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7th Grade Supporting Standards STAAR Review

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Presentation on theme: "7th Grade Supporting Standards STAAR Review"— Presentation transcript:

1 7th Grade Supporting Standards STAAR Review

2 Cell Theory 1. All living things are made up of cells.
2. Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things. 3. Living cells come only from other living cells

3 Cell Theory: Robert Hooke
The first person to see a cell was Robert Hooke in 1665 He was looking at cork cells under the microscope he saw cells for the first time. The shape of the cells reminded him of the monk monasteries and so he dubbed them "cells." Hooke’s Journal Drawing of the cork cells

4 Question Which of the following statements is NOT correct based on the cell theory? A. A single water droplet from a hot spring can give rise to an amoeba. B. An amoeba cell can divide to form two new daughter cells. C. An amoeba can be considered living because it is a unicellular organism. D. An amoeba cell contains genetic material in its nucleus and responds to its environment.

5 All organisms are made up of cells!
Organisms can be made up of only one cell or many Unicellular= one celled organism, ex. Bacteria, protists Multicellular= several celled organism, ex. Plants, animals, fungus

6 Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic
Organisms are characterized by whether the DNA(genetic material) in a nucleus or not: Prokaryotic cells do NOT have a nucleus or membrane bound organelles. The stuff just floats around all around cell. Ex. Bacteria and other unicellular organisms Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus that contains DNA, or genetic information, within chromosomes and other membrane bound organelles. Ex. Plant, animals, fungi (multicellular)


8 Plant vs Animal Cells Some differences between Plant cells and Animal cells are: Plant cells have cell walls as their outermost layer to keep in water and give a more rigid structure Plant cells have chloroplasts that contain chlorophyll for pigmentation and photosynthesis Plant cells have larger vacuoles (used for water storage) Some Animal cells have flagellum connected to the cell membrane which aids in movement.

9 Vacuoles in Plants Cells

10 Cell Organelles: Both Plant and Animal
Cell Membrane - forms the outer boundary of the cell and allows only certain materials to move into or out of the cell The “Gatekeeper” of the cell Cytoplasm - a gel-like material inside the cell;  it contains water and nutrients for the cell Nucleus - directs the activity of a cell; it contains chromosomes with the DNA The “BRAIN” of the cell

11 Releases energy to the cell The ‘POWERHOUSE” the cell
Mitochondria Releases energy to the cell The ‘POWERHOUSE” the cell Looks like a jellybean; a jellybean is made of a lot of sugar; which makes kids have a lot of ENERGY!

12 Question A eukaryotic animal cell contains several different types of organelles. These include: A. Cell wall, cell membrane, and nucleus B. Vacuoles, mitochondria, and chloroplast C. Cell wall, vacuoles, and nucleus D. Cell membrane, nucleus, and mitochondria

13 Question Which organelle helps to produce energy for the cell? A. Mitochondria B. Nucleus C. Vacuole D. Ribosomes

14 Cells Make Up Tissues Tissues: A group of similar cells working together Tissues make up Organs Organs make up Body Systems Cells Tissues Organs Body Systems

15 Body Systems

16 Integumentary System Skin, hair and nails Main function is protection
Helps regulate body temperature Receives stimuli such as pressure, heat, cold and pain

17 Muscular System The human body contains more than 650 individual muscles The muscular system provides movement for the body

18 Skeletal System Provides shape Supports and protects the body
Produces red blood cells– an average of 2.6 million cells each second (bone marrow) Stores minerals – such as calcium and phosphorus

19 Circulatory System Heart, blood and blood vessels (arteries, veins and capillaries) Transports blood (oxygen and nutrients) throughout the body

20 Respiratory System Nose, larynx, pharynx, trachea, lungs, bronchi
Diaphram - muscle that helps w/breathing Takes in oxygen and releases carbon dioxide

21 Nervous System Central Nervous System - brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System - Nerve cells (neurons) Sends and receives messages (electrical impulses) to and from the brain.

22 Digestive System Digestive Tract - Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus Liver, pancreas, and gall bladder helps with digestion Receives and breaks down food, absorbs nutrients, and excretes solid waste.

23 Endocrine System Regulates body functions through release of horomones
Glands and hormones Pituitary: Master gland Thyroid: Metabolism Parathyroids: Regulates calcium in blood. Adrenal: Produces adrenaline Pineal: Secretes melatonin Ovaries/Testes: Reproduction Pancreas: Produces insulin to maintain blood glucose level.

24 Excretory System 2 Kidneys, 2 ureters, urinary bladder and urethra.
Filters and cleans blood Produces, stores and eliminates urine.

25 Question How do the heart and lungs work together to provide oxygen to cells? A. The heart supplies oxygen to the blood. The lungs deliver the blood throughout the body. B. The heart and lungs both filter oxygen from carbon dioxide. The heart and lungs deliver oxygen throughout the body. C. The lungs supply oxygen to the blood. The heart delivers the blood throughout the body. D. The heart holds the blood. The lungs pump the blood throughout the body.

26 Question A student touches a hot stove and immediately withdraws her hand from it. The student experienced an adrenaline rush when she felt the heat from the stove. Chemicals rushed through her body, giving her a little scare. The body system that produces such chemicals that affect other parts of the body is the: A. Endocrine system B. Integumentary system C. Circulatory system D. Skeletal system

27 Asexual vs Sexual Reproduction

28 Asexual vs. Sexual Reproduction
Asexual Reproduction: DNA is COPIED from the parent resulting in uniform offspring (CLONE). These cells divide by binary fission, forming spores, by budding, or by vegetative propagation. Examples: bacteria, protists,

29 Asexual vs. Sexual Reproduction
Sexual reproduction: DNA is combined from 2 parents producing offspring that are genetically different from the parent organisms. Sexual reproduction produces a greater chance of variation which improves the chances that a species will adapt to his environment and survive.

30 Kingdoms

Eubacteria Archaebacteria Protista Fungus Plant Animal Cell Type prokaryotic eukaryotic Number of Cells unicellular most unicellular most multicellular multicellular Level of Organization cell most cell most tissue systems Mode of Nutrition auto/heterotroph heterotroph (absorption) autotroph heterotroph Reproduction asexual sexual/asexual Examples Escherichia coli Streptococcus methanobacteria algae, diatoms, amoebas, lichen, yeast, mushrooms trees flowers grass Reptiles mammals

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