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Unit 9.5 The Bridge to Imperialism -Unifications, Napoleon III, & the “Dash” Wars.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 9.5 The Bridge to Imperialism -Unifications, Napoleon III, & the “Dash” Wars."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 9.5 The Bridge to Imperialism -Unifications, Napoleon III, & the “Dash” Wars

2 AGE OF OPTIMISM AND DESPAIR Politically Speaking…

3 Early and Late 19 th Century: A Comparison Slide 40 1800-1850  Reform was limited  Revolutions of 1848 had failed  Liberalism and nationalism defeated as conservative, authoritarian governments prevailed  Conservative agenda upheld by the “Concert of Europe” After 1850  Some conservative leaders found a way to manipulate liberal and national ideologies to increase their power, practicing a new ideology known as “Realpolitik”  The Concert of Europe will disintegrate  Germany and Italy will unify, with major consequences to come

4 France Napoleon III – came to power after the failure of the “Bourgeoisie government” of Louise Philippe Won support of the people, created the “Second republic”, and when denied the right to be re- elected he seized the government, gave universal male suffrage, and won a series of plebiscites to gain the title of emperor As such, he controlled the military, police and civil service. He alone could introduce legislation, control the budget and declare war

5 Domestic Policies of Napoleon III Domestic Agenda  Government subsidies for growth in industry and transportation  Free hospitals and medicine  Better housing for working class  “Modern” Paris with sewage, public water, gas lights and wide roads (aesthetic and military purpose)  Liberalized industry by allowing for labor unions and the right to strike  Liberalized government by giving free speech to opponents and a voice to the Legislative Corps Results  Major French railway lines completed  Tripling of iron production signaled industrial growth  Reduction of social tensions  By 1870 had the total support of the people Successful domestic policies will be eventually outweighed by foreign failures, and lead to Napoleon's decline

6 Republican France The defeat of the French in the Franco-Prussian War brought the downfall of Napoleon’s second empire, and a republican provisional government was formed However when Bismarck got involved and forced the French to chose a government by universal male suffrage, they chose monarch rule. In response, radical republicans created an independent government, the Paris Commune. When the government decided to crush the commune, working class people, including women, fought fiercely to defend it. When the commune was defeated, supporters were sent to penal colonies, establishing a legacy of hatred between the Middle and Working classes The monarchists, in an ironic turn, set up a government with a two-house legislature (one house elected by universal male suffrage) and a president

7 Unification of Italy – The Beginning Austria was dominant in Italy, especially after the revolts of 1848 failed. However, nationalists were not deterred When Victor Emmanuel replaced Charles Albert as King of Piedmont-Sardinia, he appointed Count Camillo di Cavour to be his Prime Minister Cavour was a wealthy, liberal-minded aristocrat who favored constitutional government Like Napoleon III, he pursued a successful policy of expansion of industry and transportation by expanding credit for investment. The money raised built a strong army Learning from the Revolution of 1848, he realized he would need the help of France to achieve Italian Unification

8 North and Central Italy Cavour promised the French the provinces of Nice and Savoy, and the hand of the King’s daughter to Napoleons cousin, who would be named King of Central Italy France took charge in defeating the Austrians, and Napoleon made a hasty peace without the consent of Italy (or control of Venetia) which angered Cavour Soon after, “Central Italy” had been taken over by nationalists who held a plebiscite in which they agreed to unify with Peidmont Napoleon agreed to the unification, in return for Savoy and Nice

9 Southern Italy While events were happening in northern Italy, Giuseppe Garibaldi and the “Red Shirts” revolted against the Bourbon king of the “Two Sicilies”, marching up the Italian peninsula toward Rome Fearing a French retaliation (and loss of power), Cavour sent in his troops to protect Rome Choosing against civil war, Garibaldi chose not to invade. Eventual plebiscites in both the Papal States and Two Sicilies led to the union with Piedmont.

10 Final Unification 1861 – The Kingdom of Italy was established with Victor Emmanuel as King Rome (French control) and Venetia (Austrian control) will still out of reach. In the Austro-Prussian and Franco-Prussian wars, Italy was on the side of the victor and won control of Rome and Venetia. Rome eventually became the capital of Italy

11 See Map and Painting – p. 753 and 754

12 Italy Unification brought little “unification”:  Italian loyalty usually rested with the family and local regions, not the new state  There were differences between the poverty-stricken south and the industrialist north (who made up the leadership majority)  The Catholic Church resented loss of the Papal States to the state and did not recognize the unification of Italy  Turmoil between workers and industrialists persisted Reform in suffrage allowed for a whopping 10% of the population to vote (up from 2.5%) Lack of dominant parties and corruption allowed for little stability in government

13 Unification of Germany After unification failed in 1848-49, nationalists looked to Austria and Prussia While Austria controlled the “German Confederation”, Prussia controlled the Zollverein (customs union) of which Austria was not a part Middle-class liberals looked to Prussia to lead unification

14 Prussia Prussia had a bicameral legislature and universal male suffrage, although weighted votes allowed those who paid higher taxes to have more influence King Frederick William I was succeeded by William I, his brother William I felt the military needed to be revamped – he wanted to increase the budget to double the size of the army and have 3 year compulsory military service. The middle class parliament was weary of his intentions and voted against the measures

15 Count Otto von Bismarck Appointed Prime Minister by King William I in 1862 and dominated European politics until 1890 Had experience as a delegate to the German Confederation and ambassador to Russia A believer in realpolitik, he was an opportunist who waged war only when necessary, and after he had a clear advantage by isolating the enemy and they would be fighting only one enemy He resubmitted the earlier budget by William I and when the parliament voted it down, he ignored them


17 Danish War - 1864 Causes – When the Danish government violated a treaty and attempted to incorporate Holstein and Schleswig into Denmark. Prussia, joined by Austria declared war Course – After a quick, decisive victory, Prussia was given Schleswig and Austria was given Holstein Consequences – Prussia wanted control of the northern, largely protestant region of Germany and while openly pursued negotiations with Austria, they planned secretly to isolate them

18 Austro-Prussian War - 1866 Bismarck gained an agreement to remain neutral from Russia (recall the Crimean War), and France (who was promised the Rhineland). He also promised Venetia to Italy for their support (earlier slide) After goading Austria into war, Prussian weapons and railroads gave Prussia a decisive victory. The peace was not punitive, and Austria lost Venetia and was excluded from German affairs. The Northern German states were organized into a confederation under the control of Prussia Ever the politician, Bismarck used his success to have his illegal taxes legalized. He was able to separate the concept of liberalism and nationalism

19 Franco-Prussian War Cause - Isabella II was deposed and the throne was offered to a relative of the King William I. France objected and demanded Prussia withdraw his nomination, as well as an apology. Bismarck edited a telegram (Ems dispatch) sent to Napoleon III from William I to make it insulting. France declared war on Prussia Course – the Prussian forces quickly surrounded Napoleon and his army Consequence – France had to pay a large indemnity (1 billion) and give up Alsace and Lorraine to Germany. France wanted revenge.

20 Final Unification Before the war had ended, the southern German states agreed to unify with the north In 1871, William I was proclaimed Emperor of the “Second German Empire” Prussian leadership of the unification signaled the triumph of authoritarian, militaristic government over liberal, constitutional sentiments. With its industrial and military success, Prussia (now Germany) became the strongest power on the continent

21 Unified Germany The German constitution called for a bicameral legislature:  The Bundserat (upper house) represented the 25 German states (some independent states kept their own kings and armies)  The Reichstag (lower house) elected by universal male suffrage The most important leadership positions (like “chancellor” Bismarck) and the army (made up of “junker” officers) were not held responsible to the parliament, but to the emperor, therefore real political democracy was thwarted

22 Bismarck (again) At the onset, Bismarck worked with liberals to achieve centralization of Germany with common codes of criminal and commercial law, and “Kulturkampf” to reduce the power of the Catholic church Around 1878, Bismarck abandoned liberal ideas turning to more conservative ones. Alarmed at the growing number of socialists, he had the Social Democratic Party outlawed, though socialists could still run for office in the Reichstag To woe workers from socialist ideas, he set up social welfare legislation for workers The socialist movement, however, continued to grow. Just as he was ready to pass more repressive measures, William II said “you’re fired” (or something like that, in German)

23 Austria: Toward A Duel Monarchy Habsburgs had crushed revolutionaries in Vienna, Buda and Prague, as well as the Hungarians and Czechs who wanted independence. However, the revolutions did bring serf emancipation The growth of industry after 1850 led to changes – an urban proletariat, labor unrest and a new middle class Economic troubles and the defeat in the war with Italy brought change

24 The Ausgleich (Compromise of 1867) An imperial parliament (Reichsrat) was set up by Francis Joseph in 1859 Meant to provide representation of the differing nationalities in the empire, the election formula ensured a German-speaking majority that alienated the ethnic minorities, especially the Hungarians After defeat in the Austro-Prussian war, the Austrians were forced into a compromise with Hungarian nationalists, creating the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary. Each had its own capital and legislature, held together by one king – Francis Joseph who controlled the army and foreign affairs

25 Austria-Hungary In Austria, Franz Joseph ignored the constitution which set up a parliamentary form of government Minority problems continued to plague the empire. Ethnic Germans, who made up 1/3 of the population, governed the rest of the mostly Slavic Austria. Problems persisted as the “nationalities problem” persisted into the 20 th century. Dissatisfied non-German groups continued to demand concessions from an unwilling Austrian German-ruling class In Hungary, the Magyar landowners controlled the peasantry and other ethnic groups of Hungary and attempted to solve nationalistic problems through “Magyarization” What unified Austria-Hungary was the loyalty to the Catholic Church, and to Emperor Franz Joseph, who put the interests of the nation above his hatred of Hungary

26 Overall Results of the Ausgleich of 1867 Other nationalities, especially Slavic peoples (Poles, Croats, Czechs, Serbs, Slovaks, Slovenes and Little Russians), felt oppressed by the German-speaking dual monarchy Nationality problems will last until the end of the empire in WWI

27 The “Eastern Question” Who would be the beneficiaries of the weakening Ottoman Empire?  17 th century – Ottomans controlled much of southeastern Europe  By the 18 th century -  lost Hungary, Transylvania, Croatia, and Slovenia to Austria  Lost Crimea and Bessarabia to Russia, who also later became a “protectorate” of Moldavia and Wallachia  Revolts in Serbia and Greece led to their independence from the Ottomans by 1830

28 Causes of the Crimean War 1854-1856 War begins when Russia, under the leadership of Nicholas I, was denied the right to be the “protectorate” of the Christian shrines in Palestine by the Ottomans, and invaded Moldavia and Wallachia Failure to reach a diplomatic solution led Great Britain and France to declare war on Russia Great Britain feared an upset in the balance of power in Europe, and France was insulted that Russia was attempting to take away their right to be protectorate of Palestine Russia had expected help from Austria (they helped save the monarchy earlier from revolution in 1848) but Austria remained neutral



31 Course and Consequence Britain and France began a two year siege on Sevastopol, the main fortress of Russia on the Black Sea After great losses on both sides, the new Tsar, Alexander II, sued for peace. 1856 - Treaty of Paris – Russia had to give up Crimea, Bessarabia, Moldavia and Wallachia Austria and Russia were now enemies Russia recognized how “backwards” they were The biggest consequence – the “Concert of Europe” was destroyed

32 Death and Disease 250,000 soldiers died in the war – 60% from disease Florence Nightingale helped prevent even more deaths from disease by insisting on sanitary conditions Nightingale established the nursing profession of trained, middle-class women

33 Russia Russia’s defeat in the Crimean War signaled a need for change The reliance of an agricultural society and military based on a poor, uneducated serf class put Russia behind In 1861, Alexander II emancipated the serfs, which meant they could marry who they chose, own property and bring suits in a court of law

34 Limits to Serf Emancipation The government purchased land from landowners, who kept the good land for themselves, leaving the peasants with poor land and the bill To make sure peasants paid for their land, they were subject to their “mir”, or village commune, who made sure they did not leave or fail to make payments Freedom led to and unhappy, land-starved peasantry that lacked agricultural technology

35 Other Russian Reforms Alexander II instituted the system of zemstvos which provided for local governments with some degree of self-rule The voting system gave nobles an advantage Reformers felt let down, conservatives didn’t like the changes in the political structure

36 Repression in Russia Reformers such as Alexander Herzen suggested that peasants must be the vehicle of social reform through revolution. This idea was embraced by “populists” such as Vera Zasulich who joined the “Land and Freedom” underground populist organization and then attempted to assassinate a top Russian official. Inspired by Zasulich, the populist group known as the “People’s Will” assassinated Alexander II. His son and successor, Alexander III, was a reactionary who turned against reform and re-established traditional forms of repression

37 Mother Russia After the assassination of Alexander the II, there were no concessions made to liberal or democratic reforms by Alexander III. His reactionary approach allowed for the expansion of the secret police to stamp out any attempt at reform. The powers of the zemstvos were curtailed and whole cities accused of revolutionary acts were put under martial law Alexander III also instituted a policy of “Russification” (aka – Pan-Slavic Movement) insisting on Russian as the native language used in schools. 60% of the population was not Russian, and the measures only served to ignite new opposition to his policies

38 Great Britain Great Britain had faced little revolution by 1848 because it had experienced some reform Economic growth, middle class prosperity and some working class improvements (wages increase 25%) created a stable society

39 Victorian Age Queen Victoria ruled from 1837-1901 Her sense of duty and moral respectability reflected the attitudes of her age She embodied British feelings of national pride during the “Victorian Age”

40 Great Britain By 1871, Britain had a two-party parliamentary system The Reform Act of 1867 gave the right to all men who paid taxes Payment of members of parliament also increased democratic participation Unfortunately, reform failed to solve the problems of the “Irish Question”

41 Reform Act of 1867 Whigs (now called “Liberals”) had expanded the right to vote in 1832 and sought to expand the franchise even further Led by Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli, Tories (now called conservatives) carried through with the legislation in order to win over the newly enfranchised groups The new reform act lowered the monetary tax requirement necessary to vote, enfranchising many urban male workers (# of voters doubled), however the Liberals will benefit from the vote in 1868, and William Gladstone will become Prime Minister

42 Gladstone The liberal administration of Gladstone was responsible for many reforms:  Competitive exams were given for civil service jobs (v. patronage)  Secret ballots for voting  Abolished purchasing of military commssions  Education Act of 1870 – public elementary education for all children

43 Ireland In the British parliament (which had been united with the English Parliament with the Act of Union in 1801) tried to enact land reform to deal with absentee British landlords who exploited their Irish tenants By 1879, reforms had little effect, and the Irish Land League formed. Irish members of Parliament began to articulate the demands of the league which promulgated self government, though not overall independence from Britain (“home rule”) William Gladstone issued a home rule bill in 1886, however it was defeated and the Irish question remained unresolved

44 What About Canada? Treaty of Paris (1763) gave Canada to the British By 1800, most Canadians favored independence 1837 - Rebellion and the cost of maintaining the colonies encouraged the British to give in to Canadian demands 1867 – Dominion of Canada was created, giving Canadians autonomy in domestic affairs, however foreign affairs still remained under the control of the British

45 Spain 1875 – a parliamentary constitution was drafted under King Alfonso XII. Unfortunately, the Liberal and Conservative parties in it only represented the interests of the old aristocrats and the new industrialists (suffrage was limited to those with property) Following their loss of the Philippines and Cuba, and their defeat in the Spanish-American War, there was call for reform by the “Generation of 1898”. To increase their electorate, the Liberals and conservatives did allow some voting reform, but the masses were still unhappy With growing industrialization (and discontent) more people joined anarchist and socialist organizations. After a failed rebellion in 1909, it was clear the church, landowners and military forces loyal to the status quo would not be defeated easily

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