Presentation on theme: "Racism in the 1920s The Nadir of Race Relations: 1890-1940."— Presentation transcript:
Racism in the 1920s The Nadir of Race Relations:
Learning Targets I can explain what caused race relations to change from s.I can explain what caused race relations to change from s. I can describe the ways in which racism manifested itself in everyday society.I can describe the ways in which racism manifested itself in everyday society.
Race Relations: This was the BEST TIME EVER for race relations in the U.S. (pre-1960s Civil Rights Movement). Segregation was illegal in all states. Civil rights laws were passed and enforced. – –13 th amendment (Banning slavery) – –14 th amendment (Citizenship rights) – –15 th amendment (Voting rights) – –Civil Rights Act of 1866 – –Ku Klux Klan Act of Black Congressmen were elected Ah, remember the good times?
Why did race relations change for the worse?
#1. Republicans were changing. Radical Republicans of Civil War era were retiring.Radical Republicans of Civil War era were retiring. New Republicans were less interested in civil rights.New Republicans were less interested in civil rights. –Younger Republicans didn’t live through Civil War. –More interested in winning white votes. –Were called “n***** lovers” by Democrats, so they backed off civil rights.
#2. Supreme Court undermines civil rights. In 1890, Mississippi revised its constitution to ban Blacks from voting.In 1890, Mississippi revised its constitution to ban Blacks from voting. –Supreme Court upheld it, so other states followed suit. Plessy vs. Ferguson (1896)Plessy vs. Ferguson (1896) –Homer Plessy was Black and White. –Arrested for sitting in the “White section” of a train. –The court ruled that segregation was okay. “Separate but equal”“Separate but equal” –One judge voted in favor of Plessy…
But in view of the Constitution, in the eye of the law, there is in this country no superior, dominant, ruling class of citizens. There is no caste here. Our Constitution is color-blind, and neither knows nor tolerates classes among citizens. In respect of civil rights, all citizens are equal before the law. John Marshall Harlan
#3. Conservative Democrats control politics. In 1892 Democrats gained control of the presidency and both houses of Congress for the first time since the Civil War.In 1892 Democrats gained control of the presidency and both houses of Congress for the first time since the Civil War. –Blacks were denied voting, so fewer Republicans elected By 1894 they repealed most laws that had been enacted during Reconstruction.By 1894 they repealed most laws that had been enacted during Reconstruction. Pres. Grover Cleveland
(#3. Conservative Democrats control politics.) Woodrow Wilson’s Role Segregated the federal government –“–“–“–“Segregation is not humiliating but a benefit, and ought to be so regarded by you gentlemen.” Endorsed Birth of a Nation (movie on white supremacy) –“–“–“–“It is like writing history with lightning. And my only regret is that it is all so terribly true.” Encouraged the rebirth of the Ku Klux Klan.
#4. Social Factors in 1890s Indian Wars: Took Native American land because they were a “savage race” Imperialism: Took over other nations because they were “savage races” Because of this Americans thought it would be okay to treat Blacks poorly, too! Immigrants: European immigrants distanced themselves from Blacks (had anti-Black politics)
How did racism manifest itself in everyday society? [manifest: to make evident or certain by showing or displaying]
Race Relations in the 1920s WORST TIME EVER for race relations since the abolition of slavery! Sundown towns Segregation Jim Crow laws Lynching and race riots ZERO Black Congress members from 1900 – 1930s. –M–M–M–Means Blacks weren’t voting, and had no representation
Rebirth of the KKK In 1915, the KKK was “reborn” and became a powerful hate group. –B–B–B–By the 1920s, 1 in 8 people were members! KKK dominated many state governments. –H–H–H–Headquarters was in Indianapolis, IN. Klan was now focused not only on Blacks, but Communists, immigrants, Catholics, Jews, and urban intellectuals.
KKK March in DC 1925
Athletic Segregation Who was the first Black baseball player in the major leagues?Who was the first Black baseball player in the major leagues? –Moses Fleetwood Walker (1884) –Major leagues were officially all-White by 1903.
Blackface Minstrel Shows
Changing the meaning of Uncle Tom’s Cabin to make it seem like a big joke. We saw this reflected in the 1930s history book, remember? While this is going on…. THIS is going on in the background.
Terms of Disrespect Referred to Blacks as “Uncle” or “Aunt” instead of “Sir” or “Ma’am” (disrespect).Referred to Blacks as “Uncle” or “Aunt” instead of “Sir” or “Ma’am” (disrespect). Character in Minstrel Shows! Since 1890 Since 1943
Stereotypes in Cream of Wheat Named him “Rastus” which was a derogatory term and minstrel character.Named him “Rastus” which was a derogatory term and minstrel character. Perpetuated negative stereotypes.Perpetuated negative stereotypes. Advertisement from 1921
He was a homeless tenant farmer who asked a white woman for food. (1935)
Disney Cartoons Fantasia 1940 Centaur scene shows slave tending to white centaurs Scene has been cut from Fantasia’s DVD release Should old cartoons be censored?
Disney Cartoons Song of the South 1946 About a happy slave, Uncle Remus, telling stories (Zip- a-dee-do-dah) Use of stereotyped “Black dialect” in cartoon stories Actor James Baskett wasn’t allowed at the world premiere because of segregation Hasn’t been released on video/DVD due to content Zip-A-Dee-Doo-Dah Zip-A-Dee-A My oh my, what a wonderful day Plenty of sunshine heading my way Zip-A-Dee-Doo-Dah Zip-A-Dee-A Mister bluebird on my shoulder It's the truth It's actual Everything is satisfactual Zip-A-Dee-Doo-Dah Zip-A-Dee-A Wonderful feeling Wonderful day
Disney Cartoons Dumbo 1941 White men speaking “Black dialect” Minstrel show dancing One crow is named Jim Crow in script/credits
Learning Targets I can explain what caused race relations to change from s. I can describe the ways in which racism manifested itself in everyday society.