Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 6 MICROAGGRESSIONS IN COUNSELING AND PSYCHOTHERAPY"— Presentation transcript:
1CHAPTER 6 MICROAGGRESSIONS IN COUNSELING AND PSYCHOTHERAPY
2Microaggressions Microaggressions are “brief, everyday exchanges that send denigrating messages” to a target group like people of color, religious minorities, women, people with disabilities, and LGBT individuals.These microaggressions are often subtle in nature and can be manifested in the verbal, nonverbal, visual, or behavioral realm; they are often enacted automatically and unconsciously (Solorzano, Ceja, & Yosso, 2000).
3Contemporary Forms of Oppression Within all domains of discrimination, overt expressions are characterized by blatant unequal and unfair treatment of individuals (e.g., gender-biased hiring practices), while covert expressions are subtle (e.g., using “he” to convey universal human experiences). Contemporary Forms of OppressionThe distinction is made between overt and covert racism, sexism, heterosexism, transphobia, religious discrimination, and ableism.Researchers have used the templates of modern racism and sexism to understand contemporary forms of oppression such as homonegativity, religious discrimination, and ableism.
4MicroassaultBlatant verbal, nonverbal, or environmental attack intended to convey discriminatory and biased sentiments (e.g., epithets like spic or faggot).
5MicroinsultUnintentional behaviors or verbal comments that convey rudeness or insensitivity or demean a person’s racial heritage/identity, gender identity, or sexual orientation identity (e.g., Arnold Schwarzenegger calling his Democratic opponents, “girlie men”).
6MicroinvalidationVerbal comments or behaviors that exclude, negate, or dismiss the psychological thoughts, feelings, or experiential reality of the target group (e.g., “The most qualified person should get the job”).
7Dynamics and Dilemmas of Microaggressions Dilemma One: Clash of Racial RealitiesDilemma Two: The Invisibility of Unintentional Expressions of BiasDilemma Three: Perceived Minimal Harm of MicroaggressionsDilemma Four: The Catch-22 of Responding to Microaggressions
8Racial Microaggressions Categories and Relationships of Racial MicroaggressionsRacial MicroaggressionsCommonplace verbal or behavioral indignities, whether intentional or unintentional, that communicate hostile, derogatory, or negative racial slights and insults.Microinsult(Often Unconscious)Behavioral/verbal remarks or comments that convey rudeness or insensitivity and demean a person’s racial heritage or identity.Microassault(Often Conscious)Explicit racial derogations characterized primarily by a violent verbal or nonverbal attack meant to hurt the intended victim through name-calling, avoidant behavior, or purposeful discriminatory actionsMicroinvalidation(Often Unconscious)Verbal comments or behaviors that exclude, negate, or nullify the psychological thoughts, feelings, or experiential reality of a person of colorEnvironmentalMicroaggressions(Macro-Level)Racial assaults, insults and invalidations that are manifested on systemic and environmental levelsAscription of IntelligenceAssigning a degree of intelligence to a person ofcolor based on raceSecond-Class CitizenTreated as a lesser person or groupPathologizing Cultural Values/Communication StylesNotion that the values and communication styles of people of color are abnormalAssumption of Criminal StatusPresumed to be a criminal, dangerous, or deviant based on raceAlien in Own LandBelief that visible racial/ethnic minority citizens are foreignersColor BlindnessDenial or pretense that a White person does not see color or raceMyth of MeritocracyStatements asserting that race plays aminor role in life successDenial of Individual RacismDenial of personal racism or one’s role in its perpetuation
9Therapeutic Implications of Microaggressions Clients of color tend to terminate prematurely.Microaggresions may lie at the core of the problem.Therapist must be credible.Effective counseling is likely to occur when there is a strong working alliance.
10Implications for Clinical Practice Be aware that microaggressions are a constant reality in the lives of culturally diverse groups and have a real psychological effect on clients.Be aware that everyone has and continues to engage in unintentional microaggressions.
11Implications for Clinical Practice Do not invalidate the experiential reality of culturally diverse groups. Don’t get defensive if your culturally diverse client implies that you have engaged in a microaggressive remark or behavior. Instead, be open to exploring issues related to race, gender, and other identity groups.