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Measurable Annual IEP Goals

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1 Measurable Annual IEP Goals
Our goals in this unit are: 1) To emphasize the concept that: SCHOOL is made up of the General Curriculum (Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks and Other Curriculum Areas), and Life of the School; and SCHOOL is for ALL Students; the IEP is the tool that helps students with disability(ies) ACCESS SCHOOL. 2) that an IEP Goal is SKILL BUILDING, and 3) to introduce the Definition of Measurability - DATA COLLECTION STRATEGY. IEP reviews, survey results, and Coordinated Program Review information, as well as anecdotal information from educators and parents, indicated that there was great confusion and many questions about goals and measurability. This procedure is a ‘package plan’. The package includes the determination of a Specific Goal Focus, the definition of a goal, vocabulary relating to a goal and objectives/benchmarks, and a Test for Measurability. Using individual pieces may not produce the desired results. So we suggest you suspend your thinking about present practice, and consider this approach. Massachusetts Department of Education 8/2005

2 IDEA 2004 IEPs for all students must include a statement of measurable annual goals, including academic and functional goals. Benchmarks or short-term objectives must be included in an IEP for a student with significant cognitive disabilities (P.L , Section 614(d). ) The Department requires school districts to continue to use benchmarks or short-term objectives for all students to address the federal requirement for describing how progress will be measured. Note that they may have heard that there have been changes to the requirements of Measurable Annual Goals and Objectives/Benchmarks in IDEA 2004. Massachusetts has continued to maintain the standard of using measurable annual goals and objectives/benchmarks for all students.

3 Progress Reporting IDEA 2004
All IEPs must contain a written description of how the student's progress toward meeting annual goals will be measured, and when periodic written reports will be issued. (Authority: P.L , Section 614(d). See proposed regulation (a)(2) & (3).) An opportunity to again address what might have been seen as changes of practice in Massachusetts. This slide is the law, the next slide reiterates Massachusetts continued practice.

4 Progress Reporting Massachusetts
In Massachusetts, writing Measurable Annual Goals and Objectives/Benchmarks, and Progress Reports that answers: What is the student’s progress towards meeting the annual goal? Is the progress sufficient to enable the student to achieve the annual goal by the end of the IEP period? Satisfies the federal requirement As stated in the previous notes, Massachusetts practice has not changed.

5 Individualized Education Program
This image emphasizes that the IEP is a single unit with many components. While today we are talking about Measurable Annual Goals, it is important to remember that: The IEP Goals do not stand alone. The Goals depend on all the information documented prior to to writing the Goals – Parent and Student Concerns, Student Strengths and Key Evaluation Results Summary, Vision Statement, Present Level of Educational Performance, Accommodations and Specially Designed Instruction, and Current Level of Performance All of the Pieces Fit Together

6 School Access to the General Curriculum and Life of the School A, B, C
Curriculum Frameworks Other Curriculum Areas School Life of the A, B, C Accommodations IEP Goals Specially Designed Instruction and/or Related Services Vision, Concerns & Assessments Accessing Remember: IEPs are written to inform educators and families of the route the student will take so he/she will access, participate and progress in the general curriculum and the life of the school. It is a picture of the child as student and member of the school community, including concerns visions, strengths, weaknesses, disability impact, services, placement… While this presentation, focuses on goals and objectives/benchmarks – note the subtle distinction: educators will provide accommodations and specially designed instruction, as necessary – so that students can accomplish their students IEP goals, and objectives/benchmarks. The arrows on either side of the blue box indicate the cyclical nature of the process. They show how the IEP helps the student ACCESS SCHOOL(the general curriculum and life of the school), as well as the annual nature of the process. This demonstrates the dynamic process that results in access, participation and progress. Everything together, the Accommodations and SDI, IEP Goals, Related Services, all help the student access the general curriculum. This graphic can be a Major Training Tool for all Team members Now that we have placed the IEP into context, and understand its use as a tool for access, participation, and progress in the general curriculum and life of the school (SCHOOL), we move on to the development of goals, and our next KEY CONCEPT. IEP Goals

7 MEASURABLE ANNUAL GOALS
3 Key Concepts A Goal Must Be Skill Building There Must Be a Data Collection Strategy that Supports the Measurability of the Goal A Goal Must Contain a Target Behavior, Condition and Criteria Setting up the content of today's presentation.

8 Key Concept #1 In order to access, participate, and
make progress in the general curriculum and the life of the school, A GOAL MUST BE SKILL BUILDING. KEY CONCEPT #2: A GOAL IS SKILL BUILDING A GOAL BUILDS SKILLS AND ALLOWS THE STUDENT TO ACCESS, PARTICIPATE AND MAKE PROGRESS IN THE GENERAL CURRICULUM AND THE LIFE OF THE SCHOOL. A GOAL DOES NOT REWRITE THE CURRICULUM AND IS NOT CONTENT AREA (ALGEBRA, U.S.HISTORY, BIOLOGY, LITERATURE). IT MOVES A STUDENT TOWARD GREATER INDEPENDENCE IN ACADEMICS AND OTHER SKILLS. These skills are directly related to how the disability impacts the student’s learning and participation in the life of the school. Remember, Special Education is specially designed instruction and/or related services - not curriculum. The IEP is a tool to help ACCESS SCHOOL. The Measurable Annual Goals, through skill building, are part of the process.

9 What skills does the Student need to develop
in order to access, participate and make progress in the general curriculum and the life of the school. 4th Component in the image: The goals and objectives/benchmarks describes what the student needs to do to access, participate and make progress in the general curriculum and the life of the school. (IEP 4) The goals and objectives/benchmarks address the specific goal focus areas that will make the biggest difference to the student’s ability to access, participate and make progress in school. They must be attainable and measurable. Students are working to narrow the gulf between their achievement and that of their nondisabled peers as independently as is possible. Measurable Annual IEP Goal

10 GOAL FOCUS A goal must focus on an area of need that will make the biggest difference to the student. The focus of the goal must help the student develop skills to access, participate and make progress in the general curriculum and the life of the school. Review Slide

11 These Areas are Easy to Picture as a Goal Focus in Need of Skill Building
Memory Communication ALWAYS KEEP IN MIND THE INDIVIDUALITY OF THE STUDENT. A student in need of skill building related to communication looks very different, and will require different skill building goals, if his/her disability is in the Sensory/Hearing category, Autism spectrum, or is a Communications Impairment. Time Management I Need Self Advocacy Emotions Organization

12 Curriculum or Skill Building?
Harder to Picture Would Reading, Writing and/or Mathematics Be Considered Curriculum or Skill Building? KEY CONCEPT #1: A GOAL IS SKILL BUILDING A GOAL BUILDS SKILLS AND ALLOWS THE STUDENT TO ACCESS, PARTICIPATE AND MAKE PROGRESS IN THE GENERAL CURRICULUM AND THE LIFE OF THE SCHOOL. A GOAL DOES NOT REWRITE THE CURRICULUM AND IS NOT CONTENT AREA (ALGEBRA, U.S.HISTORY, BIOLOGY, LITERATURE). IT MOVES A STUDENT TOWARD GREATER INDEPENDENCE IN ACADEMICS AND OTHER SKILLS. These skills are directly related to how the disability impacts the student’s learning and participation in the life of the school. A student in need of skill building related to reading looks very different, and will require different skill building goals, if his/her disability is in the Specific Learning Disability Category, Intellectual Impairment, or is a Sensory/Vision Impairment Remember, Special Education is specially designed instruction and/or related services - not curriculum. The IEP is a tool to help ACCESS SCHOOL. The Measurable Annual Goals, through skill building, are part of the process.

13 If the student needs to develop skills in reading, writing and math in order to access, participate and progress in the general curriculum or the life of the school, then reading, writing and math move from CURRCULUM to SKILLS. From the data we collected, it was clear that one of the greatest areas of confusion was about ‘Curriculum Goals’. There were questions about whether or not the strands from the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks should be IEP goals. Remember, curriculum is for everyone. The IEP does not repeat the curriculum. It identifies the students strengths, weaknesses, disability(ies) and impact on learning, accommodations, specially designed instruction, goals, objectives, benchmarks, service delivery … the tool for ACCESS. Reading, Writing, and Math may be more confusing. They fall into two categories. There is curriculum based on each, included in the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks. Reading, Writing, and Math are also SKILLS. So how do you know if you choose reading for a goal focus, is it based on skill building or curriculum requirements? Students may need goals addressing reading, math, and/or writing, but these are different from ‘content’ goals because they develop skills in reading, writing, and/or math in order to access, participate and make progress in the curriculum of their peers.

14 EXAMPLE While all 2nd graders are learning to read, a student in 2nd grade who has dyslexia may require a goal related to reading in order to help her develop the skills necessary to read. The skill being developed through this goal is a different reading skill than the reading skills her peers are developing.

15 life of the school goals.
What about life skills goals? From the IEP survey, and other discussions across the state, we know that students with severe disabilities have learning needs that do not appear to connect up to the general curriculum (Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks) as written. Teams sometimes have difficulty finding a correlation between the school curriculum, and the student’s current performance level. There are times when a student needs “life skills” goals, however they do not replace ‘academic’ or ‘life of the school’ goals. A student must have both life skills goals and academic goals. For Curriculum development and lesson planning: For every standard in the Massachusetts Curriculum Framework, the Resource Guide to The Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks for MCAS Alternate Assessment (2001) addresses: the Learning Standard as written the Essence of the Standard(s), and possible Entry Points to Learning Standard(s) from less complex to more complex. These can be found at: (http://www.doe.mass.edu/mcas/alt) Reminder that IEP Goals/Objectives/Benchmarks still need to be skill building, not curriculum. A Team may decide that a student with disabilities needs to develop skills that will help the student be successful in daily life. These goals must not be the only goals on the IEP or replace academic or life of the school goals.

16 Occupational Therapy, Counseling, Speech Therapy, Physical Therapy...
Services and Goals Occupational Therapy, Counseling, Speech Therapy, Physical Therapy... Services for a student with disabilities are identified on IEP 2&3. Specially Designed Instruction and/or Related Services are recorded on IEP 5 on the service delivery grid. The Goals are what the student will do - recorded on IEP 4. In most cases, services can be incorporated in a student’s goal, making the goal interdisciplinary. For example: A student working to improve communications skills may work on it in more than one venue with more than one practitioner - in the general education classroom with the speech therapist, general educator, paraprofessional… and the progress would be reported in an integrated report. Reminder:Goals are written to reflect what the student will do, not what service is provided.

17 Measurable Annual IEP Goals
Measurable Objectives Measurable Benchmarks CHECK FOR MEASURABILITY/ Data Collection Strategy Survey results indicated the need for clarity for the following terms: “measurability”, “goals”, “objectives”, and “benchmarks”. Not an easy task, as education/IEP language does not necessarily match the outside world. For example - in the dictionary “goal” and “objective” appear to be the same. In IDEA they are not! Objectives are components of goals. Goals are the annual progress. So our procedure clarifies the vocabulary surrounding goals, objectives, and benchmarks, and delineates a working definition of measurability. We will start with a Working Definition of Measurability - A goal will be considered measurable if it contains all of the defined components of a goal (coming up!) and responds to a “Data Collection Strategy’. NOW LET’S SEE WHAT A DATA COLLECTION STRATEGY IS . . .

18 Check for Measurability
The Team must begin to discuss what Data Collection Strategy will be used to measure the progress toward reaching this goal. Key Concept #2 As a Team begins the discussion of goal focus and goals, included in the thinking must be the question - ‘How will we measure this goal?’. If we are going to be able to measure or assess progress, DATA must be collected in our Data Collection System, and the Team must be able to answer: What data will be collected? What is the source of the data? What is the data collection schedule? Who will collect the data? For a goal to be measurable, these questions need to be answered - not as an addition to the IEP, but to ensure measurability. Therefore, the data collection strategy must be implemented. KEY CONCEPT #3 - WORKING DEFINITION OF MEASURABILITY - DATA COLLECTION STRATEGY We encourage PRACTICE, PRACTICE, PRACTICE, needed for learning new techniques. DATA COLLECTION STRATEGY The discussion should answer:  What data will be collected?  What is the source of the data?  What is the data collection schedule?  Who will collect the data?

19 Measurable Annual Goal Components
Key Concept #3 Measurable Annual Goal Components Target Behavior - The skill or behavior in need of change. Condition - Circumstances under which the target behavior is to occur. Criteria - Acceptable level of performance of the target behavior. Results of the survey indicated the need to define a measurable annual goal. We have defined a measurable annual goal to have three components: Target Behavior - The skill or behavior in need of change. Condition - Circumstances under which the target behavior is to occur. Criteria - Acceptable level of performance of the target behavior. And to have a data collection strategy that allows for measurability. Criteria: Words that connote measurability often imply a 100% compliance. “Accurate”, “consistent”, and “independent” are words of measurability that sometimes translate into 100% - but not necessarily. You can be very independent and still need help. You may be accurate and still make some mistake. However, some things need to be learned at 100% accuracy, such as learning the alphabet or crossing the street. Please keep this in mind. Terms of Measurability - See handout. Some examples of terms that can be used when developing a measurable goal. This is a short list. There are many more. Also - we have frequently been asked, “ What’s wrong with using percents when measuring?” Percents are only useful when a goal is meaningful. The next slide is an example of a goal in which the criteria was changed (using benchmarks and percents). However there was no task analysis, no clear breakdown of skills being learned, and lots of potential for confusion.

20 Is this Goal Meaningful?
When asked to cut a straight line, Sam will be able to use scissors with 80% accuracy. Benchmarks By 1st quarter, Sam will cut with 20% accuracy. By 2nd quarter, Sam will cut with 40% accuracy. By 3rd quarter, Sam will cut with 60% accuracy. This goal was chosen to illustrate the importance of understanding, as you read the goal, the skill that the student is working on, under what conditions, and how it will be measured. Example: John will cut a line with 80% accuracy. (For the benchmarks we changed the criteria. We had seen this done in many of the sample IEPs.) When independently asked to describe this goal, one staff drew 5 lines planning on cutting 4 of them correctly. Another staff drew one line and cut 80% correctly. A third interpretation was associated with the ability to physically use scissors. Lessons learned: First, everyone needs to understand the goal. The importance of being on the same page; Second, changing the criteria, in this case the %, needs to be meaningful; Third, task analysis would have made the goal more meaningful; and Fourth, the need for a data collection strategy.

21 Measurable Annual Goals
Examples Measurable Annual Goals TARGET BEHAVIOR CONDITION CRITERIA Nadia will identify types of sentences (simple, compound, complex) when editing scoring 3/4 on the MCAS Scoring Guide for Standard English Conventions. Monday through Friday, Jillian will use the public transportation system to get to and from her job placement, independently arriving at work on time, for any five consecutive days. Note that Nadia’s goal is aligned to the MCAS scoring Guide. The district may have a writing rubric that could be a criteria as well. Carlos’ goal works well for the secondary level, as it includes subject areas as conditions. Activities: During professional development training opportunities, staff can practice diagramming their own goals. Diagramming activity included in handouts. Examples of re-written goals included in handouts.

22 Measurable Annual Goals
Examples Measurable Annual Goals TARGET BEHAVIOR CONDITION CRITERIA When given a topic in History, Social Sciences, English Language Arts or Science and Technology, Jose will be able to independently write a three-paragraph essay containing the required elements; introduction, supporting details, and conclusion. More Examples

23 Measurable Objectives NOTE: Knowing your student remains imperative.
Objectives break the Measurable Annual Goal into discrete components that are short-term, measurable, intermediate steps. To ensure measurability, each objective should have a Target Behavior, Condition, and Criteria. More survey questions/requests: the definitions of objectives and benchmarks - Is there a difference? does it matter whether a goals is broken into objectives or benchmarks? OBJECTIVES: break the Measurable Annual Goal into discrete components that are short-term, measurable, intermediate steps. Reinforce the process for measurability. Has the same components as a goal. CONTAINS: Target Behavior, Condition, and Criteria. Needs to be measurable - apply the ‘Data Collection Strategy’. A Goal can be broken into objectives or benchmarks - whichever works best. Both need to be measurable!!! - AS DOES THE GOAL! NOTE: Knowing your student remains imperative. One Team’s OBJECTIVE may be another Team’s GOAL. Next slide - EXAMPLES OF OBJECTIVES

24 Examples of Objectives:
Given a list of sentences, Nadia will accurately label the three types of sentences. Nadia will be able to write acceptable examples of the three types of sentences when asked. Given a topic, Nadia will be able to write a paragraph using the different types of sentences. GOAL: Nadia will identify types of sentences (simple, compound, complex) when editing, scoring 3/4 on the MCAS Scoring Guide for Standard English Conventions. FYI - 4 types of sentences refer to simple, compound, complex, compound-complex. Note that Objectives break the Measurable Annual Goal into discrete components that are short-term, measurable, intermediate steps. Remember Nadia’s annual goal from a few pages ago - Nadia will identify types of sentences (simple, compound, complex) when editing scoring 3/4 on the MCAS Scoring Guide for Standard English Conventions.

25 Measurable Benchmarks
Benchmarks break the Measurable Annual Goal into major milestones that the student is expected to reach within a specified period of time. Benchmarks break the Measurable Annual Goal into major milestones that the student is expected to reach within a specified period of time. To help ensure measurability, Benchmarks may also have Target Behaviors, Conditions, and Criteria. Next slide: EXAMPLES OF BENCHKMARKS To help ensure measurability, Benchmarks may also have Target Behaviors, Conditions, and Criteria.

26 Examples of Benchmarks:
By the end of the 1st quarter, accompanied by an adult, Jillian will walk to the bus stop, ride the bus to work, and get off at the correct work bus stop. By the end of the 2nd quarter, Jillian will be able to identify the steps she will follow to independently travel to work. By the end of the 3rd quarter, Jillian will independently walk to the bus stop, ride the bus to work and get off at the correct work bus stop. GOAL: By the end of the 4th quarter, Jillian will use the public transportation system to get to and from her job, independently arriving at work on time, for any five consecutive Monday through Fridays. Benchmarks break the Measurable Annual Goal into major milestones that the student is expected to reach within a specified period of time. Remember Jillian’s Annual Goal - Monday through Friday, Jillian will use the public transportation system to get to and from her job placement, independently arriving at work on time, for any five consecutive days.

27 Examples of Benchmarks:
By the end of the first quarter, Jose will enter his complete math, science, and social studies homework assignments into his daily agenda book at the end of each class, with teacher support. By the end of the second quarter, Jose will independently enter his complete math, science, and social studies homework assignments into his daily agenda book and ask his teachers to initial the book after each class. By the end of the third quarter, Jose will independently enter his complete math, science, and social studies homework assignments into his daily agenda book and ask his HR teacher to initial the book at the end of each day. GOAL: By the end of the fourth quarter, when provided with an agenda book, Jose will independently record his homework assignments in English, Math, Social Studies and Science. Goal for Jose: When provided with an agenda book, Jose will independently record his homework assignments in English, Math, Social Studies and Science. NOTE: Over the course of the year there has been a change in ‘conditions’ - moving Jose toward greater independence.

28 Objectives, Benchmarks
FINAL STEPS IN THE PROCESS Measurable Annual Goals Objectives, Benchmarks Now the Team can complete the process and finish the data collection discussion. We must do this in order to have this process of checking measurability work. This is not a “must” in the legal sense, as it is not a requirement under the law.  What is the source of the data?  What is the data collection schedule?  Who will collect the data? NOTE: This is a suggestion for the process not a new requirement.

29 Data Collection Strategy
Data to be Collected Specific to goal, student, environment Data Collection Sources Examples: rubrics, checklists, observation, record of verbal responses, portfolios, shortened tests, open book tests, teacher-made tests, illustrations, reports/observations from internships and vocational experiences, hands-on performance, self-evaluation Data Collection Schedule Examples: quarterly, by mid-year, monthly, 30 consecutive days, last week of each month Data Collection Person Examples: general educator, special educator, related service provider, aide Review slide: First bullet gives examples of data collection sources - with multifaceted complex skills a rubric gives the data collector an opportunity to address multiple areas. Second bullet gives examples of data collection schedule - particularly important for goals and benchmarks. Third bullet gives examples of people who might be part of the data collection. Can be more than one person depending upon the skill being developed. For example, data may be collected on free time behaviors by lunch time staff (teachers, principals, lunch monitors), playground staff, and bus drivers. Handouts to help staff with data collection: Seven Ways to Collect Observation Data Sample Forms for Data Collection

30 Assures the parent that the student’s learning is continuous.
The Progress Report Answers the following questions: What is the student’s progress towards meeting the annual goal? Is the progress sufficient to enable the student to achieve the annual goal by the end of the IEP period? Review of the Progress Report Requirement Belief that if data is collected using this procedure, progress reports almost write themselves. They will be responsive to goals, and provide corroboration about progress. In the Department's Coordinated Program Review (CPR) process, the lack of meaningful progress reports is a very common finding, and might point to questioning whether goals/objectives/benchmarks are measurable. Assures the parent that the student’s learning is continuous.

31 The Complete Package 1. Goal Focus 2. Current Performance Level
3. Measurable Goals Target Behavior/Condition/Criteria Data Collection Strategy What - information collected Where - the source of the data When - collection schedule Who - person(s) responsible for data collection 4. Objectives/Benchmarks 5. Progress Reports Information from Data Collection Strategy Again, we developed this in response to requests from the field. We believe it is a procedure that works when used in its entirety.


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