instructor, recommendations"— Presentation transcript:
1MODULE 3 THE VEHICLE KEY: * = notes to instructor, recommendations # = Comments that coordinate with the slide that are to be relayed to students will be preceded by a # sign and written in italics. You don’t have to follow the script entirely however it provides you with the content expected to be relayed within the slide._______________________________________________________________________________________# Module 3 will discuss some of the common causes of driving collisions. These will be items that occur with the second factor of collisions, your vehicle. This Includes how you navigate the road as well as your vehicles condition.
2VEHICLE MAINTENANCEReduces potential for accidents, breakdowns and prolongs vehicle life.Of the three factors involved in collisions, only the driver and vehicle do we have control over.# Obviously the condition of your vehicle is one of the more significant factors in preventing a collision. From routine maintenance and repairs, to simple things like vehicle cleanliness, cleaning your windshield and mirrors, etc. are all critically important.
3Vehicle Maintenance On a routine basis, inspect; Tires (tread & pressure)Mirrors (clean and properly adjusted)Ensure windows are cleanLightsWipersOil levelTransmission, brakes, and power steering fluids# Those who operate a vehicle with a GVW over 10,000lbs are require to complete daily driver vehicle inspection reports (DVIR). These are required by the US Department of Transportation and is a post trip document detailing any problems that were experienced during the trip. While there is no federal requirement for documentation of vehicles less than 10,000lbs, some companies do require it and all drivers should most certainly inspect their vehicles frequently. Listed on the slide are just a few items to inspect on a routine basis.
4HANDLING THE ROADSThe six most common types of travelling errors that contribute to collision are;1. Speeding2. Right-of-Way violations3. Turning improperly4. Driving left of center5. Passing or overtaking improperly6. Following too closely# We’ve talked about some of the driver errors in the last session. Those included distracted driving, drugs and alcohol, fatigue, improper use of medication, and aggressive driving. You give up self-control and are at great risk of collision if you do not adhere with the principles we discussed. This session we will talk about maintaining control of your vehicle. There are six common types of errors that drivers make when handling the roads. Those are:- Speeding- Right-of-way violations- Turning improperly- Driving left of center- Passing or overtaking improperly- Following too closely
5SPEEDINGSpeeding is the contributing factor in one-third of all fatal crashesIn adverse conditions, even the posted speed limit may be too fast.For every 10 miles per hour over 50 mph the risk of death in a traffic crash in doubled.It is far safer to drive at the posted speed limit than to keep up with the pace of traffic, and it is also the law.# Speeding is the most common cause in vehicular collisions. This may not necessary be travelling in excess of the posted speed limit. In some conditions, it could mean driving too fast for conditions. The greater the speed the deadlier the collision. One of the frequent reasons for speeding is that everyone is doing it, and if you’re driving at the posted speed limit you create a greater hazard. What are your thoughts? (ask the students for thoughts on whether it’s safer to drive at posted speed limit or the speed of traffic)# When we discuss defensive driving we recommend driving with at the posted speed limit. It is never acceptable to exceed the speed limit. While no scenario is perfect, driving at the posted speed limit does provide more benefits. Those include:- Ability to stop much quicker- Increased ability to see the road ahead- Overall less stressful and as a result less fatigue- Easier to maintain safe following distance- If other vehicles aren’t around, less vehicles to become involved with
7Speeding Accidents Statistics & Facts Approximately 13,000 lives are lost per year as a result of speeding# Driving too fast results in approximately 13K lives per year. Collisions that are often preventable by simply slowing down. Very often your speeding efforts aren’t getting you to your location much quicker at all. Why risk it?
9RIGHT-OF-WAY-VIOLATIONS More than half of all urban collisions occur at intersections.The law states who should yield the right of way, not who has the right of way.Always scan an intersection before entering, and keep a two second distance from the car in front of you.# Another common hazard on the road is those committing “right of way violations”. More than half of all urban collisions occur at intersections!! SAY IT AGAIN…MORE THAN HALF OF ALL URBAN COLLISIONS OCCUR AT INTERSECTIONS!We need to be extra cautious when we approach an intersection. The law does not “give” you the right of way….it only says who is required to yield it. It doesn’t mean however that the other driver is going to. Many drivers are distracted, miss a stop sign or worst they speed up to make it through a traffic light and are sometimes late. If you’re going through the intersection at that time, you can be struck by a car going at a high rate of speed.When in an intersection, always:- Scan before entering – especially after light turns green, make sure they stop!- Never turn your wheels left while waiting to make a left hand turn. Why? (Pause and wait for response) Because if you’re rear ended you could be pushed into oncoming traffic.- Always stop a few feet prior to the stop line. If you need to inch forward to see before turning, do it AFTER you come to a complete stop prior to the stop line Some cars/trucks make a narrow turn and cross the centerline. In doing so, if you don’t stop prior to the stop line you may be struck.- When stopping at an intersection and a vehicle is in front of you, give them plenty of room. A rule of thumb is that you should be able to see pavement under their rear tires. If you can’t, you are too close.
10TURNING IMPROPERLYTurning requires good judgment. Follow these three steps.1. Get in the correct lane to complete the turn from as soon as possible.2. Signal your intention to make a turn.3. Yield, and turn from the correct lane to the correct lane.TIPS*** Never enter an intersection to turn until it is clear.****** Never point your wheels in the direction of a turn, until you begin the turn. If you are rear-ended while waiting for the intersection to clear, you could be pushed into on-coming traffic.******Sometimes drivers cut the corners too sharply during left turns. To protect yourself, stay back a few feet from the stop line. This also leaves plenty of room for buses and other large vehicles to complete their turns.# Improper turns and lane changes leads to many collisions as well.# Before you make a lane change on the express way, ask yourself, “is it necessary”? What are you gaining? Often we change lanes and pass a couple cars only to find them parked behind us on the off ramp. We cause undo stress upon ourselves and risk collisions while doing so and gained maybe feet.# Before making a turn make sure you are in the proper lane and use your blinkers!! Turn from the correct lane into the correct lane. Far right lane turns into far right lane, middle lane turns into middle lane, etc.
11DRIVING LEFT OF CENTERCan you think of a reason someone would be driving left of center?Car ProblemFell asleepUnder the influence of drugs or alcoholAvoiding an object in the roadDriver DistractionOther???By maintaining a safe speed, and following distance we give ourselves a “cushion of safety”. If we stay attentative, and use the “what-if” strategy, we reduce our chances of having a head-on collision.# Driving left of center involves crossing the center line. It’s one of the most dangerous situations you can run into. What are some of the reasons a driver would cross the centerline? (review answers on the slide, get input of group)# Maintaining a safe speed and following distance is critically important in providing yourself an “out” for this situation. Knowing what’s around your vehicle, and maintaining control can help you prevent collisions.
12DRIVING LEFT OF CENTER, CONT. A drivers worst nightmare is another vehicle crossing the centerline and coming straight at you. We must remember to use the “four-R’s”.Read the road ahead, and scan for hazards.Drive to the right. If you spot an erratic driver, coming towards you, drive as far to the right of the road as possible.Reduce speed.Ride off the road. As a last resort, ride off the road. Look for something soft such as a bush. If you are to hit something, try and do it with a glancing blow. A direct head-on collision is the most dangerous collision you can have.NEVER DRIVE LEFT IF ANOTHER DRIVER IS IN YOUR LANE. THEIR NATURAL INSTINCT MAY BE TO SWERVE BACK TO THERE LANE WHERE THEY MAY STRIKE YOU.# Hopefully you never have to avoid a head on collision, and if the event does occur they happen quickly. How you handle that situation could mean life and death. Defensive driving recommends the “four-R’s”Read the road ahead. Scan for hazards….always look 1-2 city blocks ahead in the inner city. Don’t get caught looking at the rear of the vehicle behind you. On the interstate highway or rural area you’re looking seconds ahead. Basically you’re looking as far ahead as you can see. Scanning ahead will help you read the location of errant drivers early.Drive to the right. Give as much room as possible. You don’t want to go left! At this point you can beep the horn and try to get the other drivers attention.Reduce speed. Do this immediately when an erratic driver is observed.Finally, as a last resort effort, Rive off the road. Rather than hit an object head-on, always try to get a glancing blow.
13SPACE MANAGEMENTTo operate safely, we must keep a safe distance from the vehicle in front of us.A minimum of a three second following distance should be maintained (4 seconds in service trucks and vans, 6 seconds in large trucks.To understand why this is so important, we need to look at how long it takes to stop our vehicle.# This next few slides covers the most important part of this presentation. The leading cause of collisions in our workplace is rear end collisions! These are most often caused as a result of tailgaiting. Maintaining a safe following distance is an absolute must!
14STOPPING DISTANCEThere are many factors that influence our stopping distance.The vehicle (weight, tires, brakes, speed)The driving conditions (road type, surface, weather)The driver (perception time, and reaction time)# There are many factors that affect your stopping distance. Type of vehicle, tire condition, braking, speed, road surface, weather, etc. Often the most critical factors are overlooked and involve YOU the driver! Your perception and reaction time. Anyone know what perception time and reaction time is?* Give class time to discuss reaction and perception time. While they may be able to guess what they mean most often they have no concept over how long is needed to account for them. This lack of understanding is one of the prime reasons people tailgate. They “think” they can stop their vehicle in time but usually only factor in their braking distance.* Review the “tip” listed.# Those with anti-lock brakes who have never had to use them often find themselves becoming alarmed when they hear it first kick in. Review proper braking technique. Those with anti-lock brakes should keep their foot on the pedal regardless of the noise they hear. Those who don’t have anti-lock brakes should smoothly but firmly pressure the brakes until the tires are just about to break loose, then let off slightly to allow the tires to resume rolling and repeat, “pumping” the brakes to get the maximum braking grip available without skidding.TIPAnti-lock brakes give a noticeable kickback, and make a loud noise when applied. Don’t pull your foot off the brake because you hear and feel strange noises. These noises are supposed to be there.
15STOPPING DISTANCE (CONT.) Perception Distance: The number of feet your vehicle travels from the time an event occurs, such as the brake lights ahead coming on, until you spot it and recognize the hazard. Average perception time 1 and ¾ seconds.Reaction Distance: The distance a vehicle travels while the driver moves his foot from the gas pedal to the brake pedal.Braking Distance: The distance it takes to completely stop the vehicle after the brakes are applied. This is affected by speed, road surface, weather, and vehicle condition.# one of the most common reasons people tailgate is because they “think” they have enough room to stop their vehicle. They rationalize, “if I hit my brakes now I know I can stop in time.” The problem is, the only factor they’ve included is their braking distance. Braking distance, as you can see above, is the distance it takes to completely stop the vehicle after the brakes are applied. A lot however can happen BEFORE the brakes are applied. Your mind needs time to process what is going on. It’s never instantaneous. This is called “perception distance”. This is the number of feet your vehicle travels from the time an event occurs until you spot it and recognize it as a hazard. You’ve done NOTHING to slow the vehicle down in this time. Your foot remains on the gas. On average it takes 1 and ¾ seconds to recognize the hazard for someone who is paying attention and is physically and mentally aware. Those distracted could take much longer obviously. In that 1 and ¾ seconds, at 55 MPH, you travel over 140 feet!# Once you’ve recognized a hazard you have to react to it. This is called “reaction distance”. On average it takes someone about ¾ of a second to take their foot off the gas and get it over the brake. You STILL HAVE NOT APPLIED THE BRAKES! The only thing you’ve done to slow down is take your foot off the gas and you’ve travelled now, on average, 2 and ½ seconds.
16Reaction Distance THE AVERAGE PERSON’S REACTION TIME = ¾ SECOND Traveling at 30 mph ¾ second = 33 feetTraveling at 55 mph ¾ second = 60 feetTraveling at 65 mph ¾ second = 72 feet# As you can see, your reaction distance adds up. At the same 55 MPH’s you travel 60 feet in the time it takes you to take your foot off the gas and get it over the brake, still having not applied pressure.
17STOPPING DISTANCE CONT. PERCEPTION DISTANCE + REACTION DISTANCE + BRAKING DISTANCEAt 55 Miles per hour,- Perception distance is feet- Reaction distance is 60.5 feet- Braking distance is 144 feetThe total stopping distance is 346 feetAt 65 Miles per hour,- Perception distance is feet- Reaction distance is 71.5 feet- Braking distance is feetThe total stopping distance is 440 feet# Your total stopping distance at 55 MPH is 346 feet! More than a football field long. If all you took into consideration was your braking distance, 144 feet at 55 MPH, you don’t stand a chance of perceiving and reacting to the hazard in time. As speed increases the total stopping distance increases.
18FOLLOWING TOO CLOSELYOne of the most common errors, is tailgating. For some drivers, tailgating is a thoughtless habit. It could also be a deadly one.Rear-end collisions are the most frequent type of automobile accident. They are avoidable.Always keep at least a 3 second following distance from the vehicle in front of you in a personal vehicle.Service vans maintain at least a 4 second following distance.In a large truck over 10K GVW a 6 second minimum following distance is necessary. In adverse weather, this distance should be increased.# In your personal vehicles, always maintain AT LEAST a 3 second following distance. Count it out……one thousand one, one thousand two, one thousand three. In a pick up truck or service van we are looking for AT LEAST a 4 second following distance. In a large truck over 10K GVW we are looking for AT LEAST a 6 second following distance!!!# How do you know if you’re 3, 4, or 6 seconds behind a vehicle in front of you? (ask class). Find a fixed object such as an overpass or telephone pole and when the rear of the vehicle ahead comes to it begin counting.
19Cushion of SafetyMaintain at least a 3-second following distance (4 in van, 6 in large truck) when traveling (in ideal conditions) under 40 mph; at greater speeds, add 1 secondAdd 1 second for each of the poor driving conditions listed in red:Limited traction concern (snow / rain / wet leaves / sand / fresh asphalt / etc)Limited visibility concern (sun glare, snow glare, work zone lighting, night driving, heavy rains, etc).Limited space concern (heavy traffic, toll booth, school zone, etc)Scan your driving environment at least seconds down the road on the high way, 1-2 city blocks on urban streetsFrequently check both left and right mirrors every 3-5 seconds# Maintaining a cushion of safety around your vehicle is the most important task for a defensive driver. Often the area in front of your vehicle is the one you’ll have the most control over. DO NOT GIVE UP ON YOUR FOLLOWING DISTANCE! Should a vehicle cut in front and eat your following distance, ease back into it. A safe following distance CAN be maintained if you work at it and often it’s the ONLY thing you can do to put yourself in a position to avoid a collision.# Remember the safe following distance minimums. 3 seconds in passenger car, 4 in service van or pickup truck, and 6 in a large truck. We recommend you add 1 second for speed only when you go over 40mph. In addition we recommend adding an additional second for each of three poor driving conditions. If there is a limited traction concern (review screen), add a second. If there is a limited visibility concern, add a second. If there is a limited space concern, add a second.# Keeping a safer following distance helps you in many ways. One is seeing the road around you. Scan seconds on a high way or rural road, and 1-2 city blocks on urban streets. While doing so, check your mirrors every 3-5 seconds. Stay alert of your blind spots. Know whats around your vehicle so you can maintain your “cushion of safety”.
20SummarySLOW DOWN!Use good judgment when turning and at intersections. NEVER assume others will yield the right of way even where they are required to.Work at maintaining your default following distance and increasing upon it where warranted.3 seconds minimum for 4-wheel passenger cars4 seconds minimum for heavy service vans and larger pickup trucks6 seconds minimum for vehicles over 10K GVW# SLOW DOWN ON THE ROADS! The #1 unsafe driving behavior is speeding! Not necessarily going over the speed limit, often it’s travelling too fast for conditions.# Ask, “is it necessary” when changing lanes on the highway. Don’t enter intersections until they are clear and always look, even if you have a green light and the crossing traffic is supposed to stop. Make sure they are stopping.# Maintain your minimum following distance. This small change to your driving habits will make you a much safer driver. After awhile, it’ll become second nature and you won’t have to count it out. You won’t feel comfortable unless you have that minimum following distance because you’ll know that you stand little chance of preventing a collision without it.