2Cell Theory 1. All living things are made up of cells. 2. Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things.3. Living cells come only from other living cells
3Cell Theory: Robert Hooke The first person to see a cell was Robert Hooke in 1665He was looking at cork cells under the microscope he saw cells for the first time.The shape of the cells reminded him of the monk monasteries and so he dubbed them "cells." Hooke’s Journal Drawing of the corkcells
4QuestionWhich of the following statements is NOT correct based on the cell theory?A. A single water droplet from a hot spring can give rise to an amoeba.B. An amoeba cell can divide to form two new daughter cells.C. An amoeba can be considered living because it is a unicellular organism.D. An amoeba cell contains genetic material in its nucleus and responds to its environment.
5All organisms are made up of cells! Organisms can be made up of only one cell or manyUnicellular= one celled organism, ex. Bacteria, protistsMulticellular= several celled organism, ex. Plants, animals, fungus
6Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Organisms are characterized by whether the DNA(genetic material) in a nucleus or not:Prokaryotic cells do NOT have a nucleus or membrane bound organelles. The stuff just floats around all around cell.Ex. Bacteria and other unicellular organismsEukaryotic cells have a nucleus that contains DNA, or genetic information, within chromosomes and other membrane bound organelles.Ex. Plant, animals, fungi (multicellular)
8Plant vs Animal CellsSome differences between Plant cells and Animal cells are:Plant cells have cell walls as their outermost layer to keep in water and give a more rigid structurePlant cells have chloroplasts that contain chlorophyll for pigmentation and photosynthesisPlant cells have larger vacuoles (used for water storage)Some Animal cells have flagellum connected to the cell membrane which aids in movement.
10Cell Organelles: Both Plant and Animal Cell Membrane - forms the outer boundary of the cell and allows only certain materials to move into or out of the cellThe “Gatekeeper” of the cellCytoplasm - a gel-like material inside the cell; it contains water and nutrients for the cellNucleus - directs the activity of a cell; it contains chromosomes with the DNAThe “BRAIN” of the cell
11Releases energy to the cell The ‘POWERHOUSE” the cell MitochondriaReleases energy to the cellThe ‘POWERHOUSE” the cellLooks like a jellybean; a jellybean is made of a lot of sugar; which makes kids have a lot of ENERGY!
12QuestionA eukaryotic animal cell contains several different types of organelles. These include:A. Cell wall, cell membrane, and nucleusB. Vacuoles, mitochondria, and chloroplastC. Cell wall, vacuoles, and nucleusD. Cell membrane, nucleus, and mitochondria
13QuestionWhich organelle helps to produce energy for the cell?A. MitochondriaB. NucleusC. VacuoleD. Ribosomes
14Cells Make Up TissuesTissues: A group of similar cells working togetherTissues make up OrgansOrgans make up Body SystemsCells Tissues Organs Body Systems
16Integumentary System Skin, hair and nails Main function is protection Helps regulate body temperatureReceives stimuli such as pressure, heat, cold and pain
17Muscular SystemThe human body contains more than 650 individual musclesThe muscular system provides movement for the body
18Skeletal System Provides shape Supports and protects the body Produces red blood cells– an average of 2.6 million cells each second (bone marrow)Stores minerals – such as calcium and phosphorus
19Circulatory SystemHeart, blood and blood vessels (arteries, veins and capillaries)Transports blood (oxygen and nutrients) throughout the body
20Respiratory System Nose, larynx, pharynx, trachea, lungs, bronchi Diaphram - muscle that helps w/breathingTakes in oxygen and releases carbon dioxide
21Nervous System Central Nervous System - brain and spinal cord Peripheral Nervous System - Nerve cells (neurons)Sends and receives messages (electrical impulses) to and from the brain.
22Digestive SystemDigestive Tract - Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anusLiver, pancreas, and gall bladder helps with digestionReceives and breaks down food, absorbs nutrients, and excretes solid waste.
23Endocrine System Regulates body functions through release of horomones Glands and hormonesPituitary: Master glandThyroid: MetabolismParathyroids: Regulates calcium in blood.Adrenal: Produces adrenalinePineal: Secretes melatoninOvaries/Testes: ReproductionPancreas: Produces insulin to maintain blood glucose level.
24Excretory System 2 Kidneys, 2 ureters, urinary bladder and urethra. Filters and cleans bloodProduces, stores and eliminates urine.
25QuestionHow do the heart and lungs work together to provide oxygen to cells?A. The heart supplies oxygen to the blood. The lungs deliver the blood throughout the body.B. The heart and lungs both filter oxygen from carbon dioxide. The heart and lungs deliver oxygen throughout the body.C. The lungs supply oxygen to the blood. The heart delivers the blood throughout the body.D. The heart holds the blood. The lungs pump the blood throughout the body.
26QuestionA student touches a hot stove and immediately withdraws her hand from it. The student experienced an adrenaline rush when she felt the heat from the stove. Chemicals rushed through her body, giving her a little scare. The body system that produces such chemicals that affect other parts of the body is the: A. Endocrine system B. Integumentary system C. Circulatory system D. Skeletal system
28Asexual vs. Sexual Reproduction Asexual Reproduction: DNA is COPIED from the parent resulting in uniform offspring (CLONE). These cells divide by binary fission, forming spores, by budding, or by vegetative propagation.Examples: bacteria, protists,
29Asexual vs. Sexual Reproduction Sexual reproduction: DNA is combined from 2 parents producing offspring that are genetically different from the parent organisms.Sexual reproduction produces a greater chance of variation which improves the chances that a species will adapt to his environment and survive.