Presentation on theme: "Overcoming Unintentional Audism in Rehabilitation Settings Jesse Woosley Rehabilitation Counselor Education Masters Candidate Western Oregon University."— Presentation transcript:
Overcoming Unintentional Audism in Rehabilitation Settings Jesse Woosley Rehabilitation Counselor Education Masters Candidate Western Oregon University 2010 Fifth National Training Forum Rehabilitation Services Administration State Coordinators and Related Professionals Who Serve Individuals Who Are Deaf, Deaf-Blind, Hard-of-Hearing, and Late-Deafened Partner Building Bridges August 23-25, 2010
Agenda Presentation on Overcoming Unintentional Audism in Rehabilitation Settings Reflection Activity “Audism Unveiled” movie/discussion
Overcoming Unintentional Audism in Rehabilitation Settings Outline: A history of audism Identifying unintentional audism Overcoming unintentional audism
A History of Audism Ages old phenomenon – Strong connection between hearing and speaking language ability to identity of human race “How dull they are in general. How little do they differ from animals.”- J.C. Amann “human in shape, but only half human in attributes” –L.Dudley “a perfect non-entity, a living automaton...” A. Sicard “to be human was to speak. To sign was a step downward in the scale of being.”- D. Baynton Bauman (2004)
A History of Audism First usage of term “audism” – Coined by Dr. Tom Humphries, 1977: Communicating Across Cultures (Deaf/Hearing) and Language Learning – Audism: The notion that one is superior based on one’s ability to hear or behave in the manner of one who hears. – System of privilege based on ability to hear
A History of Audism “It’s just another –ism” – Validation – Recognizing audism helps resist audist behavior and practice, whether intentional or not
A History of Audism Creating the future: – Increased awareness of unintentional audism enhances service to deaf and hard-of-hearing populations – How can rehabilitation professionals contribute?
Identifying Unintentional Audism Audism and Unintentional Audism: What’s the difference? – Unintentional audism is often overlooked and the more prevalent type of audism. – Audism is the more obvious form of oppression with malicious intentions.
Identifying Unintentional Audism What are some examples of unintentional audism? -Avoiding to make eye contact with deaf or hard-of-hearing person -Not enough lighting in room -Talking to interpreter instead of directly at client -Looking away or mumbling while talking to a person who lip reads -Passing up opportunity to learn and use sign language -Raising voice at the person -Stereotyping or making assumptions
Identifying Unintentional Audism Possible causes of unintentional audism: – Good intentions/ bad interventions – Traditional training – Cultural tunnel vision – Blaming the victim – Either/or thinking How good intentions may be harmful: – Unwillingness of professional to critically examine one’s own actions Ridley (2005)
Identifying Unintentional Audism Personal bias, preconceived notions and assumptions: – We are not taught to recognize hearing privilege – Often the advantages of hearing privilege is taken for granted. – Expectations that “they” should be more like “us”
Overcoming Unintentional Audism Examining one’s own privilege -White privilege: Unpacking the invisible knapsack by Peggy McIntosh “As a white person, I realized I had been taught about racism as something that puts others at a disadvantage, but had been taught not to see one of its corollary aspects, white privilege, which puts me at an advantage.”
Overcoming Unintentional Audism Taking the initial steps: -Power to make positive changes for deaf and hard-of-hearing people often lies in the hands of people who have hearing privilege -Unacknowledged hearing privilege and audism can contribute to phenomenon of “invisible oppression” (McIntosh, 1988)
Overcoming Unintentional Audism Recognizing microaggressions: -”subtle in nature and can be manifested in the verbal, non-verbal, visual or behavioral realm” -often subconscious and conditioned behavior (Sue and Sue, 2008)
Overcoming Unintentional Audism Awareness or “critical consciousness” -Vital to make changes happen -Willingness of professional to participate in difficult dialogues about audism with peers, clients, and others. -Recognize and confront typical defense mechanisms that privileged individuals may use (Watt, Curtis, Drummond, Kellogg, Lozano, Nicoli, & Rosas, 2009)
Reflection How can you share hearing privilege or “power” with deaf and hard-of-hearing individuals? What were your experiences with “unintentional audism” like? What direction should we take with our awareness of “unintentional audism”?
Movie “Audism Unveiled”
References Bauman, D.L. (2004). Audism: Exploring the Metaphysics of Oppression. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 9, Chaney, M.P., Foley, P.F., and Smith, L. (2008). Addressing classism, ableism, and heterosexism in counselor education. Journal of Counseling and Development, 86, Curtis, G.C., Jerri Drummond, J., Kellogg A.H., Lozano, A., Nicoli, G.T., Rosas, M., and Watt, S.K. (2009) Counselor preparation, privileged identity exploration: Examining counselor trainees’ reactions to difficult dialogues. Counselor Education and Supervision, 49, Harrington, T. (2009) FAQ: Audism. retrieved from tions_%28FAQs%29/Cultural_Social_Medical/Audism.html MacIntosh, P. (1988). White privilege and male privilege: A personal account of coming to see correspondences through work in Women's Studies. Wellesley, MA: Center for Research on Women, Working Paper Series, no Peters, S. W. (2007) Cultural awareness: enhancing counselor understanding, sensitivity, and effectiveness with clients who are deaf. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 35, Ridley, C. (2005) Overcoming Unintentional Racism in Counseling and Therapy. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Sue D. & Sue D.W. (2008) Counseling the Culturally Diverse. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.