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COLD WAR CONFLICTS. (c) 2007 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 2 What is the Cold War? A conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union in.

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Presentation on theme: "COLD WAR CONFLICTS. (c) 2007 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 2 What is the Cold War? A conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union in."— Presentation transcript:


2 (c) 2007 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 2 What is the Cold War? A conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union in which neither nation directly confronted the other on the battlefield. Dominated global affairs and foreign policy from the end of WWII in 1945 until the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991.

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4 4 Post World War II The United States and the Soviet Union emerged as two “superpowers” The U.S. and S.U. had vastly different economic and political systems. The two countries had vastly different visions of the world’s future.

5 (c) 2007 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 5 Postwar Germany The U.S., British, French and Soviet Union decided to split Germany up into four zones temporarily following World War II. Churchill and Roosevelt assumed that in time, the four zones would come together in a reunited Germany.

6 (c) 2007 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 6 Berlin


8 8 Soviet Union United States Joseph Stalin Communism State controls all property and economic activity Totalitarian Government- no opposing parties allowed. Harry S. Truman Capitalism Private citizens control property and economic activity. People vote to elect a President and Congress. Political competition.

9 (c) 2007 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 9 What the Soviet Union Wants Encourage Communism in other countries. Rebuild its’ economy using Eastern Europe’s equipment and raw materials Control Eastern Europe Keep Germany weak and divided so it will never threaten the S.U. again What the United States Wants Self-Determination for all nations Gain access to raw materials and markets for its products Rebuild European governments to ensure stability and give us a market to sell goods Reunite Germany

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11 (c) 2007 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 11 Tension Mounts Stalin refuses to allow free elections in Poland Stalin establishes “satellite nations” in Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania and Poland. –Dominated by the Soviet Union 1946-Stalin makes a speech where he says that capitalism and communism cannot coexist…a war will have to settle the dispute.

12 (c) 2007 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 12 U.S. Policy: Containment Containment is taking measures to prevent any extension of communist rule to other countries. Europe is now divided into two political regions –Western Europe: Democratic –Eastern Europe: Communist Winston Churchill coins the phrase “iron curtain” for the division of Europe. iron curtain speech

13 (c) 2007 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 13 The Truman Doctrine The policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting takeover. –Between 1947-1950 Congress used this doctrine to send $400 million in aid to Turkey and Greece to help prevent Communist takeover.

14 (c) 2007 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 14 The Marshall Plan Europe is in a state of chaos after WWII. Sec. of State George Marshall proposes that the United States provide to all of the European nations that needed it. The Marshall Plan revived European hopes. The U.S. spends $13 billion in aid. Very successful.

15 (c) 2007 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 15 Countries helped by the Marshall Plan

16 (c) 2007 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 16 Struggle over Germany In 1948, Britain, France and the U.S. decide Germany is ready to be reunited. All three combine their territories to form one nation. The Western part of Berlin was now surrounded by Soviet territory.

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18 (c) 2007 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 18 The Berlin Airlift June 1948, Stalin closed all highway and rail routes into Berlin, hoping to take the city for himself. No food or fuel could reach ¾ of the city. Berliners only had enough food to last them 5 weeks. The U.S. and Great Britain spoiled Stalin’s plan by flying in 2.3 million tons of supplies including food, fuel, medicine and Christmas presents to Berliners. For 327 days, 277,000 flights made deliveries to Berlin. May 1949 Stalin realized he was beaten and lifted the blockade.

19 (c) 2007 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 19 The NATO Alliance The aggression of the Soviet Union worried the rest of the world. On April 4, 1949, the U.S. along with 11 other nations form the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. The members pledged military support to one another in case any one was attacked.

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