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The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E. Scruggs, ISBN 0132659859 © 2014,

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Presentation on theme: "The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E. Scruggs, ISBN 0132659859 © 2014,"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E. Scruggs, ISBN © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0 The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction By Margo A. Mastropieri Thomas E. Scruggs Blanche Jackson Glimps, Contributor

2 Promoting Inclusion with Classroom Peers Chapter 9 The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E. Scruggs, ISBN © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 1

3 2 Objectives  Describe how to use classroom peers to promote social acceptance.  Describe how students can be employed as peer assistants, and describe difference uses of peer assistants.  Describe and evaluate different types of peer tutoring programs.  Gain understanding of peer tutoring and the benefits for tutors and tutees.  Describe how to set up and evaluate a peer tutoring program.  Describe the benefits and challenges of cooperative learning, and describe types of cooperative group arrangements.  Compare and contrast the uses and features of cooperative learning and peer tutoring.

4 The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E. Scruggs, ISBN © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 3 Promoting Social Acceptance Peers can become involved in accepting students with special needs from their first placement in a general education classroom Have students brainstorm strategies to help new student feel more accepted Select a strategy and implement Build community with Circle of Friends activity Promote acceptance with Special Friends Program

5 Peer Assistance Pairing students for the purpose of having one student available to assist another student when necessary Peers should lend assistance only when help is required Peer assistants should be trained Consider selecting “less obvious students” for the task Train to assist with different types of disabilities and activities Monitor the program to determine if objectives are achieved The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E. Scruggs, ISBN © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 4

6 Peer Assistance Checklist Identify the situation that requires assistance Identify peer assistants and buddies Train peers to work with students with disabilities Allow peer assistants to observe the student Train buddies for particular need areas Train for appropriate social interactions Match peers and buddies Meet and explain process with peers Monitor progress and modify as necessary The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E. Scruggs, ISBN © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 5

7 Promote Peer Social Initiation Procedures intended to enlist peer assistance in promoting social interaction with withdrawn or “isolate” children, including children with autism Done by: Asking student to play Giving or sharing a desired toy Assisting the student in using a particular material The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E. Scruggs, ISBN © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 6

8 Promote Peer Social Initiation Choose peer assistants who Attend school regularly Consistently exhibit appropriate social skills with peers Follow instructions reliably Maintain concentration on the task for at least 10 minutes per session Training should involve Explaining what will be expected Telling the student not to give up Rewarding the peer trainer for persistence The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E. Scruggs, ISBN © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 7

9 Peer Tutoring Tutoring can be a powerful tool in improving inclusive classroom performance Helpful in addressing diverse learning needs Benefits include: Improving academic skills in the subject tutored Tutors usually benefit by serving as “expert” May improve self-esteem May improve attitude toward the subject and school Students with disabilities may enjoy higher levels of social acceptance The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E. Scruggs, ISBN © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 8

10 Steps in Developing Peer Tutoring Program 1. Determine the content for tutoring material 2. Devise a tutoring plan Establish procedures Determine rules for appropriate behavior 3. Identify tutor roles and behaviors 4. Monitor performance 5. Collaborate with other teachers if needed The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E. Scruggs, ISBN © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 9

11 Strategies for Implementing a Tutoring Program Work across grade levels to implement cross-age tutoring Cross-age tutoring, older students serve as tutors for younger, lower-functioning students Implement same-age tutoring within your classroom Same-age tutoring, students who are more skilled in a particular area can tutor less- skilled students The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E. Scruggs, ISBN © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 10

12 Classwide Peer Tutoring One of the most highly recommended strategies for promoting achievement among diverse groups of learners All student are divided into pairs who alternate roles of tutor and tutee to master basic skills Benefits include increased time-on-task and opportunities to respond Recommended as a “Tier 1” Response to Intervention (RTI) approach Can be used at all grade levels and subjects The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E. Scruggs, ISBN © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 11

13 Planning and Implementing a Tutoring Program Clarify the specific objectives of the program List objectives in a form that can be easily measured Choose tutoring partners carefully Establish rules and procedures Implement the tutoring program, monitor, and consistently enforce rules and procedures Evaluate frequently The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E. Scruggs, ISBN © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 12

14 Classwide Peer Tutoring in Reading Pair each student with a partner The stronger reader reads the assigned passage aloud to the partner for 5 minutes The roles are reversed and the weaker reader reads for 5 minutes In a 2-minute “retell” session, the weaker reader is prompted to answer questions about what was learned In “paragraph shrinking,” the weaker student provides information (e.g., who, what, and main idea) for each paragraph In “prediction relay,” the student predict, read, check, and summarize The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E. Scruggs, ISBN © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 13

15 Strategies for Implementing a Tutoring Program Use a variety of tutoring materials Schedule regular tutoring sessions Devote one 45 minute session to teach students how to use the materials correctly and how to be a helpful partner Teach students specific words and gestures for reinforcing partners Emphasize good sportspersonship and cooperative behavior The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E. Scruggs, ISBN © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 14

16 Secondary Level Classwide Peer Tutoring Used in areas such as Reading Social studies English Chemistry History The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E. Scruggs, ISBN © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 15

17 Cooperative Learning Students are assigned to small groups and work collaboratively to complete group activities Strategies Create specific academic and/or social skills objectives Determine group parameters Explain goals, rules, roles, and procedures Monitor group activities Evaluate individual or group efforts The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E. Scruggs, ISBN © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 16

18 Cooperative Learning Integrate students with special needs Prepare students with special needs Explain procedures and rules Present them with a role in the group that is appropriate for their skill level Prepare students without disabilities Teach how to interact appropriately and how to accept individual differences in learning The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E. Scruggs, ISBN © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 17

19 Cooperative Learning Student Teams-Achievement Divisions (STAD) Students meet in heterogeneous groups to study material. Graded on improvement of group. Team-Assisted Individualization (TAI) Placed in structured heterogeneous curriculum-based groups based on pretest score. Students help each other complete assignment. Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC) Working in cooperative reading and writing groups. Teacher leads instruction. Jigsaw Each student learns particular piece of information and then contributes to group. Students are tested individually on learning. Can also be used where groups teach one another. Group Investigation Students determine how they will learn materials and organize group. The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E. Scruggs, ISBN © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 18

20 Peer Mediation Strategies Students are trained in how to identify conflicts, negotiate, mediate, and resolve 5 part procedure: 1. Jointly define the conflict 2. Exchange positions and interests 3. Reverse perspectives (state other’s point of view) 4. Invent at least three optional agreements for mutual gain 5. Reach an integrative agreement (the optional agreement that seems best to all parties) The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E. Scruggs, ISBN © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 19

21 Advantages of Cooperative Learning Improving achievement Group interaction Social learning Learning of students with special needs Students with disabilities can be included, and contribute, to activities they may not otherwise be able to participate The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E. Scruggs, ISBN © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 20

22 Challenges of Cooperative Learning Students with disabilities may not learn significantly more than if they participated in alternative learning conditions More successful when combined with individual accountability and group rewards Interventions must be planned and monitored carefully Takes more teacher preparation and transition time Lessons may take longer The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Differentiated Instruction, 5th ed., Margo A. Mastropieri, Thomas E. Scruggs, ISBN © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 21


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