4In what way did the trans-Saharan slave trade differ from that of the Atlantic slave trade? A) The Atlantic slave trade was carried out almost exclusively by Muslims.B) The trans-Saharan slave trade was carried out in much greater volume than the Atlantic slave trade.C) The trans-Saharan slave trade concentrated on women, but the Atlantic slave trade concentrated on young men.D) The African preference for retaining young male slaves to extend kinship lines implied that primarily women were available to the Atlantic trade, while men converted to Islam were more likely trade objects for the trans-Saharan trade.E) The trans-Saharan slave trade was much more arduous and cruel than the trans-Atlantic trade.
5And the answer isC) The trans-Saharan slave trade concentrated on women, but the Atlantic slave trade concentrated on young men.
6What was the demographic impact of the slave trade on Africa? A) The slave trade exported millions, but the loss was made up as a result of the natural prolificacy of the Africans.B) Population in Africa seems to actually have grown, despite the number of men, women, and children exported to the Americas.C) The slave trade had the impact of skewing the population of central Africa in favor of a disproportional number of women.D) As a result of the slave trade, the population of Africa was only one-third of what it would have been without the export of men and women.E) The African population grew as kingdoms had more slaves.
7And the answer isC) The slave trade had the impact of skewing the population of central Africa in favor of a disproportional number of women.
8How did the British organize the shipment of slaves to the Americas? A) In Britain, unlike elsewhere, the slave trade was carried out by uncontrolled private venture.B) In Britain, the chartered Royal African Company was granted a monopoly over the shipment of slaves to colonies in the Americas.C) The British refused to participate in the slave trade and attempted to intercept shipments of slaves to the Americas beginning in the 1660s.D) The British government directly participated in the slave trade through use of the Royal Navy.E) All merchant marine ships were used for this purpose.
9And the answer isB) In Britain, the chartered Royal African Company was granted a monopoly over the shipment of slaves to colonies in the Americas
10What was the political impact of the presence of Europeans on the African coast? A) States were more likely to form in the savanna regions of Africa.B) Strong centralized states began to form on the coastline in close proximity to the European trade forts.C) West and central African kingdoms just inland from the forts began to redirect their trade and expand their influence.D) State formation in Africa took place on the Indian Ocean coast away from the trade routes established by the Europeans.E) Europeans immediately divided up the entire continent.
11And the answer isC) West and central African kingdoms just inland from the forts began to redirect their trade and expand their influence.
12In what way did the European slave trade enable centralizing states to expand more rapidly? A) Slaves were traded for firearms that allowed expanding states to overpower their neighbors, resulting in more slaves.B) The Europeans rapidly created military alliances and added their armies to those of their slave-trading allies.C) The European slave trade weakened the states of central and western Africa, allowing the centralizing states of eastern Africa to expand without competition.D) The slave trade was restricted to the coasts, leaving the political units of interior Africa free of European interference.E) All slaves were shipped from a central location.
13And the answer isA) Slaves were traded for firearms that allowed expanding states to overpower their neighbors, resulting in more slaves.
14What area of Africa was least affected by the slave trade? A) the savanna and the SudanB) southern AfricaC) central and west AfricaD) east AfricaE) West Africa
20Which of the following statements concerning the political philosophy of the Enlightenment is most accurate?A) Enlightenment philosophers were creatures of the monarchs who were their patrons and supported the powers of the kings.B) Although the Enlightenment philosophers were generally opposed to the authority of the Church, they argued that only monarchy could insure stability for the masses.C) Enlightenment thinkers challenged regimes that did not grant full religious freedom or that insisted on aristocratic privilege.D) Enlightenment intellectuals were the firmest supporters of the Church left in European culture.E) Enlightenment figures supported the national regimes unconditionally.
21And the answer isC) Enlightenment thinkers challenged regimes that did not grant full religious freedom or that insisted on aristocratic privilege.
22In what year did the American colonies set up a new constitutional structure based on Enlightenment principles?A) 1776B) 1781C) 1783D) 1789E) 1785
24Which of the following was NOT a cause of the French Revolution? A) Enlightenment thinkers urging the need to limit the powers of the Catholic Church and the aristocracyB) the Church seeking greater power over the royal governmentC) the middle class demand for greater political representationD) the peasant desire for freedom from manorialismE) the rising power of the peasants
25And the answer isB) the Church seeking greater power over the royal government
28Which of the following was a lasting reform passed during the initial, moderate phase of the French Revolution?A) universal male suffrageB) the introduction of ProtestantismC) peasants were freed from all traces of manorialismD) universal military conscriptionE) private education
29And the answer isC) peasants were freed from all traces of manorialism
30On July 14 in the first year of the French Revolution, the storming of what political prison provided a revolutionary symbol?A) TuileriesB) Place des VosgesC) MontpamasseD) BastilleE) Orangerie
36Which of the following statements concerning the peace conference at Vienna following the fall of France is most accurate?A) The allies intended to punish France severely in order to make certain that no further revolution was possible.B) Territorial adjustments reached at Vienna kept Europe fairly stable for almost half a century.C) Successful restoration of conservative monarchies and promotion of internal peace was achieved for a century.D) Poland emerged as one of the winners in the territorial realignments that followed the wars.E) The old Holy Roman Empire was virtually untouched.
37And the answer isB) Territorial adjustments reached at Vienna kept Europe fairly stable for almost half a century.
38Which political group listed below would espouse the following statement? “The political goals of greatest significance are the establishment of constitutional rule and the extension of the parliamentary franchise to propertied men of the middle class.”A) radicalsB) socialistsC) liberalsD) conservativesE) royalists
40Which political group listed below would espouse the following statement? “As long as property is controlled by private individuals, inequality will exist. It is the role of the state to manage property for the benefit of all citizens.”A) radicalsB) socialistsC) liberalsD) conservativesE) royalists
44Which of the following was NOT a cause of the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain?A) natural resourcesB) strong capital reserves from previous tradeC) faith in human progress and in human ability to dominate natureD) the absence of population pressure capable of siphoning off profitsE) the existence of a large peasant class
45And the answer isD) the absence of population pressure capable of siphoning off profits
46What was the contribution of American inventors to the Industrial Revolution? A) the invention of the steam engine used in the factory systemB) the creation of the first railway systemC) the construction of the first steel factory using the “puddling” systemD) the creation of a production system of interchangeable partsE) the inventor of the water wheel
47And the answer isD) the creation of a production system of interchangeable parts
48Middle class women, traditionally active partners to merchants,: A) continued to provide substantial expertise in the direction of business.B) gained new roles in accounting and banking.C) withdrew from formal jobs to new roles in caring for children and the home.D) entered the work force in increasing numbers.E) became merchants themselves.
49And the answer isC) withdrew from formal jobs to new roles in caring for children and the home.
50After industrialization a demographic transition occurred to a new system that promoted stable population levels through:A) government-sponsored family planning.B) legal sanctions against illegitimate births.C) low birth and death rates.D) increased mortality due to industrial accidents and environmental pollution.E) better nutrition.
52Louis Pasteur was responsible for the: A) development of the telegraph.B) discovery of germs.C) creation of the first French department store.D) invention of the birth control pill.E) invention of automobiles.
54As industrialization spread peasants in Europe improved their conditions by all of the following means EXCEPT:A) forming unions.B) organizing cooperatives.C) specializing in new cash crops.D) seeking more education.E) acquiring new technical skills.
56Which of the following statements concerning conservative political strategies after 1850 is most accurate?A) With the destruction of the liberal movement, conservatives felt free to restore the aristocratic bias of absolute monarchy.B) Conservatives began to ally more closely with socialists in order to offset the political advantages gained by liberals during the revolutions of 1848.C) Conservatives ceased to play any role in the political framework of Europe after 1850.D) Conservatives strove to develop a new political consensus with liberals that would grant the appearance of constitutional reform but retain aristocratic privilege.E) Conservatives allied themselves with the middle class to stop the rise of workers.
57And the answer isD) Conservatives strove to develop a new political consensus with liberals that would grant the appearance of constitutional reform but retain aristocratic privilege.
58Who was responsible for managing the unification of Italy? A) Benito MussoliniB) Count Camillo di CavourC) Georgio GaspariD) Giovanni VillaniE) Antonio Gramsci
62Which of the following statements could NOT be attributed to the political philosophy of Karl Marx? A) Earlier socialist theories based on utopian schemes were silly and unrealistic.B) In the aftermath of the victory of the proletariat, the state would emerge permanently as a powerful dictatorship.C) History was shaped by the available means of production and who controlled them.D) Revolution of the proletariat against the bourgeoisie was inevitable.E) History is a struggle between owners and laborers.
63And the answer isB) In the aftermath of the victory of the proletariat, the state would emerge permanently as a powerful dictatorship.
64In what nation did socialism produce the strongest political party? A) BritainB) the United StatesC) FranceD) GermanyE) Austria
72Balkan nationalism initially exacerbated deteriorating relationships between what two powers with interests in the region?A) Britain and FranceB) Germany and ItalyC) Russia and Austria-HungaryD) France and RussiaE) Turkey and Greece
74Which of the following was NOT an aspect of imperialism in the period following European industrialization?A) the search for markets for European manufactured productsB) the absence of Christian missionsC) the establishment of European colonies in the interior of Africa and AsiaD) the search for raw materials to feed the machines of EuropeE) the need to find profitable investments for excess capital
75And the answer isB) the absence of Christian missions
76By what time did the shift from pre-industrial to industrial imperialism clearly take place? A) the beginning of the eighteenth centuryB) the middle of the eighteenth centuryC) the beginning of the nineteenth centuryD) the middle of the nineteenth centuryE) the beginning of the twentieth century
77And the answer isD) the middle of the nineteenth century
78Which of the following statements concerning the management of colonial enterprises by the Dutch and British East India Companies is most accurate?A) The directors of the companies were little interested in the acquisition of colonial territories.B) The directors of the companies made precise plans for the expansion of company administrative control over the governments of indigenous peoples.C) The companies were granted monopolies by governments with the clear expectation that they would conquer new territories for their respective nations.D) The companies were mere figureheads for the active and direct intervention of European nations in the affairs of Asian peoples.E) The companies worked in partnership with indigenous industries.
79And the answer isA) The directors of the companies were little interested in the acquisition of colonial territories.
80Which of the following was the earliest example of a European empire built as a result of independent initiative of company agents?A) JavaB) SiamC) IndiaD) LibyaE) Macao
82In what way was the British East India Company’s intrusion into India similar to the Dutch entry into Java?A) the conversion of the Indian elite to ChristianityB) the use of mercenaries recruited from among indigenous peoplesC) the British removal of all local rulers in the eighteenth centuryD) the direct intervention of the British governmentE) effective naval operations
83And the answer isB) the use of mercenaries recruited from among indigenous peoples
84In which of the following ways was the British experience in India different than that of the Dutch in Java?A) the lack of involvement of the British East India CompanyB) the absence of intervention in local squabbles and succession disputes in IndiaC) the failure to use indigenous peoples in recruited armiesD) the existence of a global imperial rivalry with the FrenchE) the support of the British government
85And the answer isD) the existence of a global imperial rivalry with the French
86The territories controlled by the British East India Company expanded concurrently with the collapse of the:A) Safavid dominions.B) Mughal Empire.C) Mauryan territories.D) Raj.E) Maghreb.
88Which of the following was NOT a handicap faced by the Indian princes in defending their kingdoms from the British?A) the lack of a sense of national identity in IndiaB) the willingness of Indians to serve in the British armiesC) the continued warfare among the Indian princesD) the success of the British in winning many converts to ChristianityE) strength of the British military
89And the answer isD) the success of the British in winning many converts to Christianity
90Which of the following statements concerning European interaction with indigenous peoples prior to is most accurate?A) Social taboos effectively prevented any social interaction between Europeans and indigenous peoples.B) As most of the Europeans were male, social interaction was limited to sexual exploitation of females in brothels or as slaves.C) Mixed marriages between European males and indigenous females became widely accepted, particularly in Java.D) Both European males and females intermarried with indigenous peoples on a common basis.E) In all cases few interactions took place.
91And the answer isC) Mixed marriages between European males and indigenous females became widely accepted, particularly in Java.
92Jeremy Bentham and James Mill were leaders of what philosophical movement that supported social reform in the colonies?A) SophismB) Scientific PositivismC) Social DarwinismD) UtilitarianismE) Pragmatism
98Which of the following statements most accurately describes the European strategy with respect to the government of tropical dependencies?A) The Europeans exploited longstanding ethnic and cultural divisions between indigenous peoples.B) European colonialism depended on wholesale conversions to Christianity.C) In many cases, the Europeans utilized their military superiority to carry out genocide against African and Asian peoples.D) Colonial rulers tended to favor Muslims at the expense of other minorities in African and Asian colonies because of the level of education of Muslim peoples.E) They were de facto independent nations.
99And the answer isA) The Europeans exploited longstanding ethnic and cultural divisions between indigenous peoples.
100Hawaii was effectively opened to the West through the voyages of: A) Magellan.B) Captain James Cook.C) Henry Hudson.D) Admiral Farragut.E) Francis Drake.
102Why were the Portuguese unwilling to exchange bullion for products within the Asian commercial system?A) The doctrine of mercantilism equated possession of bullion with power and argued against negative trade balances.B) They had none.C) There was little merchandise that the Portuguese considered of value in the Asian trade network.D) All of Portuguese bullion was exchanged for slaves in the African commercial system.E) They were sending bullion to England to pay for weapons.
103And the answer isA) The doctrine of mercantilism equated possession of bullion with power and argued against negative trade balances.
104Why did the Portuguese believe they could successfully enter the Asian sea trading by force? A) The Asian empires lacked navies.B) There was little military force in any of the Muslim or Asian empires.C) The Portuguese realized that their armies were more numerous than those of the Asian opponents.D) The Portuguese had fewer ships, but they were more maneuverable and better armed than those of their Asian opponents.E) The European trade zones were easily dominated by force.
105And the answer isD) The Portuguese had fewer ships, but they were more maneuverable and better armed than those of their Asian opponents.
106The Portuguese won a major sea battle over a combined fleet of Egyptian and Indian vessels in at:A) Malacca.B) Diu.C) Samarkand.D) Batavia.E) Jidda.
112How successful was the Portuguese monopoly on Asian products? A) For some decades they were able to maintain a complete monopoly over Asian products shipped to Europe.B) Though they managed to monopolize some spices grown in limited locales, the Portuguese lacked the manpower and ships to sustain a monopoly.C) The Portuguese were unable to achieve control over any Asian products due to competition from the Chinese commercial navy.D) The Portuguese monopoly was rigidly enforced over Asian products for almost two centuries.E) Other European trade powers were frozen out of the market.
113And the answer isB) Though they managed to monopolize some spices grown in limited locales, the Portuguese lacked the manpower and ships to sustain a monopoly.
114Who succeeded the Portuguese as the most successful European entrant into the Asian sea trading network?A) EnglandB) ItalyC) SpainD) HollandE) Germany
118How did the Dutch commercial strategy within the Asian trade network differ from that of the Portuguese?A) The Dutch lacked a substantial navy, and could not use warships to maintain their commercial advantage.B) The Dutch did not make use of fortified towns and factories.C) The Dutch were more systematic in their monopoly control of a limited number of specific spices.D) The Dutch were more humane in their treatment of island peoples who cultivated the spices.E) The Dutch were more interested in establishing permanent settlements.
119And the answer isC) The Dutch were more systematic in their monopoly control of a limited number of specific spices.
120In what way did the Dutch and English participation within the Asian sea trading network change by the middle decades of the seventeenth century?A) For both the Dutch and the English, peaceful commerce came to be more profitable than forcible control and monopolies were aimed at European rather than Asian rivals.B) Both northern European nations abandoned the commerce in spices in favor of cotton and silk textiles.C) Unlike the Portuguese arid Spanish, the northern European nations undertook wholesale conversion to Protestantism of the inhabitants of the spice islands.D) As allies, the Dutch and English were able to establish a naval supremacy in Asia sufficient to monopolize all trade within the Asian sea trading network.E) Military expansion enabled greater commercial control.
121And the answer isA) For both the Dutch and the English, peaceful commerce came to be more profitable than forcible control and monopolies were aimed at European rather than Asian rivals.
122What treaty in 1757 reduced the Javanese princes to vassals of the Dutch East India Company? A) Treaty of LuzonB) Treaty of SuhartaC) Treaty of GijantiD) Treaty of SuhongE) Treaty of Nanking
126Among which of the following groups did Roman Catholic missionaries enjoy some success? A) the animists of the southern PhilippinesB) Hindu brahmansC) the ChineseD) outcaste groups in Indian coastal regionsE) Buddhists
127And the answer isD) outcaste groups in Indian coastal regions
128What Jesuit missionary was responsible for creating the strategy of converting Hindu elites as a means of achieving mass conversions?A) Francis XavierB) Robert di NobiliC) Matteo RicciD) Adam SchallE) Padre Kino
130In what sense was the Spanish conversion of the Filipinos similar to their experience in the Americas?A) All Christian tenets were taught in the language of the indigenous peoples.B) Filipino conversion to Christianity was predicated on political equality with the Spanish conquerors.C) Like the Amerindians, the Filipinos’ brand of Christianity represented a creative blend of earlier beliefs and practices with Christianity.D) Few Filipinos were converted to Christianity.E) Filipinos were easily converted to Protestant faiths.
131And the answer isC) Like the Amerindians, the Filipinos’ brand of Christianity represented a creative blend of earlier beliefs and practices with Christianity.
132Which of the following was NOT a European contribution to the Asian sea trading network? A) the addition of new routes, including the link to Europe around the Cape of Good HopeB) the introduction of sea warfare into the Asian trade networkC) the establishment of new trading centers such as Goa, Calcutta, and BataviaD) the establishment of an exchange of new crops and diseases similar to the “Columbian Exchange” with the AmericasE) A global flow of silver
133And the answer isD) the establishment of an exchange of new crops and diseases similar to the “Columbian Exchange” with the Americas
134The first Ming emperor of China was: A) Yunglo.B) Hongwu.C) Kangxi.D) Zhenghe.E) Chong Zhao.
136Which of the following reforms was NOT introduced by the first Ming emperor? A) The position of the scholar-gentry within the bureaucracy was restored.B) State subsidies for imperial academies and regional colleges were re-instituted.C) Family influence in the selection of men to the Chinese bureaucracy was eliminated.D) The civil service examination system was reinstated.E) The position of chief minister was abolished.
137And the answer isC) Family influence in the selection of men to the Chinese bureaucracy was eliminated.
138Which of the following was a reform instituted by the first Ming emperor to reduce court factionalism and the power of the scholar-gentry?A) A chief minister was appointed from the royal family to oversee all work of the imperial bureaucracy.B) Corrupt or incompetent members of the bureaucracy were punished by being beaten on the bare buttocks.C) Imperial wives could only come from specified noble families of good repute.D) Eunuchs were expelled from the royal household.E) Exams were more complex.
139And the answer isB) Corrupt or incompetent members of the bureaucracy were punished by being beaten on the bare buttocks.
140Which of the following statements concerning Ming reforms in favor of the peasantry is most accurate?A) The early Ming emperors were completely uninterested in the plight of the peasantry.B) The first Ming emperor attempted to increase the forced labor demands on the peasantry in order to restore the Chinese economy following the expulsion of the Mongols.C) Despite some attempts to improve economic conditions for the peasantry, the growing power of the rural landlords led to increased tenancy and landless laborers.D) The Ming reforms resulted in a reduction in the authority of the local landlords and the establishment of small farming operations throughout China.E) Peasants were made exempt from all taxation.
141And the answer isC) Despite some attempts to improve economic conditions for the peasantry, the growing power of the rural landlords led to increased tenancy and landless laborers.
142Which of the following statements concerning Ming social organization is most accurate? A) The adoption of more Buddhist beliefs began to break down the strict patterns of deference that had been customary in Han and Song China.B) Occupational alternatives for women of all social levels dramatically expanded during the Ming era.C) Among the groups granted almost total freedom from the bonds of social status were the students seeking entry into the scholar-gentry.D) Under the continued influence of neo-Confucian ideology, Ming society remained rigidly stratified with emphasis on deference of youth to elders and women to men.E) Social roles were more flexible than before.
143And the answer isD) Under the continued influence of neo- Confucian ideology, Ming society remained rigidly stratified with emphasis on deference of youth to elders and women to men.
144Which of the following reasons is at least in part responsible for the peopling of the Yangtze region in the southern part of China during the Ming era?A) the introduction of crops from the Americas that could be cultivated on inferior soils that did not require irrigationB) the enforced migration of remaining Mongols within the Chinese population to the region of the YangtzeC) the abandonment of rice and millet cultivation in the region in favor of wheat introduced by Portuguese merchantsD) the opening of the region to settlement from Siam and VietnamE) the Song left the area open and neglected
145And the answer isA) the introduction of crops from the Americas that could be cultivated on inferior soils that did not require irrigation
146Where were foreigners permitted to do business in China during the Ming era? A) at any portB) only at the Ming capital at BeijingC) at Macao and CantonD) nowhereE) at Hong Kong
148Which of the following statements concerning the Ming economy is most accurate? A) Merchants failed to realize profits from the Ming commercial boom.B) Almost all commercial profits were reinvested in trade.C) The Chinese government did not tax trade, thus did not profit from commercial growth.D) Much merchant wealth was invested in land as a means of social advancement.E) European markets became increasingly important.
149And the answer isD) Much merchant wealth was invested in land as a means of social advancement.
150In terms of literature, what was the chief accomplishment of the Ming era? A) poetryB) narrative historyC) the novelD) haikuE) Journalism
154Why did the Chinese abandon the commercial voyages of the Zhenghe expeditions? A) Many of the ships were lost as a result of poor ship design and inadequate sailing technology.B) The size of the fleets was so limited that they could not compete with the greater capacity of the European voyages.C) There was little of value for the Chinese to import in trade, and the voyages were expensive to carry out.D) The trade with foreign regions produced a negative balance of trade for China that drained bullion from imperial coffers.E) Chinese commerce was not competitive enough.
155And the answer isC) There was little of value for the Chinese to import in trade, and the voyages were expensive to carry out.
156In what way did the Jesuit missionaries maintain their positions at the court of the Ming emperors? A) by converting Yunglo to ChristianityB) by maintaining a small but powerful European army in the Chinese capitalC) by accepting the support of the scholar-gentryD) by demonstrating knowledge of scientific and technological skillsE) by becoming eunuchs
157And the answer isD) by demonstrating knowledge of scientific and technological skills
158What group successfully asserted its control over China following the collapse of the Ming dynasty? A) the MongolsB) the Hsiung-nuC) the Jurchens or ManchusD) the PortugueseE) the Uighurs
166Why did the earliest of the Japanese military centralizers accept Christian missionaries? A) His wife was a Christian who was able to exert her influence throughout his household.B) The Portuguese supplied a large army to rulers who offered to accept Christianity.C) Christianity was seen as a counterforce to the Buddhist orders that opposed the imposition of central rule.D) Prior to his first military victory, Nobunaga saw a cross in the sky.E) He was intimidated by the military might of the Portuguese.
167And the answer isC) Christianity was seen as a counterforce to the Buddhist orders that opposed the imposition of central rule.
168Which of the following was NOT a policy imposed as a result of Japanese isolation in the seventeenth century?A) Christianity was banned and Christians were persecuted.B) Foreign traders were confined to the island of Deshima in Nagasaki Bay.C) Neo-Confucian philosophy gave way to the influence of thinkers who championed the school of “National Learning”.D) The Japanese elite abandoned all contact with Western learning and technological advance.E) Western books were banned.
169And the answer isD) The Japanese elite abandoned all contact with Western learning and technological advance.
170Which of the following statements concerning the political philosophy of the Enlightenment is most accurate?A) Enlightenment philosophers were creatures of the monarchs who were their patrons and supported the powers of the kings.B) Although the Enlightenment philosophers were generally opposed to the authority of the Church, they argued that only monarchy could insure stability for the masses.C) Enlightenment thinkers challenged regimes that did not grant full religious freedom or that insisted on aristocratic privilege.D) Enlightenment intellectuals were the firmest supporters of the Church left in European culture.E) Enlightenment figures supported the national regimes unconditionally.
171And the answer isC) Enlightenment thinkers challenged regimes that did not grant full religious freedom or that insisted on aristocratic privilege.
172Which of the following statements is most accurate? A) Western Europe experienced a huge population jump after about 1730.B) Western Europe’s population was devastated by a series of wars and epidemics at the beginning of the eighteenth century.C) Poverty and poor nutrition led to a stagnation of the European population until 1840.D) The most significant factor in the movement of population in the eighteenth century was the increased mortality among children leading to fewer survivors.E) Women’s labor became more important to the economy.
173And the answer isA) Western Europe experienced a huge population jump after about 1730.
174Above all, population pressure in the eighteenth century A) led to wholesale replacement of officeholders among the elite.B) drove many people into the working-class proletariat.C) led the business classes to reduce the number of children in their families.D) caused the middle classes to reduce risk-taking.E) eased from the fourteenth century forward.
175And the answer isB) drove many people into the working-class proletariat.
176Proto-industrialization refers to: A) the strictly agricultural economy that preceded the Industrial Revolution.B) the development of the rural factory system.C) the employment of laborers who worked at home but in a capitalist system dependent on urban merchants.D) the development of systems of transportation and communication necessary for full industrialization.E) early industries which were partly mechanized
177And the answer isC) the employment of laborers who worked at home but in a capitalist system dependent on urban merchants.
178) Population upheaval and the spread of a propertyless working class working for money led to which of the following developments?A) an increase in the authority of the male heads of householdsB) a general acceptance of authority, whether domestic or politicalC) a decline in the percentage of illegitimate birthsD) the adoption of more urban styles of dressE) lower levels of education
179And the answer isD) the adoption of more urban styles of dress
180Which of the following was NOT a cause of the American Revolution? A) Britain’s attempts to impose new taxes and trade controls after 1763B) a desire to overthrow the older colonial leadershipC) the British invasion of the Mississippi River ValleyD) restriction on free movement into the frontier areasE) trade restrictions on colonial industries.
181And the answer isC) the British invasion of the Mississippi River Valley
182In what year did the American colonies set up a new constitutional structure based on Enlightenment principles?A) 1776B) 1781C) 1783D) 1789E) 1785