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Erik Erikson Jessica Rokosz, Amanda Johnson, Kristen Roskey,

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1 Erik Erikson Jessica Rokosz, Amanda Johnson, Kristen Roskey,

2 Erik Erikson  Lived June 15, 1902 – May 12 1994  Developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst  Known for his Stages of Personal and Social Development Theory  Published the book: Childhood and Society

3 Stages of Personal and Social Development  Erikson believed that personality develops in a series of stages.  At each stage of life an individual confronts a major challenge or “crisis”.  Negotiation of the crisis requires achieving a balance between two possible extremes.  Erikson theorized that if the conflict is not resolved positively at particular parts of life, later problems will ensue. Erikson’s Theory

4 Erikson’s Stages of Personal and Social Development StageAgePsychosocial CrisisDesired Resolution 1Birth – 18 monthsTrust vs. mistrustAcquiring a sense of security and some control over environment 218 months – 3 yearsAutonomy vs. doubtAwareness of growing competence and separateness as human being 33 – 6 yearsInitiative vs. guiltExercising a growing sense of power and ability to act on own without undue risk-taking 46 – 12 yearsIndustry vs. inferiorityFinding satisfaction in school achievement and master of new skills 512 – 18 yearsIdentity vs. role confusionFinding sense of self and building relationships in peer group 6Young adultIntimacy vs. isolationBuilding close relationships and connections with sexual partners, friends 7Middle adulthoodGenerativity vs. self- absorption Gaining satisfaction from life’s work, nurturing future generations, and caring for others 8Late adulthoodIntegrity vs. despairReflecting on life with contentment, facing death without hopelessness

5 Theory in Practice  In the elementary grades/ages, peer relationships and achievement are the main focus points during psychosocial development. Ways that Erickson's theory works in practice and how it is applied in the classroom are:  Include children in setting classroom rules and discuss what it looks and sounds like when everyone is following those rules. Make a list of classroom duties, and let students take charge of these jobs to help the classroom run smoothly.  Model appreciation to teach children to be sensitive to the needs of others. Role-play different situations with children, and discuss how they want to be treated when they are in like circumstances. This encourages them to think beyond themselves.  Demonstrate frequently that learning from mistakes and moving forward is more important than perfection. Teach children that they should never laugh at, ridicule, demean or ignore someone who is having trouble socially or academically, but rather offer help and encouragement.  Focus on recognizing success. Help children build confidence in what they do best.  Provide choices rather than one assignment. It allows children to express their understanding at the level and in the mode where they can best shine: art and music projects, multimedia presentations, written reports, oral reports, etc.

6 Implications for Practice  Primary caregivers for consistent/responsive care  Structured environments  Children initiate own activities within teacher options  Children are encouraged to voice opinions and ideas  Opportunities to pursue hobbies and interests


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