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SECTION 3.7 FROM THE MLA HANDBOOK FOR WRITERS OF RESEARCH PAPERS, 7 TH EDITION Quotations.

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Presentation on theme: "SECTION 3.7 FROM THE MLA HANDBOOK FOR WRITERS OF RESEARCH PAPERS, 7 TH EDITION Quotations."— Presentation transcript:

1 SECTION 3.7 FROM THE MLA HANDBOOK FOR WRITERS OF RESEARCH PAPERS, 7 TH EDITION Quotations

2 3.7.1 Use and Accuracy of Quotation Direct quotations are a dynamic device that can used to emphasize a salient point from a given text. Overuse of quotations creates a work that is both unauthentic and unimaginative.

3 Be Precise and Concise All quotes must:  Be taken in context as exact words from the source  Contain no spelling errors  Have no grammatical changes unless the reader can clearly identify any alterations from the original text.

4 EXAMPLES Ex. 1 Dylan Thomas could be described by many differing adjectives, some of which were more flattering than others. These descriptions ranged from the complimentary “traveling bard” or “word-drunk genius” to the derogatory “literally drunk” or “ruined by excessive admiration”. (Oliver 104) Ex. 2 Dylan Thomas could be described by many differing adjectives, some of which were more flattering than others. Douglas Oliver described Thomas as a person that could be categorized as a “traveling bard” or “word- drunk genius” to “[literal] drunk” or “ruined by excessive admiration”. (104)

5 3.7.2 Prose The following slides will provide you with general “rules of thumb” that will help you avoid the pitfalls of indirect plagiarism.

6 3.7.2 Rule 1 – Less than 4 lines of text If you have no special emphasis within the text: 1. Place the quoted lines in “quotation marks” 2. Place this within the line of your written text. 3. Include a page, paragraph, or line number in parenthesis after the period at the end of the sentence.

7 Example for Rule 1 Ex. 1 The Twentieth-Century Modernist Poetry has taken on many sub-forms contained under the umbrellas descriptive term of modernism. According to Padgett, modernist poets of the early 20 th century “had few literary heroes from the previous century, they rejected what they saw as mostly outdated art or oppressive social structures”. (253) Ex. 2 The Twentieth-Century Modernist Poetry has taken on many sub-forms contained under the umbrellas descriptive term of modernism. Modernist poets of the early 20 th century “had few literary heroes from the previous century, they rejected what they saw as mostly outdated art or oppressive social structures”. (Padgett 253)

8 3.7.2 Rule 2 – More than 4 lines of text or an entire paragraph 1. Set lines or paragraph 1 inch from the margin and DO NOT use special indentation on the first line. 2. Include a page, paragraph, or line number in parentheses after the period at the end of the sentence.

9 Example for Rule 2 Ex. After Quevedo’s death Spain entered a phase of literary stagnation. Spanish literature, once a center of international attention, began to imitate foreign models, especially French literature. The was the case in the eighteenth century, known in Spain as “Siglo de las Luces,” or “Age of Enlightenment.” In Spain the enlightenment was a sober and highly rational movement that rejected the golden age’s rich literary forms. The movement produced a few poets of importance. One, José Cadalso ( ), is better known for his essays, a genre that dominated that literary movement. (321)

10 3.7.2 Rule 3 – More than one paragraph Use this with extreme caution; too much use of this technique will tend to leave your work stilted, fragmented, and not your own words or work! 1. Follow all the concepts from Rule #2 and… 2. Set the first line of each paragraph quoted in an additional 0.25 inches. The first line of each paragraph will have a total of 1.25 inches.

11 Example of Rule 3 Ex. Willy Loman has been described in a variety of literary characterizations ranging from that of a tragic hero to simple man with vast limitations. According to William Aarnes in his work “Tragic Form and the Possibility of Meaning in Death of a Salesman, he states that: He (Miller) characterizes Willy as essentially meaningless by dramatizing him, as most but not all readers and viewers of the play have recognized, not as a tragic hero but as a pathetic, limited man. But, if Miller has written Death of a Salesman without a tragic hero, we nonetheless need to acknowledge the tragic form. For Miller brings Willy to life through a form that is double-edged. In Death of Salesman the tragic form, which for Miller is adapted from ritual, is at once an ironic commentary on the smallness of Willy’s life and a model of action that supports Miller’s assumption, or at least the possibility of assuming, that life has meaning. Any claim that Death of a Salesman is tragic in shape needs to begin by admitting that the play’s central character makes it seem something less than a tragedy. In the first place, the superficial form of the play, the way it blends the workings of Willy’s mind with reality, demonstrates that Willy has no more control over his mind than over the wire recorder he accidentally switches on in Howard Wagner’s office. Willy is, simply, a man breaking down. (95-96)

12 3.7.3 Poetry Like the use of direct quoted prose (3.7.2), poetry follows the same general rules up to three (3) lines of a work. However, there are few more special circumstances that may alter how use of this prose form is used in a research paper. These special circumstance include:  More than four (4) lines of poetry  Line too long to fit properly  Original spatial arrangement of poetry  Beginning of a quote in the middle of a line

13 3.7.3 Poetry – Three (3) or less lines of poetry Use the following guidelines when using all or part of single line of poetry: 1. Put quoted lines in “quotation marks” 2. Indicate which lines of the poem were used in parenthesis before the period at the end of the sentence. 3. Up to three lines or poetry may used, but they must be separated by a [space] slash(/) [space].

14 Examples – Three lines or less Ex. Robert Frost is known for his sharp wit and subtlety in making ironic observations of his world. This becomes very evident is his poem “Mending Wall”, when he uses the following lines to show how a simple wall can keep neighbors at peace. “And he likes having thought of it so well/He says again, ‘Good fences make good neighbors’” (44-45).

15 3.7.3 Poetry – 4 or more lines of poetry 1. Begin a new line. 2. Unless there is a specialized spatial arrangement (see next topic), indent all lines one (1) inch and be sure to double space all lines and add no additional or extraneous marks that do not appear in the original text. 3. Use a parenthetical citation indicating the lines used contained within parentheses.

16 Example – 4 or more lines of poetry Example: Emily Dickinson is well known for being sheltered away from the world and is often noted as being the “Ghost of Amherst”. Dickinson is known throughout the world for using such mundane and ordinary items such as robins, insects, etc. to describe extraordinary and complicated ideas such as religion, love, and death. This no more evident than in her poem “‘Faith’ is a fine invention” when she writes: “Faith” is a fine invention When Gentlemen can see – But Microscopes are prudent In an Emergency. (1-4)

17 3.7.3 Poetry – 4 or more lines of poetry (cont’d) For lines that exceed the right margin, continue onto the next line with the continuation indented to 1.25 inches. Indentation may be reduced from the original one (1) inch if this will allow for an elimination of the above “rule”.

18 3.7.3 Poetry – 4 or more lines of poetry (cont’d) For poems that are arranged in a particular spatial arrangement use the following “rules”. 1. Include all indentations as found in the original piece. 2. Should other spatial arrangement be used, replicate as near as possible to the original.

19 Example – 4 or more lines of poetry Example: Poets have always tended to ignore the rules of traditional conventions such grammar and the arrangements of words. One of the greatest poets to push these limits was e.e. cummings as exampled in his poem “Buffalo Bill’s”: Buffalo Bill’s defunct who used to ride a watersmooth-silver stallion and break onetwothreefourfive pigeonsjustlikethat Jesus he was a handsome man and what i want to know is how do you like your blueeyed boy Mister Death (632)

20 3.7.3 Poetry – 4 or more lines of poetry (cont’d) If you want to quote parts of a poem starting from the middle of line, use the following procedure: 1. Use the position as near as possible to original within the context of the passage. (e.g., should it be part-way through the sentence, keep the physical arrangement the same.) 2. Should you wish to omit the beginning of the line, use an ellipsis (... ). [3.7.5] {Please see the subsequent slides on Ellipsis for more information!}

21 3.7.4 Drama The following is the procedure to use when quoting lines between two of more characters. Remember to use this judiciously as overuse will result in stilted and/or fragmented work. 1. Set each quotation back 1 inch from the margin. 2. Capitalize each characters name ending with a period. (e.g., IAGO., WILLY LOMAN., etc.) 3. Begin the quotation and indent all subsequent lines an additional 0.25 inches. Repeat this pattern with each quoted character speech. 4. Finish the quotation with the lines contained within a set of parenthesis.

22 Example Example. In his play Our Town, Thorton Wilder uses the backdrop of the village of Grover’s Corner as a microcosm of the world to reflect the “good and bad” one might encounter in life. His use of ordinary sounding dialogue between characters, observed by those “among the dead” reflect how one’s perspective on life is altered when compared to the realities faced by those among the living. This best represented by the dialogue in Act III between Mrs. Gibbs, Mrs. Soames, and Sam Stimson as exampled below. MRS. SOAMES. Who is it Julia? MRS. GIBBS. My daughter-in-law, Emily Webb. MRS. SOAMES. Well, I declare! The road up here must have been awful muddy. What did she die of, Julia? MRS. GIBBS. In childbirth. MRS. SOAMES. Childbirth. I’d forgotten all about that. My, wasn’t life awful – and wonderful. SIMON STIMSON. Wonderful, was it? ( )

23 3.7.5 Ellipsis On occasion, one may need to use parts of a text that lends itself to leaving out words, phrases, sentences, or more extensive portions. However, this practice should be used extremely rare and follow the principles listed below. Guiding principles for use of partial quotes or text:  Reliability to the author’s intent of the passage quoted.  Your created sentence must make grammatical sense. It cannot be stressed enough to use this technique sparingly and ALWAYS keep the original intent of the author’s work. Please see either your teacher or librarian for further assistance with this area.

24 Works Cited Cummings, E.E. "Buffalo Bill's." The New Oxford of American Verse. Ed. Richard Ellmann. New York: Oxford University Press, Print. Dickinson, Emily. ““Faith” is a Fine Invention (185).” The New Oxford of American Verse. Ed. Richard Ellmann. New York: Oxford University Press, Print. Earnest, William. "Tragic Form and the Possibility of Meaning in Death of a Salesman." Modern Critical Interpretations. Ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea House, Print. Frost, Robert. "Mending Wall." The Road Not Taken, a Selection of Robert Frost's Poems. New York: Owl Books, Print. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 7th ed. New York: Modern Language Association, Print. Ocasio, Rafael. "Spanish Poetry." Vol. 3. World Poets. Ed. Ron Padgett. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, vols Print. Oliver, Douglas. "Dylan Thomas ( )." Vol. 3. World Poets. Ed. Ron Padgett. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, vols Print. Padgett, Ron. "Twentieth-Century Modernist Poetry." Vol. 3. World Poets. Ed. Ron Padgett. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, vols Print. Wilder, Thorton. Our Town, a Play in Three Acts. New York: Harper Perennial, Print.


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