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CHAPTER 2 The Journey Begins – Childhood. Chapter Overview The Psychodynamic Perspective Development of Personality The Structure of Personality Personality.

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 2 The Journey Begins – Childhood. Chapter Overview The Psychodynamic Perspective Development of Personality The Structure of Personality Personality."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHAPTER 2 The Journey Begins – Childhood

2 Chapter Overview The Psychodynamic Perspective Development of Personality The Structure of Personality Personality Dynamics Modifications Applying It to Yourself The Biological Perspective Nature v. Nurture A Newer Approach Applying It to Yourself Perspectives on Child Development The Journey Begins-- Childhood

3 Chapter Overview Chapter Overview cont’d Developmental Challenges Temperament Self-Recognition and Self-Concept Attachment Applying It to Yourself The Humanistic Perspective The Phenomenal Self Self-Actualization Applying It to Yourself The Journey Begins -- Childhood The Journey Begins -- Childhood cont’d The Social-Cognitive Perspective Social Learning Theories Recent Additions Applying It to Yourself

4 Chapter Summary Perspectives on Child Development The Biological Perspective on Child Development –Nature Versus Nurture: An Old Debate –A Newer Approach –Applying It to Yourself

5 Chapter Summary Chapter Summary cont’d The Psychodynamic Perspective on Child Development –Development of Personality –The Structure of Personality –Personality Dynamics –Modifications –Applying It to Yourself

6 Chapter Summary Chapter Summary cont’d The Social-Cognitive Perspective on Child Development –Social Learning Theories –Recent Additions: Cognitions & Behavior –Evaluation –Applying It to Yourself

7 Chapter Summary Chapter Summary cont’d The Humanistic Perspective on Child Development –The Phenomenal Self –Self-Actualization –Applying It to Yourself

8 Chapter Summary Chapter Summary cont’d Developmental Challenges in Childhood –Temperament –Self-Recognition and Self-Concept –Attachment –Applying It to Yourself

9 Perspectives on Child Development Development-the relatively enduring changes in people’s capacities and behavior as they grow older because of biological growth processes and people’s interaction with their environment, including their social environment. … a healthy childhood creates resiliency and therefore a more fulfilling adulthood. Different viewpoints (perspectives) on development offer “hows” and “whys”…

10 The Biological Perspective on Child Development Nature Versus Nurture: An Old Debate Genes-the biochemical units by which characteristics are inherited. Heredity-transmission of traits from parents to offspring. Some argue that almost all of our personal characteristics are inherited or genetic. Others argue that the environment and learning are more influential. This controversy is called the nature- nurture debate.

11 Nature Versus Nurture: An Old Debate Nature Versus Nurture: An Old Debate cont’d …evolution and adaptation also play a role in determining our characteristics. Studies of identical twins (who possess identical genetic profiles) help to tease out whether nature or nurture is more important. Important questions and ethical issues regarding the perspective persist.

12 A Newer Approach The nature-nurture debate: what is more influential? biology or environment? The newer approach- development is the result of a combination of or complex interaction of both! identical twinsAn example: identical twins-similar in some traits (the influence of genes) ; dissimilar in others (the influence of being in different environments on different occasions).

13 Applying It to Yourself Do not blame your genes for causing behavior or personality. Families also share the same environment! …examine your family tree to discover common family traits. Will you find causes? Maybe, maybe not; but the exercise can be an interesting journey of self-discovery and self- revelation!

14 The Psychodynamic Perspective on Child Development Introduction Psychodynamic theory-a group of related theories that view personality and behavior in terms of the dynamics (or interactions) of driving forces of development (and of personality) such as desires, anxieties, conflicts, and defenses. Founder, Sigmund Freud, felt that the causes of our behavior were inaccessible to us (i.e. hidden in the unconscious). Psychoanalytic therapy--GOAL: help people gain insight, mastery into unconscious processes.

15 The Psychodynamic Perspective on Child Development Development … children pass through several stages. Fixation--the person becomes emotionally fixed at one stage and symbolically continues to act out wishes that were overly inhibited or indulged. First stage--the oral stage: the mouth becomes the primary means of gratification for the child. Second stage--the anal stage: the child’s major source of physical pleasure becomes the releasing or retaining of feces.

16 The Psychodynamic Perspective on Child Development Development cont’d Third stage--the phallic stage: the period in which the child experiences sensual pleasure through handling his or her genitals. …also characterized by conflict or struggle with the parent of the opposite sex, because that parent attracts the attention and affection of the other parent. In girls this is called the Electra complex. In boys it is called the Oedipal complex.

17 The Psychodynamic Perspective on Child Development Development cont’d Successful resolution of these conflicts leads to the: Fourth stage--the latency stage: the child’s interests turn away from sensuality and the child’s urges lie dormant. Final stage--the genital stage: the person begins the onset of puberty, true sexual maturation, and adult sexual activity.

18 The Psychodynamic Perspective on Child Development The Structure of Personality Freud suggested that the personality is composed of three different structures which interact: ID – that part of the personality that is the unconscious reservoir of psychic energy and the source of later development. EGO – the direct outgrowth of the ID and which functions as a manager of personality, thereby enabling the individual to cope with the conflicting demands of the ID, the SUPEREGO, and society. SUPEREGO – the part of personality which has been shaped by the moral standards of society as transmitted by the parents.

19 The Psychodynamic Perspective on Child Development The Structure of Personality cont’d Each structure operates according to a different principle: ID – pleasure principle EGO – reality principle SUPEREGO – principle of perfection

20 The Psychodynamic Perspective on Child Development Modifications Freud’s students and followers: Anna Freud Carl Jung Erik Erikson …decreased emphasis on sexuality. …focused on ego development; social, not intrapsychic conflict

21 The Psychodynamic Perspective on Child Development Conflicting feelings are “normal,” according to Freud. Conflict may be unconscious; it can cause you to act in opposite ways, e.g. loving and hating the same person. Coping strategies derive from your childhood and how your parents raised you. It is “normal” to experience multiple problems and anxieties simultaneously. Optimal adjustment comes from living in the world as it is rather than wishing the world were some other way. Applying It to Yourself

22 The Social-Cognitive Perspective on Child Development Social-cognitive perspective--a broad term that includes behavioral and social learning theories as well as cognitive psychology. Important concepts behind the perspective: Learning--a relatively permanent change in behavior. Learning theory--a systematic statement of learning principles. –Leading theorists: Ivan Pavlov, John Watson, B. F. Skinner. –Major concept: reinforcement--the addition of something that increases the likelihood of a behavior. EXAMPLE: a parent rewards a child’s bed-making by reading her a favorite story. Cognitive psychology--perspective that assumes that learning and behavior involve higher-level cognitive functions or thinking.

23 The Social-Cognitive Perspective on Child Development Social Learning Theory …much of what we do and know is acquired through… Observational learning--process in which we learn by observing events and other people, or “models,” without any direct reward or reinforcement. –Leading theorist: Albert Bandura –Research focus: the conditions under which observational learning occurs; the learning of aggression by children from media sources.

24 The Social-Cognitive Perspective on Child Development Recent Additions: Cognition and Behavior Behavioral and social learning theorists now recognize that behavior is influenced by: Cognition--the processing of information; involves processes such as selective attention, information gathering, memory, and motivation. …and that behavior, thinking, and environment interact: Reciprocal determinism--the notion that there is a mutual interaction among factors that affect our learning, cognition, and behaviors. –EXAMPLE: a child who watches violence and whose parents explain that violence is not acceptable. The child, then, is less likely to actually commit violence.

25 The Social-Cognitive Perspective on Child Development Recent Additions: Cognition and Behavior cont’d …also important is: Self-efficacy--the belief in one’s capacity to organize and execute the courses of action required to produce given attainments.

26 The Social-Cognitive Perspective on Child Development Self-Efficacy: An Example A student who studies hard for an exam so as to improve her changes of receiving a high grade is demonstrating self-efficacy. Self-efficacy is an extremely important concept in the field of personal growth and development.

27 The Social-Cognitive Perspective on Child Development Applying It to Yourself Many behaviors and personality traits are acquired by interaction with significant others, like parents. Past experiences and learning can be undone; we can acquire new behaviors and better traits and achieve personal change and growth. “Abnormal” patterns can be replaced by more adaptive and optimal patterns. Because of constant interaction with our environments personal change and growth is ongoing.

28 The Humanistic Perspective on Child Development Humanistic psychology--a group of related theories and therapies that emphasize the values of human freedom and the uniqueness of individuals. …also known as the “third force” in psychology, with psychoanalysis and behaviorism being one and two! –Leading humanistic theorists: Carl Rogers, Abraham Maslow. New outgrowth of humanistic psychology: Positive psychology--umbrella term for the study of positive emotions, positive character traits, and enabling institutions.

29 The Humanistic Perspective on Child Development The Phenomenal Self Described by Carl Rogers …it is the individual’s overall self-concept available to awareness. … part our biological tendency to develop and fulfill ourselves. Children have a need for unconditional positive regard or acceptance by others. They often experience “conditions of worth” from significant others, leading to self-distortions…

30 The Humanistic Perspective on Child Development The Phenomenal Self cont’d Rogers states that children thrive in supportive and accepting environments. …but not all environments are supportive and accepting! Person-centered therapy, developed by Rogers, provides a supportive, warm, and accepting environment. …more detail on this later!

31 The Humanistic Perspective on Child Development Self-Actualization Described by Abraham Maslow It is the process of fulfilling our inborn potential. …an inborn tendency. When our basic needs (food, water, etc.) are met, we become more aware of our need for fulfillment. …more on Maslow’s hierarchy of needs to come.

32 The Humanistic Perspective on Child Development Apply It to Yourself Perceive yourself in terms of your positive strengths and potential rather than in terms of shortcomings. Problems and conflicts are not necessary nor inevitable. Optimal adjustment can be achieved through personal growth and by taking reasonable risks. Self-actualization is an ongoing process and as such is only imperfectly realized for most of us. Perfection is not necessary for happiness.

33 Developmental Challenges in Childhood There are several developmental milestones that affect personality…

34 Developmental Challenges in Childhood Temperament An individual’s characteristic pattern of emotional response and behavioral reactivity to situations and stressors. Researchers categorize infant temperament in one of three ways: –Easy--happy and cheerful –Difficult--irritable and unpredictable –Slow-to-warm--restrained until they adjust to new situations Temperament seems to be “nature” Early temperament correlates with later personality.

35 Developmental Challenges in Childhood Self-Recognition and Self-Concept Self-concept depends on… Self-recognition--a child's ability to differentiate him- or herself from others in the social environment. …occurs between months as evidenced by the “surprise-mark” test. Children start using personal pronouns (i.e., “I,” “me”) around months. Self-concept, self-esteem, self-efficacy are based in self-recognition.

36 Developmental Challenges in Childhood Apply It to Yourself Are you: Trusting or suspicious? Easy-going or anxious? Secure in your relationships or mistrustful? When you look in the mirror, who do you see? The answers to these questions are rooted in your childhood!

37 Conclusion There are differing perspectives on child development, each with its own contributions. No one perspective is better than another. In fact, given human uniquenesses, perhaps a combination of ideas from the various perspectives will one day offer a better conceptualization of human growth and development. Child development is the prelude to later development.


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