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The Institution and its Human Impact. Africa had its own slave trade within its Nations Gave “justification” to take African slaves European explorers.

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Presentation on theme: "The Institution and its Human Impact. Africa had its own slave trade within its Nations Gave “justification” to take African slaves European explorers."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Institution and its Human Impact

2 Africa had its own slave trade within its Nations Gave “justification” to take African slaves European explorers noticed skin colour Term “black” in the 16 th Century meant dirty, devil- like, soil, evil, debasement Early theories of their skin colour- burnt by the sun, or that apes evolved into African or bestiality Therefore…. seen as naturally INFERIOR

3 Q: Why is slavery considered to be an institution?

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5 First African slaves brought to Jamestown, Virginia in 1619 (might have been instances of slavery prior to this time in failed colonies) First considered indentured servants Racial slavery happened gradually Many indentured slaves had worked through their terms and were freed – lack of labourers and competition Slavery became necessary to produce lucrative crops, such as tobacco

6 1661 Slavery entered Virginia law – initially directed at indentured servants (white and black) Other colonies legalized slavery throughout the latter part of the 17 th century Slavery practiced throughout American colonies in the 17 th and 18 th century Slavery built the economic foundations of America

7 Many former indentured labourers could not support themselves Lower classes revolt in Jamestown Bacon promised freedom if Blacks joined his cause Outcome Planter class is afraid of their servants Divide lower classes between whites and blacks 1 st Virginia Slave Codes of Separate treatment of white indentured servants and black slaves 2. Black punishment harsher

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9 Africans were forcefully taken from their countries for slavery The voyage to the New World and the Caribbean was long and the slaves were mistreated Amistad What types of atrocities did you witness in this clips? How might the slaves have felt during this voyage?

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12 Africans did not know where they were going Branded with hot irons and restrained with shackles ‘Living quarters’: 5 feet of headroom, little ventilation, no place for waste, disease Voyage took from 1-6 months % died

13 Invention of the Cotton Gin led to the ability to produce cotton in mass quantity – cotton became a lucrative crop and major export of the South More slaves needed due to increased demand Price of slaves increased and price of cotton increased Became inherited and permanent Overtime slavery viewed as essential for Southern plantations (tobacco and cotton)

14 Eli Whitney Cotton Gin

15 1. Household servants Mostly women (young and old) Privileged, but abused and never had time off Catered to whims of white society Suffered a great deal of sexual abuse

16 2. Artisans Most privileged Blacksmiths, masons, carpenters Worked on their own with little supervision Mostly men

17 3. Field Workers Majority of slaves Black women were seen as strong but their quotas were lower Lived in individual or group barracks near the field Slave communities developed

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20 1. Slave Music 2. Folk Tales 3. Gullah 4. Ceremonies 5. Religion

21 Continuation of African tradition STYLE Percussion important Syncopated rhythm (down beats) Call and response FORM OF PROTEST 2 forms (secular and spiritual) Form of spiritual resistance God will punish whites for slavery Music of protest, leads to later forms (rap, jazz)

22 Wade in the water (children) Wade in the water Wade in the water God's gonna trouble the water If you don't believe I've been redeemed God's gonna trouble the water I want you to follow him on down to Jordan stream (I said) My God's gonna trouble the water You know chilly water is dark and cold (I know my) God's gonna trouble the water You know it chills my body but not my soul (I said my) God's gonna trouble the water (Come on let's) wade in the water Wade in the water (children) Wade in the water God's gonna trouble the water Now if you should get there before I do (I know) God's gonna trouble the water Tell all my friends that I'm comin' too (I know) God's gonna trouble the water Sometimes I'm up lord and sometimes I'm down (You know my) God's gonna trouble the water Sometimes I'm level to the ground God's gonna trouble the water (I Know) God's gonna trouble the water Wade in the water (children) Wade out in the water (children) God's gonna trouble the water

23 Used to regulate the pace of their work Used to talk about their overseers, masters and their living/work conditions Call and response used See this website for examples: Caller: Now see that possum he works hard. Chorus: Hoe Emma Hoe, you turn around dig a hole in the ground, Hoe Emma Hoe. Caller: But he cain't work as hard a me. Chorus: Hoe Emma Hoe, you turn around dig a hole in the ground, Hoe Emma Hoe. Caller: He sits a horse just as pretty as can be. Chorus: Hoe Emma Hoe, you turn around dig a hole in the ground, Hoe Emma Hoe. Caller: He can ride on and leave me be. Chorus: Hoe Emma Hoe, you turn around dig a hole in the ground, Hoe Emma Hoe. (Repeat)

24 Songs were passed down through generations orally Stories were as well Themes included weak animals trying to trick stronger animals Teaches children to outwit their oppressor Symbolic of relationships with Whites Ex: Bre’r Rabbit html html What is the significance of these tales?

25 Creation of their own unique language Combination of European and African languages Language was a form of resistance, whites could not understand gullah De buckruh dey duh 'ood duh hunt tuckrey.--"The white man is in the woods hunting turkeys." All two dem 'ooman done fuh smaa't. -- "Both those women are really smart." Enty duh dem shum dey? -- "Aren't they the ones who saw him there?" Dem dey dey duh wait fuh we. -- "They are there waiting for us."

26 Way for slave owners to get slaves to work faster- have a feast Corn-shucking got done quickly Slaves knew they had to do the work anyway, at least they get a reward

27 Slave Religion (mix of African Religion and Christianity) One great god Grouping of lesser gods (like Natives) Reincarnation Slaves added Christianity to their own beliefs

28 Used as psychological resistance Founded own churches (sense of community) Evangelicalism (singing and religion) Rap music today is still connected to religion

29 Moynihan Report (1965)The Negro Family: The Case For National Action Deep roots of black poverty and absence of nuclear families Problems for Nuclear Family under Slavery: 1. family members can be sold at any time 2. if master died, family could be separated 3. finances- if problem sell slave to raise money

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31 Nuclear family Had long marriages (unless separated by force) Why? Resistance- love, self-respect, self-worth Why did masters allow? If married had children = future slaves

32 Masters had ceremonies for slaves “Jumping the Broomstick” African Tradition Often off-plantation marriages (marry slaves from other plantations) WHY?? 1. Not many slaves in same age group 2. Sexual abuse by owners hard on families Fathers maintained a relationship with their children (saw weekly) Threat of separation though was always present

33 Assistance of slave communities in raising children (if family is broken) 1. Symbol of respect for elderly, called elders “uncle” or “aunt” 2. sense of belonging in new slave communities “brother” or “sister” (still used in rap music)

34 Were not passive, they DID resist slavery A few forms…. 1. Day-to-day resistance 2. Runaways 3. Maroon Communities 4. Slave Rebellion

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36 1. Feigning illness- master would not want to push slave 2. Tool breaking- get a day off 3. Feigning ignorance- frustrates master 4. Arson- barns, master’s house 5. Outright violence against master (not common)

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38 1. Hideouts Slave communities watch out for Many temporary runaways Punished by a whipping 2. Permanent freedom young, unattached men Not the norm Relied on Northern abolitionists 1820s North abolished slavery Not fundamental to their economy Fugitive Slave Act- anywhere in US, people returned to owners Underground railroad- to Canada or hideouts up north

39 Florida- Native communities offer sanctuary to slaves Defensive wars

40 1880s Gabriel Presser Richmond, Virginia Set fires to create chaos Starts rebellion but does not get message to many slaves Arrested for treason

41 Wins lottery $1500 and buys himself 1822 Becomes a preacher Spreads word to revolt Never happens, white authorities hear about it

42 Slave preacher Start in Virginia Heads to Florida, idea to kill white people 60 whites killed Caught after several months Less revolts because less organized

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44 Myth = Lincoln the “Great Emancipator” Outbreak of Civil War: slavery the main political issue of the war

45 Fugitive Slave Act- point of tension, people in Union do not want to give slaves back Yankee Leasees: North runs plantations with slaves for the war effort (difference, paid a little) In South, many plantations left without masters (did not work) Some slaves joined the Union Army

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47 1. All slaves in confederate held territory on Jan 1, 1863 will be free 2. Slave owners will be given $1500 for loss of property 3. Tries to get Southern States to come into the Union so they can keep slaves 4. People misinterpret and think that slavery will end, Lincoln’s popularity decreases 5. Blacks volunteer in the Union army 6. Cause becomes tied with freeing of slaves th Amendment prohibits slavery but Yankee Leasees can still exist

48 Sharecropping (very similar to slavery; little freedom)


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