EACH COUNTRY HAS ITS OWN CUSTOMS AND TRADITIONS OF CELEBRATING hALLOWEEN
ENGLAND SCOTLAND IRELAND THE USA CANADA AUSTRALIA RUSSIA
THE CELEBRATION All Saints' Day (All Hallows Day) became fixed on November 1, 835, and All Souls' Day on November 2, circa 998. On All Souls' Eve, families stayed up late, and little "soul cakes" were eaten by everyone. The English Reformation in the 16th century de-emphasised holidays like All Hallows Day and its associated eve. With the rise of Guy Fawkes Night celebrations in 17th century England, many Halloween practices, especially the building of bonfires, were moved to November In Scotland, folklore including that of Halloween, revolves around the ancient Celtic belief in faeries Sidhe” or “Sith” in modern Gaelic. Children who ventured out carried a traditional lantern (samhnag) with a devil face carved into it, to frighten away the evil spirits. Such Halloween lanterns were made from a turnip or “Neep” in “Lowland scots”, with a candle lit from a hollow inside. The autumn festival is pre- christian Celtic in origin, and is known in Scottish Gaelic as Oidhche Shamhna the “End of Summer” ENGLAND and SCOTLAND
IRELAND One old custom associated with the Western Isles was to put two large nuts in the hearth of a peat fire. These were supposed to represent yourself and your intended spouse. If the nuts curled together when they warmed up then this was deemed to be a good omen, but if they jumped apart then it was time to look for another sweetheart.
Halloween did not become a holiday in the United States until the 19th century, where lingering Puritan tradition restricted the observance of many holidays. American almanacs of the late 18th and early 19th centuries do not include Halloween in their lists of holidays. The transatlantic migration of nearly two million Irish following the Irish Potato Famine (1845-1849) finally brought the holiday to the United States. Scottish emigration from the British Isles, primarily to Canada before 1870 and to the United States thereafter, brought the Scottish version of the holiday to each country. Halloween has recently gained a large amount of recognition in Australia In 2006, costume shops reported a rise in sales on Halloween-themed costumes, on October 31, 2006 and have reported a steady increase on Octobter 31, 2007. On Halloween night, horror films and horror- themed TV episodes are traditionally aired, and currently, Halloween private parties are more commonly held than actual "trick-or- treating", however both are still observed. Trick or treating is generally only done in the trick-or-treater's neighbourhood. THE USA CANADA AUSTRALIA
RUSSIA In our country we don’t officially celebrate this holiday, but during our lessons of English, we organize “Halloween parties” in costumes. We are also making “trick or treat”, because that’s great fun!!!
THAS’S THE WAY HOW HALLOWEEN CELEBRATING MUDDY’S COCTAIL OF HELL …
WRITTEN BY GACHKAEVA NASTYA DOROFEEVA RITA 7 “A”