Presentation on theme: "Review of MLA In-Text Citation Format. How MLA Citation System Works MLA in-text citation format follows the author-page method of in-text citation. This."— Presentation transcript:
Review of MLA In-Text Citation Format
How MLA Citation System Works MLA in-text citation format follows the author-page method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the page number(s) from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken must appear in the text, and a complete reference should appear on your Works Cited page. The author's name may appear either in the sentence itself or in parentheses following the quotation or paraphrase, but the page number(s) should always appear in the parentheses, not in the text of your sentence. For example: Romantic poetry is characterized by the "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" (Wordsworth 263). Wordsworth stated that Romantic poetry was marked by a "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" (263). Wordsworth extensively explored the role of emotion in the creative process (263). The citation, both (263) and (Wordsworth 263), tells readers that the information in the sentence can be located on page 263 of a work by an author named Wordsworth. If readers want more information about this source, they can turn to the Works Cited page, where, under the name of Wordsworth, they would find the following information: Wordsworth, William. Lyrical Ballads. London: Oxford U.P., 1967.
The first time you cite a source Introduce the full name of the author and the title of the source the first time you cite it (i.e. “In his article ‘Notes of a Native Speaker,’ Eric Liu talks about his experiences... ) and then thereafter, you can refer to the author only by his/her last name.
Introduce the author in a signal phrase Ordinarily, introduce the material being cited with a signal phrase that includes the author's name. In addition to preparing readers for the source, the signal phrase allows you to keep the parenthetical citation brief. Christine Haughney reports that shortly after Japan made it illegal to use a handheld phone while driving, "accidents caused by using the phones dropped by 75 percent" (8). The signal phrase — Christine Haughney reports that — names the author; the parenthetical citation gives the page number where the quoted words may be found. Notice that the period follows the parenthetical citation. When a quotation ends with a question mark or an exclamation point, leave the end punctuation inside the quotation mark and add a period after the parentheses: "... ?" (8).
Name the author in parenthesis If a signal phrase does not name the author, put the author's last name in parentheses along with the page number. Most states do not keep adequate records on the number of times cell phones are a factor in accidents; as of December 2000, only ten states were trying to keep such records (Sundeen 2). Use no punctuation between the name and the page number.
Citing an indirect source (source quoted in another source) When a writer's or a speaker's quoted words appear in a source written by someone else, begin the parenthetical citation with the abbreviation "qtd. in." According to Richard Retting, "As the comforts of home and the efficiency of the office creep into the automobile, it is becoming increasingly attractive as a work space" (qtd. In Kilgannon A23).
Citing a work from an anthology Put the name of the author of the work (not the editor of the anthology) in the signal phrase or the parentheses. In "A Jury of Her Peers," Mrs. Hale describes both a style of quilting and a murder weapon when she utters the last words of the story: "We call it--knot it, Mr. Henderson" (Glaspell 210). In the list of works cited, the work is alphabetized under Glaspell, not under the name of the editor of the anthology. Glaspell, Susan. "A Jury of Her Peers." Literature and Its Writers: A Compact Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama. Ed. Ann Charters and Samuel Charters. 3rd ed. Boston: Bedford,
Citing an indirect source (source quoted in another source) When a writer's or a speaker's quoted words appear in a source written by someone else, begin the parenthetical citation with the abbreviation "qtd. in." Example: According to Richard Retting, "As the comforts of home and the efficiency of the office creep into the automobile, it is becoming increasingly attractive as a work space" (qtd. in Kilgannon 23).
Some general conventions Underline or italicize book titles (i.e. She’s Not There: A Life in Two Genders). Use one method consistently. Put quotation marks around essay or article/chapter titles (i.e. “Identity Development in Adolescence,” “A Question of Class”) Commas & periods go inside the quotation mark. For example: Borjian’s statement, “Teens need encouragement to get off their computers, to interact with their peers in person,” further highlights the impact of computer- mediated social networking for today’s youth (85).
Use the PIE (Point-Illustration- Explanation) format Illustrate every major point you want to make in your paper with a clear textual evidence (example from the book) using the PIE method. Treat all source materials like “guest speakers” in your papers, always introducing them and providing follow-up commentary. Always introduce each quotation or textual evidence in context of the scene in which it appears in the book in your own words. You generally don’t want to start a paragraph or end a paragraph with a quotation; instead, you want to sandwich it between your own ideas. Make sure there is a reason you’re using an author’s idea at that particular place in the essay. It should belong there and support your point. Be sure to follow up each quotation or textual evidence with your own commentary, unpacking the passage in specific terms to show how it illustrates you point.
Citing Long Quotations Use the indented format for quotation that are 4 or more typed lines. Indent the whole passage on the left margins 2 tabs (up to the 1 marker on the ruler). The right margins stay the same. Omit quotation marks (except to indicate quotations within that passage, i.e. dialogue). In the indented format, the parenthetical citation comes after the period of the last sentence.
Altering Quotations ANY change to a quotation must be indicated. Brackets indicate you added something. Ellipsis indicate you deleted something. Make sure the changes do take the quotation out of context. Examples: Rodriguez claims, “[The bilingualists] do not seem to realize that there are two ways a person is individualized” (9). (In this case, [The bilingualists] is taking the place of a pronoun that would be unclear out of context) Rodriguez says, “Only when I was able to think of myself as an American... could I seek the rights and opportunities necessary for full public individuality” (9).