Presentation on theme: "Manivong J. Ratts KristiAnna Santos"— Presentation transcript:
1Manivong J. Ratts KristiAnna Santos Career Counseling:Foundations, Perspectives, and Applicationsedited by David Capuzzi and Mark StaufferChapter Four Career Counseling Without Borders: Moving Beyond Traditional Career Practices of HelpingManivong J. RattsKristiAnna Santos
2Introduction Demographic trend toward greater diversity Counselors prepare for multicultural and advocacy needs
3DefinitionsMulticulturalism has historically been used to refer to racial and ethnic individual and group differences.Diversity refers to individual and group differences based on factors such as race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, economic class, religion, spiritual orientation, age, and disability status, to list a few.
4DefinitionsRace is a social construct that categorizes individuals based on skin pigmentation and other physical attributes.Ethnicity has to do with an individual’s identification with a cultural group based on factors such as country of origin, language, sociopolitical history, and religion.
5DefinitionsIndividual, group, universal dimensions of existence (Sue & Sue, 2008)Individual – uniqueness of a personGroup – commonalities of experiences individuals have as a result of being a member cultural groupUniversal – all human beings have regardless of individual or group needs
6DefinitionsOppression exists when one social group exploits another social group for its own benefit. Oppression is distinct from a situation of simple brute force or control. It is first and foremost a systematic phenomenon that involves ideological domination, institutional control, and the promulgation of the dominant group's ideology of domination and culture on the oppressed. Oppression is simply not an ideology or set of beliefs that asserts one group's superiority over another. Nor is it random acts of discrimination or harassment toward members of the subordinate group. It is a system of domination with many interlocking parts. (Hardiman & Jackson,1982, p. 2)
7DefinitionsFouad, Gerstein, and Toporek (2006) define social justice as “the distribution of advantages and disadvantages within a society” (p. 1).Social justice counseling is both a goal and a process.
8DefinitionsMulticultural counseling is “a helping process that relies on both universal and culture-specific techniques to meet goals that are consistent with client values; recognizes individual, group and universal dimensions of client identity; and integrates client worldview into the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of client’s and client systems” (Rubel & Ratts, 2007, p. 50).
9Multicultural Competencies in Counseling Multicultural Competencies (MCCs)Own cultural values and biasesClient’s worldviewCulturally appropriate intervention strategies
10Limitations of Traditional Career Theories Traditional career development theories oftenEmphasizes “person variables” and dimensions over context and cultureTheories are often in direct conflict to cultural values (e.g., self-determination, centrality of work, masculinity).Does not adequately account for external barriers related to oppression
11Limitations of Traditional Career Theories Traditional career development theories often overlook barriersRacial discriminationSexual discriminationLimited financial resourcesParental influenceLow gradesDifficulty entering first job
12Systems ApproachA systems approach to career counseling was important because it emphasized “both the parts within a whole system and view the whole system as greater than the sum of its parts” (Arthur & McMahon, 2005, p. 209).
13Advocacy Advocacy is the process of taking action to empower clients. The ACA Advocacy competencies provide a framework for career counselors to enact advocacy strategies.
14Advocacy Competency Domains Client/StudentSchool/CommunityPublicArenaActingWithClient/StudentEmpowermentCommunityCollaborationPublicInformationClient/StudentAdvocacySystemsAdvocacySocial/PoliticalAdvocacyActingOnBehalfMicrolevelMacrolevel(Lewis, Arnold, House & Toporek, 2002, p. 1)
15Working With ClientsView clients within the context of their environmentExplore whether client problems are connected to oppressive social, political and economic conditionsMove beyond traditional models of helping when working with culturally diverse clients
16Understanding Clients Through a sociopolitical frameworkThrough Identity developmentThrough worldview
17Example ModelSwanson and Fouad’s (1990) model on culturally appropriate career counselingCulturally appropriate relationshipIdentify career issues
18Example ModelSwanson and Fouad’s (1990) model (Cont.)Assess the impact of cultural variables on career issuesSet culturally appropriate processes and goals
19Example ModelSwanson and Fouad’s (1990) model (Cont.)Implement culturally appropriate interventionsDecision makingImplementation
20ReferencesArthur, N., & McMahon, M. (2005). Multicultural career counseling: Theoretical applications of the systems theory framework. The Career Development Quarterly, 53,Fouad, N. A., Gerstein, L. H., & Toporek, R. L. (2006). Social justice and counseling psychology in context. In R. L. Toporek, L. H. Gerstein, N. A. Fouad, G. Roysircar & T. Israel (Eds.), Handbook for social justice in counseling psychology: Leadership, vision, and action (pp. 1-16). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.Hardiman, R., & Jackson, B. (1982). Oppression: Conceptual and developmental analysis. In M. Adams, P. Brigham, P. Dalpes & L. Marchesani (Eds.), Social diversity and social justice- Diversity and oppression: Conceptual frameworks (pp. 1-6). Dubuque: Kendall/Hunt.Lewis, J. A., Arnold, M. S., House, R. & Toporek, R. L. (2002). Advocacy competencies: Task force on advocacy competencies. Alexandria, VA: American CounselingRubel, D., & Ratts, M. (2007). Diversity and social justice issues in counseling and psychotherapy. In D. Capuzzi & D. R. Gross (Eds.), Counseling and psychotherapy: Theories and interventions (4th ed., pp ). Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education.Sue, D. W., & Sue, D. (2008). Counseling the culturally diverse: Theory and practice (5th ed.). New York: John Wiley and Sons.Swanson, J. A., & Fouad, N. A. (1999). Career theory and practice: Learning through case studies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.