THE MIDDLE PASSAGE -- TRANSPORT TO AMERICA The Middle Passage was one leg of the Triangular Trade & Refers to the transport of slaves. About 10-40 % died on the trip. Africans had to endure on the slave ship: Heat Crowding Illness No Sanitation
TRANSPORTING TO AND ARRIVING IN AMERICA Mutinies by Slaves did occur. On Arrival: Families were often separated. Sold on the auction block. African slaves were in a foreign culture and did not understand the language. Slave Traders were heavily armed
SLAVERY IN COLONIAL AMERICA Population: By the Mid-1700’s 1 in 5 colonists were African Slaves First Africans in America were Indentured Servants: Their children would be slaves. South Carolina & Georgia: Majority Plantations with 100+ slaves were common Slaves were a minority elsewhere in the colonies
SLAVE LIFE Rice & Indigo Heat & Diseases Little Contact with Whites Preserved Culture Virginia & Maryland Tobacco Artisans & Laborers in towns Encouraged to raise families but... More Contact with Whites South Carolina & Georgia
SLAVE LIFE Middle & New England Colonies Much Fewer slaves House Servants, artisans, ship builders Contributed to Atlantic economy
FREE BLACKS Freeing Slaves Laws discouraged freeing slaves Needed Legislative Permission to free a slave Had to Leave the colony Freedom could sometimes be purchased Treatment Worse conditions than slaves Treated more poorly Limited Rights -- No votes, could not marry whites, or testify vs. whites
LAWS AND PUNISHMENTS Each Colony has own Slave Laws Georgia barred slavery for a short period Movement Restricted -- Passes needed Laws Punishments Whipping Banishment--West Indies Death
REVOLTS AND RESISTANCE Revolts were difficult to organize When you make men slaves, you... compel them to live with you in a state of war. - Olaudah Equiano, former slave Stono Rebellion Several dozen blacks attack and kill whites Burned the land and march towards Florida, and a settlement for runaway slaves. Caught and killed. Usually Resisted by: “Forgetting” or “Not understanding” orders Faking Illness
Quilt Patterns as Secret Messages The Monkey Wrench pattern, on the left, alerted escapees to gather up tools and prepare to flee; the Drunkard Path design, on the right, warned escapees not to follow a straight route.
Slave Rebellions in the Antebellum South 1822 Gabriel Prosser 1800
Slave Rebellions in the Antebellum South: Nat Turner, 1831
The Culture of Slavery 1.Black Christianity [Baptists or Methodists]: * more emotional worship services. * negro spirituals. 2.“Pidgin” or Gullah languages. 3.Nuclear family with extended kin links, where possible. 4.Importance of music in their lives. [esp. spirituals].