Presentation on theme: "MODULE 3 THE VEHICLE. VEHICLE MAINTENANCE - Reduces potential for accidents, breakdowns and prolongs vehicle life. - Of the three factors involved in."— Presentation transcript:
MODULE 3 THE VEHICLE
VEHICLE MAINTENANCE - Reduces potential for accidents, breakdowns and prolongs vehicle life. - Of the three factors involved in collisions, only the driver and vehicle do we have control over.
Vehicle Maintenance On a routine basis, inspect; – Tires (tread & pressure) – Mirrors (clean and properly adjusted) – Ensure windows are clean – Lights – Wipers – Oil level – Transmission, brakes, and power steering fluids
HANDLING THE ROADS The six most common types of travelling errors that contribute to collision are; – 1. Speeding – 2. Right-of-Way violations – 3. Turning improperly – 4. Driving left of center – 5. Passing or overtaking improperly – 6. Following too closely
SPEEDING - Speeding is the contributing factor in one-third of all fatal crashes - In adverse conditions, even the posted speed limit may be too fast. - For every 10 miles per hour over 50 mph the risk of death in a traffic crash in doubled. - It is far safer to drive at the posted speed limit than to keep up with the pace of traffic, and it is also the law.
Speeding Accidents Statistics & Facts Approximately 13,000 lives are lost per year as a result of speeding
RIGHT-OF-WAY-VIOLATIONS More than half of all urban collisions occur at intersections. The law states who should yield the right of way, not who has the right of way. Always scan an intersection before entering, and keep a two second distance from the car in front of you.
TURNING IMPROPERLY Turning requires good judgment. Follow these three steps. – 1. Get in the correct lane to complete the turn from as soon as possible. – 2. Signal your intention to make a turn. – 3. Yield, and turn from the correct lane to the correct lane. TIPS *** Never enter an intersection to turn until it is clear.*** *** Never point your wheels in the direction of a turn, until you begin the turn. If you are rear-ended while waiting for the intersection to clear, you could be pushed into on-coming traffic.*** ***Sometimes drivers cut the corners too sharply during left turns. To protect yourself, stay back a few feet from the stop line. This also leaves plenty of room for buses and other large vehicles to complete their turns.
DRIVING LEFT OF CENTER Can you think of a reason someone would be driving left of center? - Car Problem - Fell asleep - Under the influence of drugs or alcohol - Avoiding an object in the road - Driver Distraction - Other??? By maintaining a safe speed, and following distance we give ourselves a “cushion of safety”. If we stay attentative, and use the “what-if” strategy, we reduce our chances of having a head-on collision.
DRIVING LEFT OF CENTER, CONT. A drivers worst nightmare is another vehicle crossing the centerline and coming straight at you. We must remember to use the “four-R’s”. Read the road ahead, and scan for hazards. Drive to the right. If you spot an erratic driver, coming towards you, drive as far to the right of the road as possible. Reduce speed. Ride off the road. As a last resort, ride off the road. Look for something soft such as a bush. If you are to hit something, try and do it with a glancing blow. A direct head-on collision is the most dangerous collision you can have. NEVER DRIVE LEFT IF ANOTHER DRIVER IS IN YOUR LANE. THEIR NATURAL INSTINCT MAY BE TO SWERVE BACK TO THERE LANE WHERE THEY MAY STRIKE YOU.
SPACE MANAGEMENT To operate safely, we must keep a safe distance from the vehicle in front of us. A minimum of a three second following distance should be maintained (4 seconds in service trucks and vans, 6 seconds in large trucks. To understand why this is so important, we need to look at how long it takes to stop our vehicle.
STOPPING DISTANCE There are many factors that influence our stopping distance. The vehicle (weight, tires, brakes, speed) The driving conditions (road type, surface, weather) The driver (perception time, and reaction time) TIP Anti-lock brakes give a noticeable kickback, and make a loud noise when applied. Don’t pull your foot off the brake because you hear and feel strange noises. These noises are supposed to be there.
STOPPING DISTANCE (CONT.) Perception Distance: The number of feet your vehicle travels from the time an event occurs, such as the brake lights ahead coming on, until you spot it and recognize the hazard. Average perception time 1 and ¾ seconds. Reaction Distance: The distance a vehicle travels while the driver moves his foot from the gas pedal to the brake pedal. Braking Distance: The distance it takes to completely stop the vehicle after the brakes are applied. This is affected by speed, road surface, weather, and vehicle condition.
Reaction Distance THE AVERAGE PERSON’S REACTION TIME = ¾ SECOND Traveling at 30 mph ¾ second = 33 feet Traveling at 55 mph ¾ second = 60 feet Traveling at 65 mph ¾ second = 72 feet
STOPPING DISTANCE CONT. STOPPING DISTANCE = PERCEPTION DISTANCE + REACTION DISTANCE + BRAKING DISTANCE At 55 Miles per hour, - Perception distance is feet - Reaction distance is 60.5 feet - Braking distance is 144 feet The total stopping distance is 346 feet At 65 Miles per hour, - Perception distance is feet - Reaction distance is 71.5 feet - Braking distance is feet The total stopping distance is 440 feet
FOLLOWING TOO CLOSELY One of the most common errors, is tailgating. For some drivers, tailgating is a thoughtless habit. It could also be a deadly one. Rear-end collisions are the most frequent type of automobile accident. They are avoidable. Always keep at least a 3 second following distance from the vehicle in front of you in a personal vehicle. Service vans maintain at least a 4 second following distance. In a large truck over 10K GVW a 6 second minimum following distance is necessary. In adverse weather, this distance should be increased.
Cushion of Safety Maintain at least a 3-second following distance (4 in van, 6 in large truck) when traveling (in ideal conditions) under 40 mph; at greater speeds, add 1 second Add 1 second for each of the poor driving conditions listed in red: Limited traction concern (snow / rain / wet leaves / sand / fresh asphalt / etc) Limited visibility concern (sun glare, snow glare, work zone lighting, night driving, heavy rains, etc). Limited space concern (heavy traffic, toll booth, school zone, etc) Scan your driving environment at least seconds down the road on the high way, 1-2 city blocks on urban streets Frequently check both left and right mirrors every 3-5 seconds
Summary SLOW DOWN! Use good judgment when turning and at intersections. NEVER assume others will yield the right of way even where they are required to. Work at maintaining your default following distance and increasing upon it where warranted. 3 seconds minimum for 4-wheel passenger cars 4 seconds minimum for heavy service vans and larger pickup trucks 6 seconds minimum for vehicles over 10K GVW