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Slavery Divides the Nation U.S. History Chapter 16.

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1 Slavery Divides the Nation U.S. History Chapter 16

2 The Missouri Compromise Senator Henry Clay proposed admitting Missouri to the Union as a slave state and Maine as a free state Senator Henry Clay proposed admitting Missouri to the Union as a slave state and Maine as a free state

3 The Missouri Compromise Compromise applied to lands in the Louisiana Purchase; ensured balance of free and slave states for 30 years Compromise applied to lands in the Louisiana Purchase; ensured balance of free and slave states for 30 years

4 Wilmot Proviso Western lands added in 1848 with the Mexican Cession Western lands added in 1848 with the Mexican Cession Congressman David Wilmot called for a law banning slavery in any territories won from Mexico Congressman David Wilmot called for a law banning slavery in any territories won from Mexico

5 Wilmot Proviso Southern leaders opposed the Wilmot Proviso; did NOT want slavery declared illegal in Mexican Cession Southern leaders opposed the Wilmot Proviso; did NOT want slavery declared illegal in Mexican Cession

6 Popular Sovereignty The right of people to create their own government The right of people to create their own government 1849: California voters approved a state constitution banning slavery 1849: California voters approved a state constitution banning slavery

7 Free-Soil Party Members of both the northern Democrat and Whig opposed the spread of slavery Members of both the northern Democrat and Whig opposed the spread of slavery Formed Free-Soil Party to ban slavery in the western territories Formed Free-Soil Party to ban slavery in the western territories

8 Compromise of 1850 Addition of CA to Union in 1850 as free state upset the balance of free and slave states; free states now had advantage Addition of CA to Union in 1850 as free state upset the balance of free and slave states; free states now had advantage

9 Compromise of 1850 Mexican Cession divided into NM and UT territories but did NOT ban slavery there Mexican Cession divided into NM and UT territories but did NOT ban slavery there

10 Compromise of 1850 Ended slave trade in nation’s capital Ended slave trade in nation’s capital Did NOT ban slave trade between slave states Did NOT ban slave trade between slave states Included strict fugitive slave law Included strict fugitive slave law

11 Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 Required all citizens to help catch runaway slaves Required all citizens to help catch runaway slaves Act enraged antislavery northerners who declared that they did not respect nor would they obey this law Act enraged antislavery northerners who declared that they did not respect nor would they obey this law

12 Uncle Tom’s Cabin Novel written to show evils of slavery and injustice in Fugitive Slave Act Novel written to show evils of slavery and injustice in Fugitive Slave Act

13 Uncle Tom’s Cabin Northerners became more opposed to slavery after reading the novel Northerners became more opposed to slavery after reading the novel Novel heightened tensions between North and South Novel heightened tensions between North and South

14 Kansas-Nebraska Act Divided territory into two parts; created two new territories in 1854 Divided territory into two parts; created two new territories in 1854

15 Kansas-Nebraska Act Senator Stephen Douglas: territories would decide slavery issue by popular sovereignty Senator Stephen Douglas: territories would decide slavery issue by popular sovereignty Opponents: “criminal betrayal of precious rights.” Opponents: “criminal betrayal of precious rights.”

16 Crisis Turns Violent Both pro and antislavery forces sent settlers to Kansas to fight for control Both pro and antislavery forces sent settlers to Kansas to fight for control Border Ruffian: proslavery person who rode from Missouri to Kansas to battle antislavery forces Border Ruffian: proslavery person who rode from Missouri to Kansas to battle antislavery forces

17 Bleeding Kansas Rivalry between proslavery and antislavery settlers led to violence in Kansas in 1855 Rivalry between proslavery and antislavery settlers led to violence in Kansas in 1855 Violent debates erupted in the Senate Violent debates erupted in the Senate

18 Abolitionist John Brown Many northerners thought radical abolitionist Brown was a martyr: he was willing to give up his life for his beliefs. Many northerners thought radical abolitionist Brown was a martyr: he was willing to give up his life for his beliefs. Brown inspired other abolitionists; folk song popular with northerners Brown inspired other abolitionists; folk song popular with northerners

19 Dred Scott Case Dred Scott moved with his owner from slave to free territories, but Supreme Court decided he was not a free man Dred Scott moved with his owner from slave to free territories, but Supreme Court decided he was not a free man Supreme Court said Congress did not have power to outlaw slavery in any territory Supreme Court said Congress did not have power to outlaw slavery in any territory

20 Dred Scott Case White southerners were happy that slavery was legal in all territories; reversed Missouri Compromise White southerners were happy that slavery was legal in all territories; reversed Missouri Compromise Supreme Court decision was condemned by free African Americans Supreme Court decision was condemned by free African Americans Abolitionist Frederick Douglass Abolitionist Frederick Douglass

21 Republican Party Emerges Like Free-Soil Party, Republicans main goal was to keep slavery out of western territories Like Free-Soil Party, Republicans main goal was to keep slavery out of western territories Republicans were dissatisfied with weak stand on slavery taken by Whigs and Democrats Republicans were dissatisfied with weak stand on slavery taken by Whigs and Democrats

22 Lincoln-Douglas Debates Lincoln ran against Stephen Douglas for Illinois senator Lincoln ran against Stephen Douglas for Illinois senator Series of debates between Lincoln and Douglas focused primarily on slavery issue Series of debates between Lincoln and Douglas focused primarily on slavery issue

23 Lincoln-Douglas Debates Despite losing to Douglas, Lincoln became nationally known for his antislavery stance Despite losing to Douglas, Lincoln became nationally known for his antislavery stance

24 Election of 1860 Regional attitudes toward slavery led to the election of Lincoln to the Presidency of the United States Regional attitudes toward slavery led to the election of Lincoln to the Presidency of the United States

25 Election of 1860 Southern states seceded in protest, forming the Confederate States of America Southern states seceded in protest, forming the Confederate States of America

26 Civil War Begins Confederate forces fired the first shots of the Civil War at Ft. Sumter in South Carolina Confederate forces fired the first shots of the Civil War at Ft. Sumter in South Carolina Confederate troops attacked the Union troops stationed there Confederate troops attacked the Union troops stationed there

27 Review Question 1. What was the Wilmot Proviso? 1. What was the Wilmot Proviso? A. Divided a territory into two parts B. Declared Congress unable to ban the slave trade between slave states C. Attempted to ban slavery in territories won from Mexico

28 Review Question 1. What was the Wilmot Proviso? 1. What was the Wilmot Proviso? A. Divided a territory into two parts B. Declared Congress unable to ban the slave trade between slave states C. Attempted to ban slavery in territories won from Mexico

29 Review Question 2. Which political party was formed in 1848 for the purpose of banning slavery in western territories? 2. Which political party was formed in 1848 for the purpose of banning slavery in western territories? a. Free-Soil b. Whig c. Republican

30 Review Question 2. Which political party was formed in 1848 for the purpose of banning slavery in western territories? 2. Which political party was formed in 1848 for the purpose of banning slavery in western territories? a. Free-Soil b. Whig c. Republican

31 Review Question 3. Who was a proslavery person who rode from Missouri to Kansas to battle antislavery forces? 3. Who was a proslavery person who rode from Missouri to Kansas to battle antislavery forces? a. Martyr b. Fugitive c. Border Ruffian

32 Review Question 3. Who was a proslavery person who rode from Missouri to Kansas to battle antislavery forces? 3. Who was a proslavery person who rode from Missouri to Kansas to battle antislavery forces? a. Martyr b. Fugitive c. Border Ruffian

33 Review Question 4. What compromise did Henry Clay propose for admitting Missouri to the Union? 4. What compromise did Henry Clay propose for admitting Missouri to the Union? a. Admit Missouri as a free state and Maine as a slave state b. Admit Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state c. Admit Missouri as a free state and allow slavery in all other new states

34 Review Question 4. What compromise did Henry Clay propose for admitting Missouri to the Union? 4. What compromise did Henry Clay propose for admitting Missouri to the Union? a. Admit Missouri as a free state and Maine as a slave state b. Admit Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state c. Admit Missouri as a free state and allow slavery in all other new states

35 Review Question 5. Which of the following is an example of popular sovereignty? 5. Which of the following is an example of popular sovereignty? a. In 1849, CA voters approve a state constitution that bans slavery b. In 1836, AR becomes a slave state because it is south of Missouri c. In 1837, MI becomes a free state because it is north of Missouri

36 Review Question 5. Which of the following is an example of popular sovereignty? 5. Which of the following is an example of popular sovereignty? a. In 1849, CA voters approve a state constitution that bans slavery b. In 1836, AR becomes a slave state because it is south of Missouri c. In 1837, MI becomes a free state because it is north of Missouri

37 Review Question 6. Which statement summarizes the effects of the Missouri Compromise? 6. Which statement summarizes the effects of the Missouri Compromise? a. It triggered a sharp rise in the number of free states shortly after 1848 b. It helped ensure a balance of slave and free states for almost 30 years c. It ensure a decrease in the number of slave states

38 Review Question 6. Which statement summarizes the effects of the Missouri Compromise? 6. Which statement summarizes the effects of the Missouri Compromise? a. It triggered a sharp rise in the number of free states shortly after 1848 b. It helped ensure a balance of slave and free states for almost 30 years c. It ensure a decrease in the number of slave states

39 Review Question 7. Someone who sacrifices his or her own life for beliefs 7. Someone who sacrifices his or her own life for beliefs a. Martyr b. Fugitive c. Border Ruffian

40 Review Question 7. Someone who rode from Missouri to Kansas to battle antislavery forces 7. Someone who rode from Missouri to Kansas to battle antislavery forces a. Martyr b. Fugitive c. Border Ruffian

41 Review Question 8. This divided a territory into two parts. 8. This divided a territory into two parts. a. Compromise of 1850 b. Kansas-Nebraska Act c. Fugitive Slave Act

42 Review Question 8. This divided a territory into two parts. 8. This divided a territory into two parts. a. Compromise of 1850 b. Kansas-Nebraska Act c. Fugitive Slave Act

43 Review Question 9. Which of the following is NOT among the terms of the Compromise of 1850? 9. Which of the following is NOT among the terms of the Compromise of 1850? a. Northerners are required to help return runaway slaves to owners b. Slavery is banned in New Mexico and Utah c. The slave trade is outlawed in Washington, D.C.

44 Review Question 9. Which of the following is NOT among the terms of the Compromise of 1850? 9. Which of the following is NOT among the terms of the Compromise of 1850? a. Northerners are required to help return runaway slaves to owners b. Slavery is banned in New Mexico and Utah c. The slave trade is outlawed in Washington, D.C.

45 Review Question 10. What effect did Uncle Tom’s Cabin have on public opinion? 10. What effect did Uncle Tom’s Cabin have on public opinion? a. Northerners, in general, became more opposed to slavery b. Northerners, in general, became more sympathetic toward slave owners c. Americans, in general, lost interest in the slavery issue

46 Review Question 10. What effect did Uncle Tom’s Cabin have on public opinion? 10. What effect did Uncle Tom’s Cabin have on public opinion? a. Northerners, in general, became more opposed to slavery b. Northerners, in general, became more sympathetic toward slave owners c. Americans, in general, lost interest in the slavery issue

47 Review Question 11. Which of these generalizations BEST describes the effect of Uncle Tom’s Cabin? 11. Which of these generalizations BEST describes the effect of Uncle Tom’s Cabin? a. The novel helped northerners understand why southerners supported slavery b. The novel further heightened tensions between the North and the South c. The novel eased tensions between the North and South

48 Review Question 11. Which of these generalizations BEST describes the effect of Uncle Tom’s Cabin? 11. Which of these generalizations BEST describes the effect of Uncle Tom’s Cabin? a. The novel helped northerners understand why southerners supported slavery b. The novel further heightened tensions between the North and the South c. The novel eased tensions between the North and South

49 Review Question 12. Which of the following can be said of Abraham Lincoln? 12. Which of the following can be said of Abraham Lincoln? a. His support for the Kansas-Nebraska Act made him a Republican leader b. His antislavery speeches won him a following in both the North and the South c. His debates with Stephen Douglas won him fame as an opponent of slavery

50 Review Question 12. Which of the following can be said of Abraham Lincoln? 12. Which of the following can be said of Abraham Lincoln? a. His support for the Kansas-Nebraska Act made him a Republican leader b. His antislavery speeches won him a following in both the North and the South c. His debates with Stephen Douglas won him fame as an opponent of slavery

51 Review Question 13. What effect did Abraham Lincoln’s election in 1860 have on national unity? 13. What effect did Abraham Lincoln’s election in 1860 have on national unity? a. Seven southern states seceded in protest b. It healed the nation’s political divisions c. It caused the South to declare war on the North

52 Review Question 13. What effect did Abraham Lincoln’s election in 1860 have on national unity? 13. What effect did Abraham Lincoln’s election in 1860 have on national unity? a. Seven southern states seceded in protest b. It healed the nation’s political divisions c. It caused the South to declare war on the North

53 Review Question 14. Which of the following is TRUE of Abraham Lincoln? 14. Which of the following is TRUE of Abraham Lincoln? a. He became well known nationally when he ran against Stephen Douglas for President b. He became well known nationally despite losing to Stephen Douglas in the US Senate race c. He was well known nationally before his debates with Stephen Douglas

54 Review Question 14. Which of the following is TRUE of Abraham Lincoln? 14. Which of the following is TRUE of Abraham Lincoln? a. He became well known nationally when he ran against Stephen Douglas for President b. He became well known nationally despite losing to Stephen Douglas in the US Senate race c. He was well known nationally before his debates with Stephen Douglas

55 Review Question 15. Why did conflict arise in 1848 in western territories over the issue of slavery? 15. Why did conflict arise in 1848 in western territories over the issue of slavery? a. Northern congressmen wanted CA to enter the Union as a free state b. Western states wanted to overturn a law that banned slavery c. The legality of slavery had to be decided in lands added from the Mexican Cession

56 Review Question 15. Why did conflict arise in 1848 in western territories over the issue of slavery? 15. Why did conflict arise in 1848 in western territories over the issue of slavery? a. Northern congressmen wanted CA to enter the Union as a free state b. Western states wanted to overturn a law that banned slavery c. The legality of slavery had to be decided in lands added from the Mexican Cession

57 Review Question 16. Debates over which of the following caused violence to erupt on the Senate floor? 16. Debates over which of the following caused violence to erupt on the Senate floor? a. The Missouri Compromise b. The Kansas-Nebraska Act c. The Compromise of 1850

58 Review Question 16. Debates over which of the following caused violence to erupt on the Senate floor? 16. Debates over which of the following caused violence to erupt on the Senate floor? a. The Missouri Compromise b. The Kansas-Nebraska Act c. The Compromise of 1850

59 Review Question 17. What was the goal of the Free Soil Party? 17. What was the goal of the Free Soil Party? a. To extend slavery in the western territories b. To ban slavery in the western territories c. To help runaway slaves reach freedom

60 Review Question 17. What was the goal of the Free Soil Party? 17. What was the goal of the Free Soil Party? a. To extend slavery in the western territories b. To ban slavery in the western territories c. To help runaway slaves reach freedom

61 Review Question 18. How were the goals of the Republican Party and the Free-Soil Party alike? 18. How were the goals of the Republican Party and the Free-Soil Party alike? a. Both wanted to keep slavery out of the western territories b. Both wanted popular sovereignty to decide the slavery question in territories c. Both supported the immediate abolition of slavery throughout the US

62 Review Question 18. How were the goals of the Republican Party and the Free-Soil Party alike? 18. How were the goals of the Republican Party and the Free-Soil Party alike? a. Both wanted to keep slavery out of the western territories b. Both wanted popular sovereignty to decide the slavery question in territories c. Both supported the immediate abolition of slavery throughout the US

63 Review Questions 19. Which of the following led to the formation of the Republican party in the 1850s? 19. Which of the following led to the formation of the Republican party in the 1850s? a. Dissatisfaction with the weak stand on slavery taken by the Whigs and Democrats b. Dissatisfaction with how the Whigs dealt with protective tariffs c. Belief in the need for stronger support for the Fugitive Slave Act

64 Review Questions 19. Which of the following led to the formation of the Republican party in the 1850s? 19. Which of the following led to the formation of the Republican party in the 1850s? a. Dissatisfaction with the weak stand on slavery taken by the Whigs and Democrats b. Dissatisfaction with how the Whigs dealt with protective tariffs c. Belief in the need for stronger support for the Fugitive Slave Act

65 Review Questions 20. To what area did the Missouri Compromise apply? 20. To what area did the Missouri Compromise apply? a. Lands from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean b. Lands east of Missouri to the Atlantic Ocean c. Lands in the Louisiana Purchase

66 Review Questions 20. To what area did the Missouri Compromise apply? 20. To what area did the Missouri Compromise apply? a. Lands from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean b. Lands east of Missouri to the Atlantic Ocean c. Lands in the Louisiana Purchase

67 Review Questions 21. What declared that Congress unable to ban the slave trade between slave states 21. What declared that Congress unable to ban the slave trade between slave states a. Wilmot Proviso b. Compromise of 1850 c. Fugitive Slave Act

68 Review Questions 21. What declared that Congress unable to ban the slave trade between slave states 21. What declared that Congress unable to ban the slave trade between slave states a. Wilmot Proviso b. Compromise of 1850 c. Fugitive Slave Act

69 Review Questions 22. What led to violence in Kansas in 1855? 22. What led to violence in Kansas in 1855? a. The repeal of the Compromise of 1850 b. The election of Abraham Lincoln as President c. The rivalry between proslavery and antislavery settlers

70 Review Questions 22. What led to violence in Kansas in 1855? 22. What led to violence in Kansas in 1855? a. The repeal of the Compromise of 1850 b. The election of Abraham Lincoln as President c. The rivalry between proslavery and antislavery settlers

71 Review Questions 23. Which of the following statements correctly describes the issue that led to the Compromise of 1850? 23. Which of the following statements correctly describes the issue that led to the Compromise of 1850? a. Admitting TX to the Union in 1850 gave slave states an advantage that could not be reversed b. Admitting CA to the Union in 1850 extended slavery into a territory acquired from Mexico c. Admitting CA to the Union in 1850 gave free states an advantage over slave states

72 Review Questions 23. Which of the following statements correctly describes the issue that led to the Compromise of 1850? 23. Which of the following statements correctly describes the issue that led to the Compromise of 1850? a. Admitting TX to the Union in 1850 gave slave states an advantage that could not be reversed b. Admitting CA to the Union in 1850 extended slavery into a territory acquired from Mexico c. Admitting CA to the Union in 1850 gave free states an advantage over slave states

73 Review Questions 24. Which statement best expresses the reaction of many northerners to the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850? 24. Which statement best expresses the reaction of many northerners to the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850? a. “We don’t respect this law, and we won’t obey it.” b. “We disagree with this law, even though it dons not affect us directly.” c. “This law justly protects the rights of property owners.”

74 Review Questions 24. Which statement best expresses the reaction of many northerners to the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850? 24. Which statement best expresses the reaction of many northerners to the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850? a. “We don’t respect this law, and we won’t obey it.” b. “We disagree with this law, even though it dons not affect us directly.” c. “This law justly protects the rights of property owners.”

75 Review Question 25. How did the ruling on the Dred Scott case affect the slavery debate? 25. How did the ruling on the Dred Scott case affect the slavery debate? a. It reversed the Missouri Compromise b. It temporarily united antislavery and proslavery forces c. It protected the right of a freed slave to file a lawsuit

76 Review Question 25. How did the ruling on the Dred Scott case affect the slavery debate? 25. How did the ruling on the Dred Scott case affect the slavery debate? a. It reversed the Missouri Compromise b. It temporarily united antislavery and proslavery forces c. It protected the right of a freed slave to file a lawsuit

77 Review Question 26. What was one effect of the Dred Scott decision? 26. What was one effect of the Dred Scott decision? a. It was condemned by free African Americans b. It led to violence in the Kansas territory c. It angered people who supported slavery

78 Review Question 26. What was one effect of the Dred Scott decision? 26. What was one effect of the Dred Scott decision? a. It was condemned by free African Americans b. It led to violence in the Kansas territory c. It angered people who supported slavery

79 Review Question 27. How did Southerners react to Abraham Lincoln’s election? 27. How did Southerners react to Abraham Lincoln’s election? NC and SC seceded, followed by VA NC and SC seceded, followed by VA a. Southern leaders called for a new presidential election b. Seven southern states seceded and formed the Confederate States of America

80 Review Question 27. How did Southerners react to Abraham Lincoln’s election? 27. How did Southerners react to Abraham Lincoln’s election? NC and SC seceded, followed by VA NC and SC seceded, followed by VA a. Southern leaders called for a new presidential election b. Seven southern states seceded and formed the Confederate States of America

81 Review Question 28. Which statement summarizes the results of the presidential election of 1860? 28. Which statement summarizes the results of the presidential election of 1860? a. National unity led to a landslide victory for the Republican candidate b. Regional attitudes toward slavery decided the outcome c. Moderate voters who wanted a compromise on slavery determined the winner

82 Review Question 28. Which statement summarizes the results of the presidential election of 1860? 28. Which statement summarizes the results of the presidential election of 1860? a. National unity led to a landslide victory for the Republican candidate b. Regional attitudes toward slavery decided the outcome c. Moderate voters who wanted a compromise on slavery determined the winner

83 Review Question 29. What two new territories were created in 1854? 29. What two new territories were created in 1854? a. Oregon and Washington b. Kansas and Nebraska c. New Mexico and Utah

84 Review Question 29. What two new territories were created in 1854? 29. What two new territories were created in 1854? a. Oregon and Washington b. Kansas and Nebraska c. New Mexico and Utah

85 Review Question 30. John Brown inspired 30. John Brown inspired a. Enslaved people b. Other abolitionists c. Border Ruffians

86 Review Question 30. John Brown inspired 30. John Brown inspired a. Enslaved people b. Other abolitionists c. Border Ruffians

87 Review Question 31. How did the Civil War begin? 31. How did the Civil War begin? a. Confederate troops attacked federal forts off the coast of Florida b. Union troops attacked Confederate forts off the coast of Florida c. Confederate troops attacked Union troops stationed at Fort Sumter, SC

88 Review Question 31. How did the Civil War begin? 31. How did the Civil War begin? a. Confederate troops attacked federal forts off the coast of Florida b. Union troops attacked Confederate forts off the coast of Florida c. Confederate troops attacked Union troops stationed at Fort Sumter, SC

89 Good Luck on Your Test!


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