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Chapter 8 Antebellum Free Blacks From Slavery to Freedom 9 th ed.
Freedom’s Boundaries Black Laws Missouri Compromise part of larger debate within individual states about civil status of free blacks Many states passed laws barring in-migration of free blacks Fear that free blacks would threaten slavery; desire to limit black population © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 2
Freedom’s Boundaries Migration West Alexis de Tocqueville – paradox of racial intolerance in states where slavery never existed Despite laws and cultural hostility, free black population grew dramatically in the Midwest Blacks continued to head west in search of economic opportunity Disfranchisement Free blacks’ political rights declined everywhere Pennsylvania revised constitution to disfranchise © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 3
Freedom’s Boundaries By end of Antebellum period, only New England states gave black men unrestricted right of suffrage Demographics Black population continued to grow, but relative to the entire U.S. population the percentage of free blacks began to decline Increasingly rigid manumission laws Significant increase in European immigrants © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 4
In a Culture of Racism Minstrel Shows Blackface white actor performed caricatured images, dialect speech, and song Promoted stereotypical images like “Jim Crow” Ethnology Professed methods and theories that stressed innate and immutable racial traits Craniology – blacks have smaller skull size, thus lower intelligence Polygenesis – races emerged from different human origins and are therefore different human species © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 5
In a Culture of Racism Bigotry and Prejudice Word nigger began to be used as a term of racial disparagement Collective acts of animosity directed at free blacks became common Mob Violence Free blacks scapegoated for diminished economic prospects of white workers Riots, murders, and destruction of churches, schools, and orphanages occurred in Midwest and Northeast © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 6
In a Culture of Racism South vs. North Blacks mistreated in North and West to delight of southern slaveholders who enjoyed playing up northern hostility In the North, however, blacks could agitate and organize for their rights; could enter professions and jobs barred from them in the South Southern freedom tenuous Slip could send back to slavery Controls over free blacks continued to increase Prohibition on in-migration; re-enslavement laws © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 7
Economic and Social Life Trades and Professions Restrictions on employment; but free blacks were required to work Skilled and unskilled blacks found employment in areas experiencing labor shortages Lower South had largest proportion of free black and skilled positions © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 8
Economic and Social Life Property Ownership Regional differences in property ownership Property “owned” by southern blacks included enslaved family members © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 9
10 African American barber
Economic and Social Life Urban Life in the North Northern Antebellum blacks more likely than whites to live in cities Boston Smallest free black community of northern seaport cities Residential segregation created geographical concentration of the black community Certain positions, like porter, held higher prestige Upper class and middle class were strong in tradition of protest thought © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 11
Economic and Social Life New York More affluent than black Bostonians Clearly demarcated economic and cultural differences among blacks Many opportunities for interracial mixing among lower classes Philadelphia Distinct three-tiered class structure among free blacks Active in temperance crusade © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 12
Economic and Social Life Mutual Aid Organizations Free blacks formed organizations to bind themselves together socially and culturally Outlawed in many southern states Cultural Contributions Free black poets, playwrights, historians, newspaper editors, and artists contributed to development of African American culture George Moses Horton; Daniel Alexander Paine; Harriet E. Wilson; Robert S. Duncanson © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 13
Education Opportunities in the North By eve of Civil War, educational opportunities widely available for black education in North Educational opportunities varied widely among states and communities In 1855, Massachusetts legislature prohibited segregated schools Opportunities in the South Harder for southern free blacks to get education No public schools, even for white children Public sentiment against free black education © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 14
Education Higher Education Northern free blacks began to attend institutions of higher education during antebellum period Some schools that became predominantly black institutions opened during this time © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 15
Black Convention Movement Black delegates met to “devise ways and means for the bettering of our condition” The Rochester Convention Over 100 people gathered and formed the National Council of Colored People Sought to advance equal rights and end slavery Fostering Group Consciousness Conventions way to promote collective discussion and action © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 16
Black Convention Movement Public Image and Behavior Debated name that identified them as a people and a race Leaders emphasized group and individual behavior – stressing temperance, church attendance, and thrift Biblical Imagery Used religious imagery in addressing issues Drew repeatedly on Exodus © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 17
Black Women Women Take Public Action Free black women attempt to bring gender inequality into discussion on racial inequality Free black women enlisted in public movements for black freedom Jarena Lee Maria Stewart One of earliest and most outspoken advocates of women’s rights and abolition Considered the first black feminist © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 18
© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 19 Portrait of Jarena Lee
Black Women Sojourner Truth Best known black women in women’s rights and abolitionist movements Exposed the socially constructed character of gender © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 20
The Debate on Emigration Efforts at Mass Colonization Despite schemes to deport free blacks, no more than 15,000 migrated outside U.S. The American Colonization Society (ACS) responsible for transporting most Mass colonization proved unworkable Not economically feasible Could not agree on single program because of varying motives of ACS members © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 21
The Debate on Emigration Opposition to the ACS Opposition grew steadily among black and white abolitionists, although recurring discussions of emigration continued at conventions into the 1850s Emigration supporters like H. Ford Douglas, James Theodore Holly, and Martin R. Delany distanced themselves from the ACS © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 22
© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 23 Map of Monrovia, Liberia, ca 1830
The Debate on Emigration The National Emigration Convention Promoted black-led emigration movement Douglas, Holly, and Delany vocal supporters Factionalism over whether Canada, Africa, or Haiti was best place to emigrate to Mary Ann Shadd Cary was strongest female emigrationist voice © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 24
As this figure shows, in the vast majority of northern states, the free black population rose significantly during the period from Despite this.
The Movement to End Slavery The Big Idea In the mid-1800s, debate over slavery increased as abolitionists organized to challenge slavery in the United.
Chapter 7 Free Black People in Antebellum America.
The Great Migration and the Harlem Renaissance The Rebirth of a New Image.
Antislavery African American History: Ms. Bauer.
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Compare the social and cultural characteristics of the North, the South, and the West during the Antebellum period, including the lives of African-
The Abolitionist Movement Chapter 8 Section 4. Early Opposition to Slavery A. The movement to end slavery polarized the nation and contributed to the.
Within a few years after the end of Reconstruction in the 1870s, African Americans began to see many of their newly won freedoms disappear.
Chapter 9. 2 nd Great Awakening 1 st Great Awakening – 18 th century (weakened traditional churches) 2 nd Great Awakening – as early as the 1790s, a renewed.
African American Responses to the Post- Reconstruction Period 3.5: Evaluate the varied responses of African Americans to the restrictions imposed on.
The Abolitionists. The spirit of reform that swept the United States in the early 1800s included the efforts of abolitionists, reformers who worked.
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African American Rights Progressive Era. Why is this so important?
Abolitionism What is abolitionism? Did all Northerners want abolitionism? Why? Who were famous abolitionists?
Chapter 9 Section 2 The Antislavery Movement. Abolitionist Movement The movement to end slavery.
Chapter 16 “Life at the Turn of the Twentieth Century” Sec. 3 “The World of Jim Crow”
Sabrina Kilbourne Mitchell Rowland. The South after the Civil War Slavery had ended, but African Americans enjoyed few freedoms. Sharecropping replaced.
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New Movements in America The Movement to End Slavery CHAPTER 14, SECTION 4 PAGES
The Abolitionists & Underground Railroad ESSENTIAL QUESTION What motivates people to act?
Chapter 8 Section. Early Opposition to Slavery The events leading up to the Civil War generally surrounded the idea of abolitionism, or the abolishment.
Abolitionist/Anti-Slavery. Antislavery Movement ; most preferred religious education, political action, boycotts of slave-harvested goods, or downright.
Black Freemasons Secret society that many founding fathers were members of. Major American and European movement. One of the few organizations that admitted.
Chapter 9 Religion and Reform. Section 1 Middle-Class Reform.
1830s. Some Americans that had opposed slavery for years began organizing a movement to support a complete end to slavery in the United States.
USHC-4.5 EXPLAIN THE CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF URBANIZATION IN LATE NINETEENTH-CENTURY AMERICA, INCLUDING THE MOVEMENT FROM FARM TO CITY, THE CHANGING IMMIGRATION.
13 th Amendment- Freed the slaves 14 th Amendment- Due Process; everyone equal before the law and entitled to same rights 15 th Amendment- Universal.
OPPOSITION TO SLAVERY By: Susan Gembic. SLAVERY ENDS IN THE NORTH In 1780, Pennsylvania became the first state to pass a law that gradually eliminated.
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Republicans in Charge The Main Idea Republican Reconstruction had significant impact on life in the South. Reading Focus What changes did Republican government.
PresentationExpress. Click a subsection to advance to that particular section. Advance through the slide show using your mouse or the space bar. Religion.
Women’s Rights The legacy of women’s struggle to earn equality in a world turned against them. By Kennedy Dorman.
USHC 2.4: Compare the social and cultural characteristics of the North, the South, and the West during the antebellum period, including the lives of.
Chapter 14: The Age of Reform: Section Two - The Abolitionists 1 Early Efforts to End Slavery, p Lloyd Garrison and Frederick Douglas. - Abolitionists.
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North and South People of the North Chapter 15 Lesson 1.
Segregation in the South Race Relations in Post- Reconstruction America.
Unit 3 Resistance to Slavery Divides the Nation Abolitionists, both black and white, fight against the continuance of slavery. This struggle will ultimately.
Education, Jim Crow, and Women in the Progressive Era Ch 9, Sec 1, 3, 4.
Ch. 8 Sec. 4 Abolitionism in the US. Early Opposition to Slavery The events leading up to the Civil War generally surrounded the idea of abolitionism,
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The US is in a depression due to the Revolutionary War. Economics slow/Trade drops Unemployment increased Money in the government used to pay of foreign.
Education and Equality of Opportunity Chapter3 ©2012 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
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