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Lecture 4: Defining the Problem: Present Level of Performance (PLOP) and Problem Analysis Developed by Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP School Psychology Program.

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Presentation on theme: "Lecture 4: Defining the Problem: Present Level of Performance (PLOP) and Problem Analysis Developed by Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP School Psychology Program."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lecture 4: Defining the Problem: Present Level of Performance (PLOP) and Problem Analysis Developed by Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP School Psychology Program Idaho State University Fall 2010 Idaho State University: School Psychology: SCPY 6699 Response to Intervention

2 Determining PLOP (Present Level of Performance) Define the Problem ◦ Measurement Strategy  Present Level of Performance (PLOP)  Problem Analysis Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP, Professor and Program Leader 2

3 “What is the Present Level of Performance (PLOP)?” Present Level of Performance (PLOP) describes an individual’s baseline level of performance in a target behavior at a specific point in time. Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP, Professor and Program Leader3

4 PLOP 4 Currently, Matthew can read 45 WPM with 4 errors which is at the 10th percentile compared to his peers. Students his age are expected to read at a rate of 100 WPM with 3 errors to achieve performance at the 50th percentile.

5 Benefits of Collecting PLOP data PLOP data provides a benchmark /baseline against which subsequent performance can be compared. Helps to set challenging, achievable goals that compare the individual to him/herself Compare the individual with other standards: ◦ peer expectations ◦ teacher expectations ◦ school rules/expectations ◦ performance standards Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP, Professor and Program Leader5

6 Steps for describing PLOPs 1. Collect baseline data 2. Summarize that data 3. Choose a performance standard 4. Evaluate your data Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP, Professor and Program Leader6

7 Step 1: Collect Data Behavioral definition to define what we will measure, e.g. Reading Choose a measurement strategy, e.g. (event) words read correctly Collect enough data to be ◦ stable ◦ representative Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP, Professor and Program Leader7

8 Data should be… 3-5 Measures, that…Teacher says are “typical”, and… Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP, Professor and Program Leader8 StableRepresentative Are Collected in appropriate setting(s) Are Collected within a relatively short time period Accurately describe the behavior as it naturally occurs.

9 Step 2: Summarize the Data Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP, Professor and Program Leader9 Use a MEDIAN score. (Median = middle) 16,22,23median = ,136,140median = ,107,107median = ,32,32median = 32 20,24,30,31median = 27 65,72,80median = ________ 48,61,62median = ________ 91,92,94,95median = ________

10 Step 3: Select a Performance Standard expert judgment peer performance criteria for next environment instructional placement standards school policy/standards developmental norms medical standards adult expectations (parents, teachers, employers) local CBM norms Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP, Professor and Program Leader10 A Performance Standard is a yardstick to measure baseline data

11 Step 4: Evaluate Data Does a discrepancy exist between the individual’s performance and the chosen standard? ◦ “no” = STOP“yes” = answer next question Is the discrepancy large enough for you to implement an intervention to reduce it? ◦ “no” = STOP“yes” = DO SOMETHING!! Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP, Professor and Program Leader11

12 Describe PLOP: Chris 1. Collect baseline data. Special education staff will collect data on the amount of time to clean a motel room for three consecutive days using Duration Recording Sheet. ◦ Results:  Day 1:20 minutes  Day 2:24 minutes  Day 3:31 minutes Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP, Professor and Program Leader12

13 Describe PLOP: Chris (contd.) 2. Summarize baseline data Find median level of performance Median duration = 24 minutes 3. Select a performance standard Performance standard: motel job description and established standards = motel room must be cleaned within 15 minutes Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP, Professor and Program Leader13

14 Describe PLOP: Chris (contd.) 4. Evaluate the baseline data. A.Is there a discrepancy between Chris’ performance and that of the performance standard? Yes. Chris is expected to clean a motel room within 15 minutes. Chris’ median level is 24 minutes. B.Is the discrepancy sufficiently large to suggest that an intervention is needed? Yes. Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP, Professor and Program Leader14

15 Describe PLOP: John 1. Collect baseline data. Resource room teacher will use grade book to record total number of assignments given, and total number of assignments completed during first four weeks of the quarter. Data will be converted to percentages. Results: Week 1:20% Week 2:20% Week 3:0% Week 4:0% Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP, Professor and Program Leader15

16 2. Summarize baseline data. Find median level of performance. Median percentage = 10% assignment completion (20-0 midpoint = 10%) 3. Select a performance standard Teacher expectation; teacher expects individual to complete all of their assignments and turn them in by their due date. Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP, Professor and Program Leader16 Describe PLOP: John (cont.)

17 1. Evaluate the baseline data. A.Is there a discrepancy between John’s performance and that of the performance standard? Yes. 10% actual assignment completion vs. expectation for 100% completion B.Is the discrepancy sufficiently large to suggest that an intervention is needed? Yes. Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP, Professor and Program Leader17 Describe PLOP: John (cont.)

18 Describe PLOP: Sally 1. Collect baseline data Special class teacher will record latency between directions and when Sally begins getting ready for recess for three consecutive recesses. Results: Episode 1: 8 minutes Episode 2: 5 minutes Episode 3: 5 minutes Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP, Professor and Program Leader18

19 Describe PLOP: Sally (cont.) 1. Summarize baseline data Find median level of performance 2. Select a performance standard Teacher expectation and peer performance Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP, Professor and Program Leader19 Median latency = 5 minutes Teacher expects Sally to begin getting ready for recess within one minute of directions.

20 Describe PLOP: Sally (cont.) 4. Evaluate the baseline data A.Is there a discrepancy between Sally’s performance and that of the performance standard? B.Is the discrepancy sufficiently large to suggest that an intervention is needed? Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP, Professor and Program Leader20 Yes. A median latency of 5 minutes vs. teacher expectation and peer performance of 30 seconds. Yes.

21 Writing a PLOP Statement Include: description of the strengths relevant to the presenting problem description of the problem: academic, non-academic, and/or transition areas the baseline performance ◦ the performance standard selected/applied ◦ general statement of the expectation for change ◦ other information relevant to the presenting problem Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP, Professor and Program Leader21

22 PLOP Statement: Chris Chris can follow the cleaning steps accurately and cleans the motel rooms well. However, Chris’s employer expects that he clean each room within 15 minutes. Chris cleans rooms a median time of 24 minutes. Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP, Professor and Program Leader22

23 PLOP Statement: John John’s assignment completion in other classes is adequate. When John turns in history assignments, the answers are usually correct. However, he only turns in a median of 10% of his history assignments. The teacher’s expectation is that students turn in 100% of assignments on time. It would be expected that John will turn in at least 80% of his assignments on time. Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP, Professor and Program Leader23

24 PLOP Statement: Sally Sally is able to make a transition from one academic activity to another within a one minute time frame. However, Sally does not begin to get ready for recess after a direction is given within a one minute period. Sally’s median time between the teacher giving the direction and her beginning to get ready for recess was 5 minutes. Her peers were able to begin tasks within 30 seconds of teacher direction. It would be expected that Sally will be able to comply within a one minute period. Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP, Professor and Program Leader24

25 Results-Based Model Define the Problem ◦ Measurement Strategy  Present Level of Performance (PLOP) ◦ Problem Analysis Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP, Professor and Program Leader25

26 Problem Analysis Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP, Professor and Program Leader26 WHY?? Why do I have a “DISCREPANCY”?

27 “What is problem analysis?” Problem analysis is the process used to examine probable explanations for the discrepancy between what the individual is expected to do and what the individual is doing. Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP, Professor and Program Leader27

28 Assumptions Analysis is conducted for problem solving, not. expertise related to the content domain is present on the problem solving team (if it is not, get it). There is a high likelihood that an will be carried out. Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP, Professor and Program Leader28

29 Problem Analysis is: Data based Question oriented Multi-dimensional Focused Collaborative Based on sound procedures Leads to an intervention Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP, Professor and Program Leader29

30 Problem Analysis Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP, Professor and Program Leader30 If done well, an intervention usually falls in your lap.

31 Problem Analysis Actions: A. Clarify problem as skill or performance B. Reconsider the domains C. Organize and review existing information D. Examine probable explanations for the discrepancy and possible solution Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP, Professor and Program Leader31

32 A. Clarify problem as skill or performance Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP, Professor and Program Leader32

33 Performance Problems Performance problems are the result of the behavior of the individual. The individual has the skills to do the work, but the individual’s behavior is getting in the way.

34 Skill Problem Skill problems are the result of the individual not knowing or not being able to do the requested work or activity.

35 Skill or Performance... Important: The nature of a problem is domain-independent. ◦ Academic problems can be skill or performance in nature. ◦ Social-Emotional problems can be skill or performance in nature. Be sure to consider both possibilities for all problems. Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP, Professor and Program Leader35

36 Skill or Performance? Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP, Professor and Program Leader36 When in doubt, treat problems as skill deficits.

37 Jeremy has a reading problem. Skill ◦ Needs additional instruction, practice and feedback ◦ Early acquisition of a skill Performance ◦ Can retell details ◦ Doesn’t care if retells details ◦ Topic is uninteresting to him ◦ Thinks it is stupid ◦ Errors are not attended to Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP, Professor and Program Leader37 Jeremy’s median score of retelling details is 2. Peers retell a median of 5 details.

38 Christine has many problematic bus behaviors. Skill ◦ She has never learned to ride the bus appropriately. ◦ She does not understand the rules. Performance ◦ She has the skills to follow the rules, but disobeys them. ◦ Disobeying the rules is more reinforcing than following them. Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP, Professor and Program Leader38

39 B. Reconsider Four Domains ICEL Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP, Professor and Program Leader39 Learner Instruction Problem Curriculum Environment

40 C. Organize and review existing information Why is this problem situation occurring? What factors are contributing to the mismatch that exists between actual and desired levels of performance for each problem? What resources are available to help resolve this problem situation? Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP, Professor and Program Leader40

41 D.Examine probable explanations for the discrepancy and possible solution Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP, Professor and Program Leader41 Problem analysis shows that if _________ is (behavior) the problem, then ____________ will/should (intervention) ___________________________________. (effect/outcome/results upon “problem”). Apply this format:

42 Sample Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP, Professor and Program Leader42 Concern: Madonna does not understand what she reads. “Guesstimate:” Madonna uses sight approach to reading and does not have decoding skills to sound out unfamiliar words. Problem analysis shows that if decoding in reading is the problem; then, if Madonna is taught and masters phonics, her reading will improve.

43 Problem Analysis: Chris Concern: Chris cleans rooms too slowly. “Guesstimate”: Chris is watching television instead of devoting his full attention to cleaning rooms. Problem analysis shows that if ____________ is the problem, then ____________ will should ___________________________________. (effect outcome results upon problem) Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP, Professor and Program Leader43

44 Problem Analysis: Chris Problem analysis shows that if cleaning the rooms too slowly is the problem, then decreasing the amount of time on each task will help. Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP, Professor and Program Leader44

45 Concern: Julia does not turn in assignments and is failing history “Guesstimate” Julia is not motivated to turn in assignments. Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP, Professor and Program Leader45 Problem Analysis: Julia

46 Problem analysis shows that if_________is the problem, then ____________will/should ___________________________________. (effect/outcome/results upon the “problem”). Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP, Professor and Program Leader46

47 Problem Analysis: Julia Problem analysis shows that if motivation is the problem, then putting Julia on a reinforcement schedule will increase the number of assignments turned in on time. Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP, Professor and Program Leader 47

48 Problem Analysis: Cindy Concern: Writing fluency is much slower than her peers “Guesstimate” Problem Analysis Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP, Professor and Program Leader48

49 Problem Analysis: Cindy Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP, Professor and Program Leader49 Problem analysis shows that if ______________is (behavior) the problem, then ____________will/should (intervention) ___________________________________. (effect/outcome/results upon “problem”). Apply this format:

50 Edward is a 9 year old, 3rd grade student described by his teacher as being “unmotivated and disinterested in his school work”. He has consistently low scores in all subject areas. His teacher and parent are particularly worried about his reading performance, with his assignments averaging about 50%correct during the first 9 weeks. He refuses to do his homework, and becomes angry when the teacher attempts to help him in class. Curriculum-Based probes of oral reading indicate that he is performing at about the 15th percentile. Skill Building Steps: 1.Write a Behavioral Definition of the “problem”. 2.Write a Measurement Strategy to measure the “problem”. 3.Write a PLOP statement. 4.Write a Problem Analysis statement. Skill Builder Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP, Professor and Program Leader50

51 Lecture 4: Defining the Problem: Present Level of Performance (PLOP) and Problem Analysis Developed by Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP School Psychology Program Idaho State University Fall 2010 Idaho State University: School Psychology: SCPY 6699 Response to Intervention


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