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PSY 190: General Psychology

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1 PSY 190: General Psychology
Chapter 12: Emotion, Stress, & Health

2 Theories of Emotion James-Lange Theory (James, 1890)
Cannon-Bard Theory (early 1900s) Schachter-Singer’s Two-Factor Theory (1962) Dutton & Aron: Transferred Excitation Theory (1974)

3 James-Lange Theory (James, 1890)
According to this theory, people experience emotion based on observations of their own physical behavior and peripheral responses We basically check our body responses to determine our emotions We feel sorry because we cried… We feel afraid because we are trembling… The feeling follows the response and is caused by the response The smile made me happy…

4 Criticism of James-Lange Theory
A single physiological state change may actually be correlated with a number of different emotions For example, increased HR can signal several things

5 Cannon-Bard Theory Physiological arousal and our experience of emotion occur simultaneously Stimulus is perceived at both a physiological and the subjective level

6 Cannon-Bard Theory These researchers felt that body arousal and the experience of emotion occur simultaneously Your heart starts pounding at the same time you experience the fear But one does not cause the other

7 Schachter-Singer’s Two-Factor Theory (1962)
The intensity level of our body responses determines the intensity of the emotion but doesn’t tell us which emotion we are experiencing We must use cognitive processes to determine and label which emotion it is More awareness here than in James Lange theory This interpretation involves reflecting back on the situation the physiological response is coming from Thus, giving a cognitive appraisal so we can determine the emotion

8 Schachter-Singer’s Two-Factor Theory (1962)
Procedure Gave injections to participants Deception used in several ways

9 Schachter-Singer’s Two-Factor Theory (1962)
DV: Social Referencing; Cognitive Appraisal IV1: Type of Injection (epinephrine or saline IV2: Information (correct, misinformation, or no) IV3: Type of confederate (euphoric or angry) Results?

10 Dutton & Aron (1974): Transferred Excitation Theory (“Spillover Effect”)
Capilano Canyon Study Males reaction to “Gloria” “Scantily clad attractive female”

11 Low Bridge 10 feet above water Sturdy

12 High Bridge 230 feet above ground 5 feet wide Dangerous when windy Very unstable: sways Often closed One death last summer

13 Dutton & Aron (1974) Participants Experimental “Lab” Method
Males Ages 18-35 Experimental “Lab” Capilano Canyon Method Procedures: Men approached by experimenter Asked to invent short story from TAT picture Encouraged to call experimenter for results

14 Results Considering this Transferred Excitation Theory what would you predict the results to be?

15 Detecting Emotion Facial Expressions
These are considered to be universal in nature by most psychologist

16 Can you tell if someone is giving you a “false smile”?
Ekman & Friesen (1982) Participants were not successful in uncovering differences between felt and false smiles

17 Facial Expressions Ekman & O’Sullivan (1991)
When most people are shown videotapes and asked to judge who is lying, they do little better than chance College students, psychiatrists, court judges, police officers, and federal polygraphers were all right around 50% U.S. Secret Service agents did a little better (64%)

18 How good are you at detecting a lie?
Liars often give themselves away by facial expressions or changes in vocal pitch But most people do no better than 50/50 at lie detecting, that is, they are right only about half the time Studies have show that even moms aren’t better than the general population

19 Paul Ekman From the findings of several studies, this researcher has proposed that there are two reasons why most people are such poor judges of lying Few people obtain corrective feedback about the accuracy of their judgments about who is lying and who is truthful People rely too much on what people say and ignore the discrepancies between the expressive behaviors and what is said

20 But with practice… Ekman, O’Sullivan, and Frank (1999)
This follow-up study found higher success rates But the individuals in the next two groups really belong to a special population whose jobs depend on this… CIA agents spotted liars 73% of the time Street-smart interrogators spotted liars 67% of the time Additionally, clinical psychologists involved in lying research spotted liars 68% of the time

21 The Effects of Facial Expressions: The Facial Feedback Effect
Strack, Martin & Stepper (1988) Group 1: Gently hold a pen between your teeth, making sure it doesn’t touch your lips (induces a smile) Group 2: Grip the end of the pen firmly with your lips, making sure it doesn’t dip downward (activates a frowning muscle) Group 3: Control group was told to hold the pen in their hands Results?

22 Emotional Intelligence
Mayer & Salovey (1995) Emotional Intelligence The ability to perceive, imagine, and understand emotions and to use that information in making decisions Perceiving Emotions Reasoning With Emotion Understanding Emotion Managing Emotions Researchers suggest that EQ may be more important to success in life than IQ

23 Fear & Anxiety Fear Anxiety Response to imminent danger
Measured by self-reports Anxiety A vague sense that something bad might happen Measured by self-reports and by an increase in the startle reflex

24 Detecting Emotion: Lie Detection
Polygraph (“the lie detector”) Once employed in both law enforcement work and national security matters Mostly used in attempts to screen new employees for honesty or to uncover employee theft Does not literally detect lies… It measures several of the physiological responses that accompany emotions including HR, BP, and electrical conduction of the skin (perspiration)

25 The Typical Procedure First of all, the examiner tries to convince the individual that the instrument is highly accurate A lie in itself ??? Once he/she feels the individual is relaxed (another problem?) several control questions are asked These are designed to make anyone a little nervous In the last 10 years have you ever taken something that didn’t belong to you Many tell a “white lie” here and often the polygraph picks up on this with slight physiological changes Then the critical questions are asked: Did you steal that laptop from your professor’s office last week???

26 The Typical Procedure Analysis:
If the subject’s physiological reactions to the critical questions are stronger than the control questions, then the examiner can infer that they are lying on the critical questions The assumption is that only a thief would become agitated when denying the theft

27 Do lie detectors lie? Szucko (1984)

28 Positive Psychology Social psychologists often refer to happiness as “subjective well-being” (SWB)

29 “Can’t buy happiness” Increase in income does not lead to increase in subjective well being Most people define themselves as being happy or not happy, regardless of their material wealth

30 Are we more likely to help someone if we are in a happy mood or a bad mood?
Two studies address how mood is related to prosocial behavior: Feel-Good, Do-Good Phenomenon The Broken Camera Study

31 Feel-Good, Do-Good Phenomenon
Salovey (1990) When we feel happy we are more willing to help others… Finding money, succeeding on a challenging task, recalling a happy event made people more likely to give money, pick up someone's dropped papers, volunteer time, and so forth

32 Bad Moods and Helping When negative moods make us more likely to help others: If we take responsibility for what caused our bad mood (i.e., feel guilty)

33 Cunningham et al. (1980)

34 Stress, Health, & Coping Health Psychology
The application of psychology to the promotion of physical health and the prevention and treatment of illness Modification of one’s lifestyle, outlook, and behavior can lessen risk of such things as heart disease, cancer, strokes, accidents, AIDS, etc.

35 Stress The demand made on an organism to adapt, cope, or adjust
A common, everyday event Most common source of stress arises from the daily hassles that irritate us “Microstressors” place a constant strain on us The accumulation of daily hassles contributes more to illness than do major life events

36 Dormitory Life Baum & Valins (1977)
These researchers compared two layouts of dormitory in university residences One was based on a long corridor design, with 17 rooms opening off a single corridor, whereas the other was a suite of three rooms opening off a communal area The total space per student was about the same in the two designs and the facilities were similar, but student s in the long corridor style residence complained more about being crowded and about having to avoid unwanted social contact They withdrew from social contact even when they were away from the residence See diagram, next slide 

37 Dormitory Life Baum & Valins (1977) Karlin et al. (1979)
Traditional dorms appear to be more stressful than newer suite style  Karlin et al. (1979) Students who are accommodated 3 to a room intended for 2 suffer less contentment and lower grades

38 They demolished this traditional dormitory
In one case, a 26 floor, 1,300 student residence, Sander Hall, was demolished at the University of Cincinnati in 1991 because of persistent problems of violence and vandalism 

39 Watch your Blood Pressure…
Evans (1979) Procedure Compared ten person groups of people Some were in rooms 20 x 30 feet, while others were in rooms 8 by 12 feet Results The people packed into small offices (usually with cubicles) had higher pulse rates and blood pressure

40 Significant Life Changes
Can be distress or eustress Both negative and positive life changes can lead to Adjustment Disorder Click on picture to take Holmes & Rahe Stress Test

41 How Does Stress Affect the Body?
Selye (1976) His General Adaptation Syndrome model illustrates the effects of stress Selye felt that the body’s adaptive response to stress was very general – like a burglar alarm that would sound off no matter what intruded His model has three overlapping stages - alarm, resistance, and exhaustion See next slide 

42 The General Adaptation Syndrome (Selye, 1976)

43 Heart Disease Due to narrowing or blocking of the coronary arteries
Angina pectoris Painful cramp in chest, arm, neck, or back due to brief blockage of oxygenated blood to the heart More often during exercise, stress, cold temperature, digesting large fat meal Little or no permanent damage

44 Heart Disease Risk Factors
High blood pressure Family history Unhealthy patterns of consumption: Cigarette smoking, alcohol misuse, overeating High cholesterol levels Physical inactivity Job strain

45 Heart Disease: Specific Types of Personalities
Friedman & Rosenman (1959) Summarized years of research to come up with the much publicized Type A and Type B personalities See next slides 

46 Type A Has a chronic sense of time urgency Has quick and abrupt speech
Rushed and hurried, this person is always "on edge" Has quick and abrupt speech Often interrupting others Is very competitive Even in noncompetitive situations Is a hard-driving, achievement-oriented, and status-conscious person More likely to become hostile and aggressive

47 Type B This person has an easier-going lifestyle
Is much more able to sit back and relax Less competitive More understanding and forgiving Enjoy leisure and weekends more

48 Some Differences… The most important difference is that Type A men are 2-3 times more likely to suffer angina, heart attacks, or sudden death than type B men Type A smoke more, sleep less, drink more coffee, walk faster, work later, even drink less milk, etc.

49 Situational difference as well…
Interestingly, in relaxed situations, HR, BP, hormonal secretions, etc. are very similar… But when harassed…watch out… Given a difficult challenge, threatened with loss of freedom or control we see big differences… Type A’s are much more physiologically reactive as HR, BP, hormonal secretions, etc. -- SOAR! Type B’s remain at moderate levels Williams (1989) Subjects asked to do simple math problems Type A’s stress-hormone levels rose to more than double the Type B’s

50 Coping Strategies Problem-focused coping Emotion-focused coping

51 Problem-Focused Coping -Focused Coping
In dealing with essential tasks, it is better to confront and control than to avoid Sex difference: M > F SES: Low SES use this less than do people with higher educations and more income

52 Problem-Focused Copingges
Assessment Identify the sources and effects of stress Goal Setting List the stressors and stress responses to be addressed Designate which stressors are and are not changeable Planning List the specific steps to be taken to cope with stress

53 Problem-Focused Coping used Coping Stages
Action Implement coping plans Evaluation Determine the changes in stressors and stress responses that have occurred as a result of coping methods Adjustment Alter coping methods to improve results, if necessary

54 Problem-Focused might not always a beneficial approach???
Why? Can be physiologically taxing Can lead to development of an over-controlling, stress-inducing Type A pattern of behavior

55 Emotion-Focused Coping: Shutting Downn
Repressive Coping One way to react to stress is by shutting down and trying to deny or suppress the unpleasant thoughts and feelings Sex difference: F > M Distraction can be an adaptive form of avoidance coping Concealing one’s innermost thoughts and feelings can be physiologically taxingometimes can lead to “ironic processes” See next slide 

56 Wegner et al. (1987) Same thing happened in earlier study when participants were asked NOT to think of a “white bear” Daniel Wegner 

57 Don’t Think About Polar Bears!

58 Wegner et al. (1987) Task Experimental Group:
Participants were asked to suppress the thought of a white bear. These individuals thought aloud for 5 minutes and rang a bell if the thought came to mind during suppression. Control Group: Participants could think about anything (including white bears). 58

59 Wegner et al. (1987) 59

60 Emotion-Focused Coping: Opening Up
Two aspects to opening up as an emotional means for coping with stress: One must acknowledge and understand one’s emotional reactions to important events One must express those inner feelings to themselves and others Sex difference: F > M Why might opening up be helpful? Cathartic experience? Helps to gain insight into the problem?

61 Hardiness Personality Style
Individuals exhibit three characteristics: Commitment Challenge Control Hardiness serves as a buffer against stress Perception of control is most important factor

62 Social Support The helpful coping resources provided by friends and other people Has therapeutic effects on both our psychological and physical health Social support and contact related to longevity

63 Social Support: The Religious Connection
Religion provides an important source of social and emotional support for many Only 15-20% of world’s population have no religious affiliation There appears to be a link between religiosity and health? Religious individuals tend to outlive their non-religious counterparts Correlational data

64 Why men don’t live as long…
Work Conditions Males have more dangerous jobs Males have more stressful jobs Personal Health Practices Males smoke more Males drink more Males more likely to feel high-risk activities will not affect them Use of Health Care Services F>M Use Social Support Adherence to medical regimens Williams (2003)

65 Credits Some slides of this presentation prepared with the help of the following websites: 1 of Transmission of HIV

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