Presentation on theme: "THE MIDDLE PASSAGE -- TRANSPORT TO AMERICA The Middle Passage was one leg of the Triangular Trade & Refers to the transport of slaves. About 10-40 %"— Presentation transcript:
THE MIDDLE PASSAGE -- TRANSPORT TO AMERICA The Middle Passage was one leg of the Triangular Trade & Refers to the transport of slaves. About % died on the trip. Africans had to endure on the slave ship: Heat Crowding Illness No Sanitation
TRANSPORTING TO AND ARRIVING IN AMERICA Mutinies by Slaves did occur. On Arrival: Families were often separated. Sold on the auction block. African slaves were in a foreign culture and did not understand the language. Slave Traders were heavily armed
SLAVERY IN COLONIAL AMERICA Population: By the Mid-1700’s 1 in 5 colonists were African Slaves First Africans in America were Indentured Servants: Their children would be slaves. South Carolina & Georgia: Majority Plantations with 100+ slaves were common Slaves were a minority elsewhere in the colonies
SLAVE LIFE Rice & Indigo Heat & Diseases Little Contact with Whites Preserved Culture Virginia & Maryland Tobacco Artisans & Laborers in towns Encouraged to raise families but... More Contact with Whites South Carolina & Georgia
SLAVE LIFE Middle & New England Colonies Much Fewer slaves House Servants, artisans, ship builders Contributed to Atlantic economy
FREE BLACKS Freeing Slaves Laws discouraged freeing slaves Needed Legislative Permission to free a slave Had to Leave the colony Freedom could sometimes be purchased Treatment Worse conditions than slaves Treated more poorly Limited Rights -- No votes, could not marry whites, or testify vs. whites
LAWS AND PUNISHMENTS Each Colony has own Slave Laws Georgia barred slavery for a short period Movement Restricted -- Passes needed Laws Punishments Whipping Banishment--West Indies Death
REVOLTS AND RESISTANCE Revolts were difficult to organize When you make men slaves, you... compel them to live with you in a state of war. - Olaudah Equiano, former slave Stono Rebellion Several dozen blacks attack and kill whites Burned the land and march towards Florida, and a settlement for runaway slaves. Caught and killed. Usually Resisted by: “Forgetting” or “Not understanding” orders Faking Illness
Slave Resistance 1.“SAMBO” pattern of behavior used as a charade in front of whites [the innocent, laughing black man caricature – bulging eyes, thick lips, big smile, etc.].
Slave Resistance 2.Refusal to work hard. 3.Isolated acts of sabotage. 4.Escape via the Underground Railroad.
Runaway Slave Ads
Quilt Patterns as Secret Messages The Monkey Wrench pattern, on the left, alerted escapees to gather up tools and prepare to flee; the Drunkard Path design, on the right, warned escapees not to follow a straight route.
Slave Rebellions Throughout the Americas
Slave Rebellions in the Antebellum South 1822 Gabriel Prosser 1800
Slave Rebellions in the Antebellum South: Nat Turner, 1831
The Culture of Slavery 1.Black Christianity [Baptists or Methodists]: * more emotional worship services. * negro spirituals. 2.“Pidgin” or Gullah languages. 3.Nuclear family with extended kin links, where possible. 4.Importance of music in their lives. [esp. spirituals].
Southern Pro-Slavery Propaganda
Why did the South become so reliant on cotton? Why didn’t the South become industrialized like the North?