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Discovering Psychology #12 Motivation & Emotion. Facial Feedback/ James-Lange Demonstration/Experiment.

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Presentation on theme: "Discovering Psychology #12 Motivation & Emotion. Facial Feedback/ James-Lange Demonstration/Experiment."— Presentation transcript:

1 Discovering Psychology #12 Motivation & Emotion

2 Facial Feedback/ James-Lange Demonstration/Experiment

3 Module 16 Emotion

4 Explaining Emotions 2 Types of Theories Peripheral Theories –Physiological changes in the body give rise to your emotional feelings James-Lange Theory Facial Feedback Theory Cognitive Theories –Your interpretations/appraisals of situations give rise to your emotional feelings Schachter-Singer Experiment

5 James-Lange Theory Our brains interpret specific physiological changes as feelings or emotions A different physiological pattern underlies each emotion

6 4 Steps Physiological Changes –Site of an approaching shark triggers physiological changes increasing heart rate & blood pressure secretion of various hormones Interpretation of Changes –Brain analyzes pattern of physiological change & interprets each pattern as a different emotion Emotional Feeling –Different physiological changes produce different emotions You may or may not show an observable response –Scream

7 3 Criticisms of James- Lange Theory Different emotions are not necessarily associated with different physiological response patterns –Anger, fear & sadness share similar physiological patterns People whose spinal cords have been severed at the neck still experience emotions Some complex emotions (e.g., guilt, jealousy) may require a considerable interpretation/appraisal of the situation

8 Facial Feedback Theory Sensations/feedback from movement of facial muscles & skin are interpreted by the brain as different emotions 4 Steps –Stimulus triggers changes in facial muscles & skin –Brain interprets feedback from facial muscles & skin –Different facial feedback results in different emotions –You may or may not show an observable response

9 Criticisms of Facial Feedback Theory Emotions can also be felt without any facial feedback –People whose facial muscles are completely paralyzed still experience emotions Mood & Intensity –Feedback from facial muscles may intensify your emotional feeling

10 Psych Sim Expressing Emotions

11 Universal Emotions Interactivity

12 Schachter-Singer Experiment Physiological Arousal –Injected subjects with epinephrine that caused physiological arousal Subjects were placed into 1 of 2 conditions –Happy Situation Confederate was laughing & throwing paper airplanes –Angry Situation Confederate complained about filling out a long questionnaire Results: –Participants in happy situation often reported feeling happy –Observable behaviors = smiles –Participants in angry situation often reported feeling angry –Observable behaviors = angry facial expressions

13 Schachters Two- Factors The Two Factor Theory of Emotion: views emotion as having two components (factors): physiological arousal and cognition. According to the theory, cognitions are used to interpret the meaning of physiological reactions to outside events.

14 Which Comes First: Feeling or Thinking? Cognitive-Appraisal Theory –You think before you feel –Example: wining the lottery Affective-Primacy Theory –In some situations, you feel an emotion before having time to interpret/appraise the situation –Example: seeing a snake

15 Universal Emotional Expressions Refer to a number of specific inherited facial patterns or expressions that signal specific feelings –Example: A smile signals a happy state Cross-Cultural Evidence Genetic Evidence

16 Cross-Cultural Evidence –Recognition of facial expressions in different cultures suggests that there are innate universal facial expressions –Examples: happiness, fear, surprise

17 Genetic Evidence Infants in all cultures develop facial expressions at about the same age At 4-6 weeks, babies smile At 3-4 months, babies show angry & sad facial expressions At 5-7 months, babies show fear

18 Functions of Emotions Send social signals –Facial expressions communicate your personal feelings Help you adapt & survive –Psychoevolutionary theory of emotions We inherit the neural structure & physiology to express & experience emotions Emotional patterns evolved to help us adapt to our environment & promote survival Arouse & motivate behaviors –Yerkes-Dodson law Task performance is an interaction between physiological arousal and task difficulty –For most tasks, moderate arousal helps performance

19 Can Money Buy Happiness? Adaptation Level Theory –When we experience a good fortune, we quickly become accustomed to it –The initial impact fades & contributes less to long-term level happiness –Therefore, money cant buy happiness because we adapt to the continuous satisfaction of having a lot of money

20 Influences on Long-Term Happiness Genetic Factors –About half your level of happiness comes from genetic influences Identical twins reared together or apart showed sig. higher happiness correlations (.44 to.52) than fraternal twins reared together or apart (-.02 to.08) Personal/Environmental factors –Long-term level of happiness is associated with: enjoying simple daily pleasures setting & achieving personal goals (purpose in life, network of friends)

21 Psych Sim Helplessly Hoping & Optimism

22 Showing Emotions: Why Dont Men Cry? Display Rules –Specific cultural norms that regulate how, when & where we should express emotion and how much emotion is appropriate –Example: Japanese & Chinese have more difficulty identifying facial expressions of fear and anger compared to North Americans

23 What is Emotional Intelligence? Ability to perceive and express emotion, understand and reason with emotion and regulate emotions in ones self and others Researchers are in the early stages of trying to define & measure emotional intelligence

24 Lie Detection Polygraph tests are based on the theory that if a person tells a lie he/she will feel some emotion that can be measured Polygraph –Lie detector that measures: chest & abdominal muscle movement during respiration heart rate blood pressure galvanic skin response (GSR) GSR –Changes in sweating of the fingers or palms that accompany emotional experiences

25 Lie Detection

26 Control Question Technique Lie detection technique in which the examiner asks 2 kinds of questions: –Neutral Questions general questions that elicit little emotional response Is your name Floyd? –Critical Questions specific questions about some particular crime that only the criminal would know Did you rob the liquor store on 5th and Vine? Examiner compares differences in physiological responses between neutral & critical questions

27 How Accurate are Lie Detector Tests? Researchers have been unable to identify a physiological response pattern that is specific to lying It is estimated that lie detector tests are wrong 25-75% of the time Most state & federal courts prohibit the use of polygraph evidence Federal law prohibits most employers from using polygraph tests to screen employees

28 Emotional Intelligence Test Intrapersonal Activity

29 Positive Psychology APA Unit Plan

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