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©2006 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers 1660-1715 CREATED EQUAL JONES WOOD MAY BORSTELMANN RUIZ CHAPTER 4 African Enslavement: The Terrible Transformation
©2006 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers “to live in ease and plenty by the toil of those whom violence and cruelty have put in our power” was clearly not “consistent with Christianity or common justice.” John Woolman, Some Considerations on the Keeping of Negroes, 1754
©2006 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers TIMELINE 1619Dutch warship brings 20 African men and women to Virginia 1625Brazil major importer of slaves 1640Virginia’s General Court sentences John Punch to servitude for the rest of his life 1652Rhode Island passes law limiting all involuntary service to no more than 10 years 1662Virginia law makes slavery hereditary 1664Maryland law regarding religion and slaves, making slavery race-based. 1665The Great Plague in Europe 1672 The Royal African Company chartered 1676Bacon’s Rebellion 1691Virginia law outlawing interracial marriages
©2006 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers TIMELINE 1712New York City Revolt 1713England contracts to deliver Africans to Spanish colonies 1723Virginia statues prevent free people of color from voting, unfair taxes, and outlaws their holding firearms 1731New Orleans slave plots 1733Savannah, Georgia established by Oglethorpe 1739Stono Rebellion 1741New York Slave Plot 1750 Blacks make up 60% of South Carolina’s population Georgia permits slavery 1754 Georgia becomes a royal colony
©2006 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers THE TERRIBLE TRANSFORMATION Overview HThe Descent into Race Slavery HThe Growth of Slave Labor Camps HEngland Enters the Atlantic Slave Trade HSurvival in a Strange New Land HThe Transformation Completed
©2006 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers THE DESCENT INTO RACE SLAVERY HThe Caribbean Precedent HOminous Beginnings HAlternative Sources of Labor HThe Fateful Transition
©2006 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers The Caribbean Precedent HNative population declined through epidemics and slave trade expanded HGold in Mexico and Peru HAsiento (contract allowed slave imports to Spanish colonies) HPortuguese purchased Africans for sugar plantations in Brazil HChristian dilemma of slave trade resolved by considering Africans infidels
©2006 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers Ominous Beginnings H1619: Dutch brought 20 African men and women to Virginia. H1640: African sentenced to unending servitude “for the time of his natural life” and a law passes prohibiting blacks from bearing arms.
©2006 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers Alternative Sources of Labor HCaptured Native Americans HSuccumb to epidemics HIntegral player in deerskin trade HWilderness diplomacy undermined HConflicts on the frontier Impoverished Europeans Kidnapping outlawed Indentured servants and “freedom dues” “Feedback loop” enabling prospective immigrants to know of mistreatments
©2006 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers The Fateful Transition H1662: Virginia accorded slave status based on whether the mother is free or enslaved (slavery inherited). H1664: Maryland law changed consideration of slavery from religious status to skin color.
©2006 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers THE GROWTH OF SLAVE LABOR CAMPS HBlack involvement in Bacon’s Rebellion HThe Rise of a Slaveholding Tidewater Elite HClosing the Vicious Circle in the Chesapeake
©2006 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers Black Involvement in Bacon’s Rebellion HChesapeake region in 1676 HFreed, indentured servants in search of land backed Bacon’s Rebellion HSlaves also recruited with the promise of liberty from Bacon
©2006 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers The Rise of a Slaveholding Tidewater Elite HDivide and Conquer HImprove the poor whites’ conditions and reduce the legal status of Africans HLonger lives make freed indentured servants competitors to plantation owners; slaves work lasted a lifetime HPlantation owners reap large profits
©2006 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers Closing the Vicious Circle in the Chesapeake HExpanded slave-trading made slaves available and affordable HLand bonus to anyone who purchased an African arrival H1691: Virginia banned interracial marriage H1705: Virginia’s Negro Act
©2006 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers ENGLAND ENTERS THE ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE HTrade Ties Between Europe and Africa HThe Slave Trade on the African Coast HThe Middle Passage Experience HSaltwater Slaves Arrive in America
©2006 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers HRegions of the African Slave Trade in 1700
©2006 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers Trade Ties Between Europe and Africa HPortuguese trading posts on African’s west coast HAfricans traded in gold and ivory for European textiles and alcohol HAfricans also traveled to Europe to gain knowledge of European languages, ideas, and religion. HAniaga of Guinea
©2006 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers The Slave Trade on the African Coast HSugar production in America spurred more slave trading on the African coast. Local servants bartered and/or war captives traded. HBy 1670s, 15,000 people traded into slavery per year. HCongo-Angola supplied 4.5 million Africans to slave trade during the entire life of slave trading.
©2006 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers The Middle Passage Experience HThe 5 stages HCapture and deportation HSale and imprisonment HThe Middle Passage: crossing the Atlantic HThe selling process HTime of seasoning
©2006 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers Saltwater Slaves Arrive in America H“Saltwater slaves” HNewly arrived slaves from Africa, as opposed to “country-born slaves” HTime of seasoning HTime to heal from voyage, begin learning a new language HAdapt to strange foods, environment, and to their forced bondage
©2006 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers SURVIVAL IN A STRANGE NEW LAND HAfrican Rice Growers in South Carolina HPatterns of Resistance HA Wave of Rebellion
©2006 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers HEnslaved People Living in North America in 1750: Distribution by Colony, Percentage of Total Population
©2006 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers African Rice Growers in South Carolina HSouth Carolina: the highest proportion of slaves. A black majority and a white minority. HSullivan’s Island’s quarantine reduced epidemics. HSouth Carolina closer to Africa and Caribbean HSubtropical climate favorable to African crop of rice. First used by slaves for their own food, it enriched the plantation owners as export to England (for rice pudding) and European countries as cheap grain for soldiers, orphans, and peasants.
©2006 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers Patterns of Resistance HRunning away, burning the harvest, killing masters and overseers HNew York Slave Revolt of 1712
©2006 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers A Wave of Rebellion H1731: New Orleans slave plots H1739: Stono River uprising near Charleston H1740: Charleston slave plot and great fire H1741: New York City slave plot
©2006 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers THE TRANSFORMATION COMPLETED HUncertain Voices of Dissent HIs This Consistent “with Christianity or Common Justice”? HOglethorpe’s Antislavery Experiment HThe End of Equality in Georgia
©2006 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers Uncertain Voices of Dissent HRestriction of manumissions (grants of individual freedom by masters) in Virginia H1723: additional statutes prevented free people of color from voting, taxed them unfairly, and prevent them from owning or carrying firearms HThe North became economically and legally committed to slavery making it difficult for blacks to gain their freedom. H1700: Judge Samuel Sewell, The Selling of Joseph H1706: Cotton Mather, The Negro Christianized
©2006 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers Is This Consistent “with Christianity or Common Justice”? HThomas Bray H1701: established the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts (SPG) HChristian Priber H1735: attempted to establish a multiracial “Paradise” in southern Appalachia H1743: arrested and brought to jail, but died before trial HJohn Woolman HQuaker who questioned fellow Quakers on their purchasing of slaves H1754: Some Considerations on the Keeping of Negroes
©2006 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers Oglethorpe’s Antislavery Experiment H1733: Governor James Oglethorpe and 114 settlers established Savannah in Georgia. H1735: Law enacted that prohibited slavery and excluded free blacks from the colony. HOglethorpe impressed with the fighting he encountered from ex-slaves proclaims: embittered slaves “ would be either Recruits to an Enemy or Plunder for them.” H1785: Oglethorpe dies opposing the slave trade.
©2006 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers The End of Equality in Georgia H1742: Spain invaded Georgia HBattle of Bloody Marsh on St. Simon’s Island HMalcontents in Savannah and merchants pushed for the legalization of slavery to overcome Georgia’s hardships (climate, poor soil, restrictive land policies, lack of representative government) H1750: Trustees allowed acreage to be bought and sold freely HJanuary, 1, 1751: slavery permitted in Georgia H1754: Georgia became a royal colony
©2006 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers HEnglish-Spanish Competition and the Expansion of Slavery into Georgia
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