2The Atlantic Slave Trade Main IdeaBetween the 1500s and the 1800s millions of Africans were captured, shipped across the Atlantic Ocean, and sold as slaves in the Americas.Reading FocusWhere did the Atlantic slave trade originate?How did slavery evolve in the American colonies?What were the consequences of the slave trade?
3Origins of the Slave Trade Slavery has existed in many parts of the worldPeople forced into slavery came from different walks of lifeFarmers, merchants, priests, soldiers, or musicians; fathers and mothers, sons and daughters.Shortage of labor in Americas led to beginning of Atlantic slave tradeEuropean planters needed workers on sugar, tobacco plantationsBeginningsPlanters first used Native Americans; European diseases killed millions1600s, used indentured servantsExpensive to support workersNative AmericansMillions forcibly taken to AmericasMost from coast of West AfricaSome exchanged for firearms, goodsOthers kidnapped on raids by tradersAfrican Slaves
4Captured Africans became part of network called the triangular trade Trade NetworkCaptured Africans became part of network called the triangular tradeFirst leg of triangle, ships carrying European goods to Africa to be exchanged for slavesSecond leg, Middle Passage, brought Africans to Americas to be soldThird leg carried American products to EuropeSome slave traders from Americas sailed directly to Africa, not following triangular route
6Middle Passage Ordeal Horrific Conditions Middle Passage, terrifying ordealCaptive Africans chained together, forced into dark, cramped quarters below ship’s decksCould neither sit nor standJourney lasted three to six weeks, ten to twenty percent did not surviveOrdealOlaudah Equiano wrote about conditions on slave ship:“The stench of the hold…was so intolerably loathsome, that it was dangerous to remain there for any time…“The shrieks of the women, and the groans of the dying, rendered the whole scene of horror almost inconceivable.”Horrific Conditions
7Slavery in the Colonies Slave traders carried captive Africans throughout the AmericasSpanish—Caribbean sugar plantations; Portuguese—Brazil; English—West Indies but also to colonies in North America.England dominated the slave trade by end of 1600sMost slaves worked on plantationsOthers worked in mines, in towns, in the countrysideSkilled craft workers—carpenters, metalworkers, coopers—continued crafts in AmericasWomen given domestic dutiesJobsSlaves had to meet own basic needs at end of workdayCooking, mending, tending the sick fitted in around work for slaveholderLiving conditions harshPhysical, degrading punishment inflicted for minor offensesLiving ConditionsMany slaveholders lived in constant fear of rebellion by angry slaves who could no longer take harsh treatment they faced on plantations.
8PropertyLaws in Americas considered enslaved Africans to be propertySlaves had no rights, freedomsSlaveholders controlled most conditions under which they livedOften enslaved people endured brutal treatment, abuseResistanceSlaves coped with inhumane conditions many different waysSome resisted by trying to keep cultural traditions aliveOthers turned to religion for strength, hopeSome fought back by slowing work, destroying equipment, revoltingSome able to flee, establish communities of runaways
9Effects of the Slave Trade 400 years of Atlantic slave tradeDevastated West African societiesEstimates of 15 to 20 million Africans shipped to Americas against willMillions more sent to Europe, Asia, Middle EastHuman cost enormousCountless died in transitMillions deprived of freedomDescendants doomed to lives of forced servitudeCost of Slave TradeEffects profound in AfricaSlave raiders captured strongest young—future leaders of societiesDivided Africans one from another—some rulers waged wars to gain captivesForced labor of millions of Africans did not enrich AfricaEffect on Africa
10Economies Spread of Culture Forced labor of Africans did enrich other parts of worldLabor of African slaves built economies of many American coloniesTheir knowledge of agriculture contributed to growth of rice industry in southern English coloniesSpread of CultureAs result of slave trade, people of African descent spread throughout Americas, Western EuropeSpread called African DiasporaEventually led to spread of African culture—music, art, religion, food—throughout the Western World
11What effects did the Atlantic slave trade have in Africa? ExplainWhat effects did the Atlantic slave trade have in Africa?Answer(s): took away future leaders; divided Africans from one another