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World History: WWI to Modern Day

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Presentation on theme: "World History: WWI to Modern Day"— Presentation transcript:

1 World History: WWI to Modern Day

2 Roots of WWI World War I Nationalism- loyalty to one’s country
“The Great War” Nationalism- loyalty to one’s country The Balkans Ethnic groups launching revolutions against the Ottoman Empire Some annexed by Austria-Hungary Poland v. Russia Ireland v. Britain

3 Roots of WWI Militarism Alliances
Countries began building up their militaries to intimidate others Alliances Agreements between nations to help each other in case of war

4 The War Begins June 28, Archduke Francis Ferdinand, heir to Austria-Hungary, was assassinated by a Serbian nationalist Austria-Hungarian/German alliance Serbian/Russian alliance Triple Entente Great Britain, France, Russia Central Powers Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire


6 The War Front Weapons Stalemate develops Trench warfare Machine guns
Poison gasses Tanks and airplanes Stalemate develops Trench warfare Dirty ditches “no man’s land” in between


8 The End and Aftermath 1917- the US enters the war
1918- the war ends when Germany is defeated 20 million Europeans dead President Wilson wanted peace but the allies wanted to punish Germany Treaty of Versailles Forced Germany to accept blame Germany to pay reparations ($) Hapsburg Dynasty (ruling European family) fell Ottoman Empire- no longer existed

9 The Aftermath Allies redrew national borders to benefit themselves
New countries created causing conflict Promised independence to Arab nations but went back on their word Mandate system Germans left resentful Laid the path for WWII


11 League of Nations President Wilson proposed it
Was meant to provide a place where countries could peacefully discuss solutions Many countries joined but no the USA Could not enforce anything

12 Russian Revolution Czar Nicholas II- lead Russia in WWI but was overthrown in 1917 Lenin Marxist/Communist Bolsheviks- socialist party Gained control of the Russian government Western nations sided with the non-communist Soviet Union= Communist Russia

13 Joseph Stalin Became communist dictator of Russia Five Year Plan Purge
Sought to increase industrialization in the USSR State owned farms and starvation Purge Stalin eliminated those he saw as a threat; some killed some sent to prisons Murdered millions of his own people


15 Effects of the Revolution
End of the Romanov Dynasty transferring power to the lower classes Urbanization and technology Mistrust between the Russia and the west Later led to the Cold War after WWII

16 Totalitarian v. Authoritarian Governments
Democracy does not exist in either Authoritarian Only interested in political power Conservatives who want to preserve traditional way of life Expects people to accept government policies and carry on with their lives Totalitarian Government seeks to control politics, economy, culture, and social life Terror and fear used to force citizens

17 Italy Fascism Benito Mussolini
Nationalistic movement that is anti-democratic and anti-communist Rules by intimidation Benito Mussolini Used violence to settle unrest Became dictator of Italy after gaining support from the middle class Repressive government

18 Adolf Hitler Took control of Germany with the Nazi Party
Rose in power through Nationalism and promised of rebuilding “Third Reich” Began militarily expanding Empire building Appeasement Anti-Semitism-hatred of the Jewish people “Final Solution”-called for the total elimination of the Jewish people The Holocaust


20 Japan Emperor Hirohito Hideki Tojo
Did not have complete control of Japanese government Militarily controlled Hideki Tojo Japan’s premier and led Japan through WWII

21 Leading to War Hitler’s invasion on the Rhineland, Austria, and the Sudetenland Japan expanding in the Pacific and into China Axis Powers Germany Italy Japan

22 WWII Hitler invades Poland Britain and France enter the war
Hitler takes over France Battle of Britain Thousands of German planes bomb Britain Winston Churchill- British prime minister Britain holds on


24 US Involvement US had remain neutral until December 7, 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor US declares war Allies United States Britain Soviet Union/Russia Hitler invades Soviet Union


26 Strategy Stalin wanted US and Britain to open the western front of Europe to help him out Churchill and Roosevelt decided to attack Germany in Africa, Italy, and then the Western European Front Tehran Conference Allies agree to invade Europe D-day Significance: Paved way for Western European invasion that would end the war France is won back

27 Yalta Conference “Big Three” Roosevelt/Truman (US) Churchill (Britain)
Stalin (USSR) Yalta Conference After German defeat USSR would help with Japan Eastern European countries to get elections USSR gets land in Poland and some in China USSR gets most reparations because they were the hardest hit Germany divided into four zones after the war (US, Britain, France, USSR) Significance: Laid out post-WWII Europe between the west and the communist

28 Potsdam Conference War in Europe ended May 1945 Potsdam
Truman meets with Stalin and Churchill Unconditional Surrender of Japan Significance: led to the decision of the atomic bombs at Hiroshima and Nagasaki War on both fronts were finally ended Use of the atomic bombs led to the nuclear arms race between the US and the USSR Hydrogen bomb created


30 Post WWII Cold War Tension b/w the US and USSR that many feared would lead to nuclear war Marshall Plan Money given to help Western Europe’s economy and help rebuild countries Post War Japan Created democratic government ad helped rebuild Today a modern, industrial, and wealthy nation United Nations Organization of different countries to find peaceful solutions to problems Permanent Members: US, Britain, France, Russia, China

31 Indian Independence Decolonization India was under control of Britain
Mohandas Gandhi Leader of the Indian Independence Movement Supported non-violent protests even through beatings by the British Unity b/w Hindus and Muslim Indians Gained independence but not religious peace Pakistan created as a Muslim state Gandhi was assassinated but inspired many

32 China’s Communist Revolution
Nationalists v. Communists Mao Zedong Communist leader who gained control of China USSR supported


34 Israel Zionism- Jewish nationalism increased after the Holocaust
1948 Israel created for Jewish people Arabs upset because part of Palistine was taken Wars have broken out and still tension

35 Latin America US was backing governments in Latin America that nationalists did not support Latin American nationalism associated itself more with the Soviet Union Cuba (Castro), Chile (Salvador Allende), Nicaragua (Sandinistas), Mexican attempt (Zapatistas) US backed anti-communist takeovers Today’s anti-US Latin American governments Venezuela and Hugo Chavez Bolivia and Juan Evo Morales Ayma

36 Southeast Asia Decolonizing after WWII
Many of the countries experienced unrest Vietnamese Nationalist led by Ho Chi Minh fought the French and the US Communist nationalist won in the end


38 Africa African nationalism also came about after decolonization
Several African countries gained independence South Africa Apartheid- official policy of racial segregation in South Africa Nelson Mandela- arrested for his leadership for 27 years but 1994 was elected president 1994 South African elections where black population was allowed to participate


40 Middle East Arab National arose after the founding of Israel
Abdul Nassar became president of Egypt and united Arabs in standing against the west and supporting Palestine

41 Ethnic Conflicts African tribes fighting one another
Kurds, Persians, Arabs, and Jews fighting in the Middle East Eastern Europe Serbs, Bosnians, and Croats fighting Serbians conquered Bosnia and began ethnic cleansing killing many Bosnians NATO helped to maintain peace

42 Terrorism Terrorism Al-Qaeda How does this affect us today?
Use of violence against innocent people in the name of a cause Al-Qaeda Largest and most active terrorist group Led by Osama bin Laden Sept. 11, 2001 War on Terror- invasion into Afghanistan How does this affect us today?


44 Globalization Globalization- worldwide interdependence United Nations
Allows representatives to negotiate peacefully, provide aid, and back military forces to maintain stability World Trade Organization Monitors countries making sure they stick to international trade agreements OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) Several oil producing nations that control the cost and supply of oil

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