7 Background Information HalloweenHalloween is celebrated annually. It is on the night of 31 October, when people once believedthat ghosts could be seen. Now, inBritain and America, it is a time whenchildren have parties, dress up as witches, princess, make pumpkin lanterns from which the inside has been removed, and play ‘trick and treat’.
8 Trick or treatTrick or treat is a traditional activity at Halloween. Children dress in costumes and visit houses. At each house, they say trick or treat . This means that they will play a trick, or joke, on the people in the house unless they are given a ‘treat’, e.g. sweets or money. Most people prefer to give treats rather than having tricks played on them.
9 The American tradition of "trick-or-treating" probably dates back to the early All Souls' Day parades in England. During the festivities, poor citizens would beg for food and families would give them pastries called "soul cakes" in return for their promise to pray for the family's dead relatives.The distribution of soul cakes was encouraged by the church as a way to replace the ancient practice of leaving food and wine for roaming spirits. The practice, which was referred to as "going a-souling" was eventually taken up by children who would visit the houses in their neighborhood and be given ale, food, and money.
10 The tradition of dressing in costume for Halloween has both European and Celtic roots. Hundreds of years ago, winter was an uncertain and frightening time. Food supplies often ran low and, for the many people afraid of the dark, the short days of winter were full of constant worry. On Halloween, when it was believed that ghosts came back to the earthly world, people thought that they would encounter ghosts if they left their homes. To avoid being recognized by these ghosts, people would wear masks when they left their homes after dark so that the ghosts would mistake them for fellow spirits. On Halloween, to keep ghosts away from their houses, people would place bowls of food outside their homes to appease the ghosts and prevent them from attempting to enter.
11 Words to learn1. be lost in/ lose oneself in: be fully occupied with; be absorbed in… Examples: ☆ He was lost in the movie. ★ My son lost himself in playing computer games.
12 2. available: be able to be used, had or reached Examples: ◇ Are there any rooms available for tonight? ◇ We have used up all the available space. 3. might/may (just) as well: had better If you say that you might just as well do sth., you will do it although you do not have a strong desire to do it and may even feel slightly reluctant about it. ◇ You may as well know the truth.
13 CP: may well do sth. : have reason to do sth. be liable to do sth CP: may well do sth.: have reason to do sth. be liable to do sth. ◇ You may well say so. ◇ It may well rain tonight. 4. not much of a + N: not a good ◇ He is not much of a father, but he is a famous teacher.
14 5. correspondence: the act of writing, receiving or sending letters( a can be used but not s) ◇ a long correspondence with a friend letters (UN) ◇ Any further correspondence should be sent to my new address. More: correspond: communicate by exchange of letters ◇ They had corresponded for years before they finally met.
15 Phrase: correspond with sb. (exchange letters with sb Phrase: correspond with sb. (exchange letters with sb.) ■correspond: to be in agreement or conformity; match ◇ his actions do not correspond with his words. ■correspond: to be similar ◇ The US congress corresponds to the British Parliament.
16 ■correspondent: ＊a person who communicates by letters ＊a person who works for a newspaper, television network etc. to gather and report news from a distant place ■corresponding: equivalent, matching
17 6. urge: try to persuade ＊ urge sb. to do sth 6. urge: try to persuade ＊ urge sb. to do sth. ＊ urge that (subjunctive mood) More: ＊ ask; prefer; require; arrange; propose etc. urgent: ＊It is urgent that (subjunctive mood) ＊imperative; important; advisable; essential
18 Part 1 ( L1—L42)Main idea: From a conversation with the cab driver the author learned how much he regretted failing to keep up correspondence with his old friend Ed.reach for sth.Ex: --- Reading it will make you want to reach for your pen.Phrases:reach for sth….reach out for sth.reach out…hold out…stretch out
19 keep upI don’t think any of us keep up our correspondence too well.→ keep up sth.: maintain a required pace or level;---- He could not keep up and dropped out of the race.→ lengthen or extend in duration or space :---- We sustained the diplomatic negotiations as long as possible.---- keep up the good work→ keep informed:---- He kept up on his country's foreign policies.
20 → prevent from going to bed at night ---- The anticipation of the trip kept the children up allnight.---- I kept myself up all night studying for the exam.→ keep doing→ keep on doing sth.It is no fun ( painful) to lose a friend.
21 Part 2 ( L L87)Main idea: Reading the letter by himself, the author learned more about the lifelong friendship between the driver and Old Ed.It had references to( referred to ) things that probablymeant something to the driver.→ mean something to sb. : be important to sb.→ mean nothing to sb.: be unimportant to sb.
22 Part 3 (L 88—L89)Main idea: The driver’s experience urged theauthor to reach for his pen.
24 PartsLinesMain IdeasPart One1~42From a conversation with the cab driver the author learned how much he regretted failing to keep up correspondence with his old friend Ed.Part Two43~87Reading the letter by himself, the author learned more about the lifelong friendship between the driver and Old Ed.Part Three88~89The driver’s experience urged the author to reach for his pen.
30 Listening Comprehension Difficult words and phrases:interview, jealous, forgive, fault, mood, an essential part, fulfilling, tremendous satisfaction, male and female, spiritually
31 In Mr. Brooks’ opinion, friendship is __________________________________ .He thinks “ A friend in need is a friend indeed” is _____true. A real friend should be able to share your _________ without feeling _________ . A good friendship is one where one accepts and forgives __________ , and understands_________ . _________is an essential part of any relationship. According to Mr. Brooks, family life is _____________ without friends even if it is fulfilled. He and his wife get tremendous____________ from their friends. After all, real friendship, in his opinion, is a spiritually _________ experience.one of the most important things in lifepartlyhappy momentsjealousfaultsmoodsHonestynot enoughsatisfactiondeveloping
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