2Cultural information1 1. History of Poetry Cultural Background1. History of PoetrySome of the earliest poetry is believed to have been orally recited or sung, closely related to musical traditions, and much of it can be attributed to religious movements: rhythm, rhyme, compression, intensity of feeling, the use of refrains.Following the development of writing, poetry has since developed into increasingly structured forms.Written composition meant poets began to compose for an absent reader.
3Cultural information2Cultural BackgroundMuch poetry since the late 20th century has moved away from traditional forms towards the more vaguely defined free verse and prose poem formats.
4Cultural information3 2. Classification Three major genres: Cultural Background2. ClassificationThree major genres:Epic poetry: a long story about brave actions and exciting events;Lyric poetry: more personal, shorter poems intended to be sung;Dramatic poetry: comedy and tragedy as subgenres.
5Text AnalysisText AnalysisStructural AnalysisRhetorical FeaturesModern life is more about material and tangible goods than about spirit pursuit. We set clear targets for our future, neglecting that we are gradually losing one joy that human kind usually have: the fun of spontaneity. The writer of this essay reminds us that poetry, especially creating poems, can provide us such pleasure. Though the writer of this essay writes in a half-mocking tone, and the method he introduces will not ensure us to create a wonderful, or even presentable poem, his real purpose is to make the creation of a poem less difficult than we may imagine and to induce amateurs to set their first steps on their journey to a more aesthetic life.
6Structural analysis1Text AnalysisStructural AnalysisRhetorical Features1. In terms of organization, the article clearly falls into three main parts:ParagraphsMain idea1-34-910-12The first part introduces the problem with poetry and the significance of the writer’s solution.The second part introduces in detail how people can create a poem of their own.The third part serves as the ending of the essay. In this part, the writer reiterates his intention and makes it clear he is just joking by presenting such a method of creating a poem.
7Structural analysis2Text AnalysisStructural AnalysisRhetorical Features2. The mocking tone of the author is mingled with some fairly emotional statements which reveal his real love of poetry, e.g.“Once a person has written a poem, of whatever quality, he will feel comradeship with fellow poets and, hopefully, read their works. Ideally, there would evolve a veritable society of poet-citizens, which would elevate the quality of life worldwide. Not only that, good poets could make a living for a change.” (Paragraph 3)“But at least it’s a poem and you’ve written it, which is an accomplishment that relatively few people can claim.” (Paragraph 10)
8Structural analysis3Text AnalysisStructural AnalysisRhetorical Features“Chances are, you’ll find their offerings stimulating and refreshing. You might even try writing some more of your own poems, now that you’ve broken the ice. Observe others’ emotions and experience your own — that’s what poetry is all about. (Paragraph 11)
9Rhetorical FeaturesText AnalysisStructural AnalysisRhetorical FeaturesApparently simple but lucid English, sometimes even a colloquial speech style, creating the effect of a heart-to-heart talk between the writer and the reader, e.g.“The last line of your poem should deal with the future in some way.” (Paragraph 8)“Now that poem (like yours, when you’re finished) is rotten.” (Paragraph 10)
10How to Write a Rotten Poem with Almost No Effort Detailed reading1Detailed ReadingHow to Write a Rotten Poem with Almost No EffortRichard HoweySo you want to write a poem. You’ve had a rotten day or an astounding thought or a car accident or a squalid love affair and you want to record it for all time. You want to organize those emotions that are pounding through your veins. You have something to communicate via a poem but you don’t know where to start.
11Detailed reading2Detailed ReadingThis, of course, is the problem with poetry. Most people find it difficult to write a poem so they don’t even try. What’s worse, they don’t bother reading any poems either. Poetry has become an almost totally foreign art form to many of us. As a result, serious poets either starve or work as account executives. There is no middle ground. Good poets and poems are lost forever simply because there is no market for them, no people who write their own verse and seek out further inspiration from other bards.
12Detailed reading3Detailed ReadingFortunately, there is a solution for this problem, as there are for all imponderables. The answer is to make it easy for everyone to write at least one poem in his life. Once a person has written a poem, of whatever quality, he will feel comradeship with fellow poets and, hopefully, read their works. Ideally, there would evolve a veritable society of poet-citizens, which would elevate the quality of life worldwide. Not only that, good poets could make a living for a change.
13Detailed reading4Detailed ReadingSo, to begin, have your paper ready. You must first understand that the poem you write here will not be brilliant. It won’t even be mediocre. But it will be better than 50% of all song lyrics and at least equal to one of Rod McKuen’s best efforts. You will be instructed how to write a four-line poem but the basic structure can be repeated at will to create works of epic length.
14Detailed reading5Detailed ReadingThe first line of your poem should start and end with these words: “In the — of my mind.” The middle word of this line is optional. Any word will do. It would be best not to use a word that has been overdone, such as “windmills” or “gardens” or “playground.” Just think of as many nouns as you can and see what fits best. The rule of thumb is to pick a noun that seems totally out of context, such as “filing cabinet” or “radiator” or “parking lot.” Just remember, the more unusual the noun, the more profound the image.
15Detailed reading6Detailed ReadingThe second line should use two or more of the human senses in a conflicting manner, as per the famous, “listen to the warm.” This is a sure way to conjure up “poetic” feeling and atmosphere. Since there are five different senses, the possibilities are endless. A couple that come to mind are “see the noise” and “touch the sound.” If more complexity is desired other senses can be added, as in “taste the color of my hearing,” or “I cuddled your sight in the aroma of the night.” Rhyming, of course, is optional.
16Detailed reading7Detailed ReadingThe third line should be just a simple statement. This is used to break up the insightful images that have been presented in the first two lines. This line should be as prosaic as possible to give a “down-to-earth” mood to the poem. An example would be “she gave me juice and toast that morning,” or perhaps “I left for work next day on the 8:30 bus.” The content of this line may or may not relate to what has gone before.
17Detailed reading8Detailed ReadingThe last line of your poem should deal with the future in some way. This gives the poem a forward thrust that is always helpful. A possibility might be, “tomorrow will be a better day,” or “I’ll find someone sometime,” or “maybe we’ll meet again in July.” This future-oriented ending lends an aura of hope and yet need not be grossly optimistic.
18Detailed reading9-10Detailed ReadingBy following the above structure, anyone can write a poem. For example, if I select one each of my sample lines, I come up with:In the parking lot of my mind,I cuddled your sight in the aroma of the night.I left for work next day on the 8:30 bus.Maybe we’ll meet again in July.10 Now that poem (like yours, when you’re finished) is rotten. But at least it’s a poem and you’ve written it, which is an accomplishment that relatively few people can claim.
19Detailed reading11-12Detailed ReadingNow that you’re a poet, feel free to read poetry by some of your more accomplished brothers and sisters in verse. Chances are, you’ll find their offerings stimulating and refreshing. You might even try writing some more of your own poems, now that you’ve broken the ice. Observe others’ emotions and experience your own — that’s what poetry is all about.Incidentally, if you find it impossible to sell the poem you write to Bobby Goldsboro or John Denver, burn it. It will look terrible as the first page of your anthology when it’s published.
20Detailed reading2--Quesions What does the writer think is the problem with poetry?The problem with poetry is that most people don’t know how to write a poem and there is no market for good poets and poems.
21Detailed reading3--Quesion 1. What is the solution for this problem suggested by the writer?The solution for this problem suggested by the writer is to make it easy for everyone to write at least one poem in his life.2. How does the writer justify his solution?The writer thinks this may not only enhance people’s recognition of poets but cultivate a poetry-loving society and elevate the quality of life.
22Detailed reading11-12--Quesion 1. What is the real intention of the writer to present such a method of creating a poem?By introducing such a method of creating a “rotten” poem, the writer is actually encouraging people to start their journey to the appreciation of poetry and to acquire a more intimate feeling toward poetry.2. What is the purpose of the last paragraph?Since the title of the essay bears a very obvious mocking feature, the last paragraph, which echoes with this tone, reminds his readers of the fact that he is merely joking.
23Detailed reading– Activity Class ActivityGroup discussion: What is your comment of author’s method of creating a poem and do you like the poem he composes according to this? Do you have any other ideas about how to create a poem?
24Detailed reading– pound1 pound v.strike or hit heavily and repeatedlye.g.Pounding on the floor, she shouted at the top of her voice.She slipped out of the office with the stolen secret file in her handbag, her heart pounding severely.
25Detailed reading– pound2 Collocations:pound against / one.g.Waves pounded against the pier.pound along / through / down, etc.e.g.I could hear him pounding up the stairs.pound oute.g.The Rolling Stones were pounding out one of their old numbers.
26Detailed reading– middle ground an area of compromise or possible agreement between two extreme positionse.g.Each party wants to capture the votes of those perceived as occupying the middle ground.In the argument everyone has to take sides; there is no middle ground.Practice双方谈判无法达成共同立场。The negotiators could find no middle ground.
27Detailed reading– squalid squalid a.morally repulsive; sordide.g.He was living in squalid conditions.Synonyms:degraded, filthy, poor, shabby, slummy, sordid, wretched
28Detailed reading– imponderable imponderable n.a thing that cannot undergo precise evaluatione.g.We can’t predict the outcome. There are too many imponderables.
29Detailed reading– rule of thumb a broadly accurate guide or principle, based on experience or practice rather than theory.e.g.I haven’t been taught the finer points of carpentry; I just make things by rule of thumb.Practice这笔生意的行事法则是礼貌至上。The rule of thumb in this business is courtesy.
30Detailed reading– cuddle cuddle v.hold close in one’s arms as a way of showing love or affection.e.g.He cuddles the baby close.What do you think of some youngsters cuddling each other in public places, paying no heed to those who pass by?Synonyms:fondle, nestle, snuggle
31Detailed reading– incidentally incidentally ad.by the waye.g.Incidentally, it was many months before the whole truth was discovered.Derivations:incident n.e.g.A spokesman said it was an isolated incident.incidental a.e.g.problems incidental to growing up
32Detailed reading– as a result … As a result, serious poets either starve or work as account executives. (Paragraph 2)Paraphrase:As a result, serious poets could no longer depend on poetry writing for a living; they have to turn to other profession, and most probably to become a businessman, which is held traditionally diametrically opposite to the profession of literary creation.
33Detailed reading– ideally… Ideally, there would evolve a veritable society of poet-citizens, which would elevate the quality of life worldwide. (Paragraph 3)Paraphrase:An ideal situation would be the development of a society composed of citizens who are dedicated to poetry writing, and from doing this people will have better life quality.
34Detailed reading– this is a … This is a sure way to conjure up “poetic” feeling and atmosphere. (Paragraph 6)Paraphrase:This is a way that will evoke poetic feeling and atmosphere for certain.
35Detailed reading– you might even … You might even try writing some more of your own poems, now that you’ve broken the ice. (Paragraph 11)Paraphrase:Since you have removed the awkwardness of poem writing, you might even want to have a try by yourself.
37Consolidation Activities- Word derivation 1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWriting1) ponder v. → imponderable a./n.他思考了几分钟才作答复。无法估计的问题我们无法预计结果，因为有太多的不确定因素。e.g.He pondered for some minutes before giving an answer.an imponderable questionWe can’t predict the outcome. There are too many imponderables.
38Consolidation Activities- Word derivation 2 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWriting2) poetry n. → poetic a. → poet n.诗歌朗诵会那位舞蹈家舞姿优美，富有诗意。他被女王封为桂冠诗人。e.g.a poetry readingThe dancer, moved with poetic grace.He was awarded the poet laureate by the queen.
39Consolidation Activities- Word derivation 3 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWriting3) accident n.→ accidental a.→ accidentally ad.他数年前死于车祸。今天偶然遇到一位老朋友。“他是无意中损坏的吗?”“不，是故意的。”e.g.He died in an automobile accident years ago.I had an accidental meeting with an old friend today.“Did he break it accidentally?” “No, on purpose.”
40Consolidation Activities- Word derivation 4 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWriting4) seek v. → seeker n. → unsought a.他寻求答案，但无结果。经济危机中求职者找工作困难重重。爱管闲事的邻居总是给我们一些没必要的建议。e.g.He sought vainly for the answer.During economic crisis, job seekers are in great difficulty.The meddling neighbor insisted on giving us unsought advice.
41Consolidation Activities- Word derivation 5 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWriting5) cuddle v.→ cuddly a.我可爱的小女儿走到她父亲那儿，要他抱抱她。它是我所知的最可爱的狗狗，让人总想去抱抱它。e.g.My lovely daughter came to her father for cuddling.It is the most affectionate and cuddly dog I have ever known.
42Consolidation Activities- Word derivation 6 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWriting6) juice n.→ juicy a.倒果汁前，先把瓶子摇几下。他要了一份多汁的后腿肉牛排。e.g.Give the bottle a couple of shakes before pouring the juice.He ordered a juicy rump steak.
43Consolidation Activities- Word derivation 7 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWriting7) orientate v. → disorientated a. → orientation n.我公司业务已转向出口方面。到了新地方我总是找不着方向。我在这个阶段需要熟悉情况。e.g.Our firm has been orientated towards the export side of the business.I always get disorientated in a new place.I needed some orientation at this stage.
44Consolidation Activities- Word derivation 8 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWriting8) verse n.→ versed a.伊丽莎白时代的许多戏剧以无韵诗形式写成。他精通光学。e.g.Many Elizabethan plays are written in blank verse.He is well versed in the science of optics.
45Consolidation Activities- Phrase practice VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingFill in the blank in each sentence with an appropriate phrasal verb or collocation from the text.1. The sound of the pipes images of misty Highland glens and men in kilts._____________conjures up2. The High Commissioner said the agreement would allow other vital problems to bedealt with____________3. I decided to go to the library to some information on Roman Conquest.seek out__________4. Tanks are strongly built. It is a complicated and difficult process to thembreakup_________
46Consolidation Activities- Phrase practice VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWriting5. The social change within the city wider developments in the country as a whole.___________relates to6. Faced with insurmountable linguistic problems, translators negotiated the boundaries between languages and a compromise.came up with_______________
47Consolidation Activities- conjures up VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingconjure up: bring a thought, picture, idea, or memory to someone’s minde.g.节食总能让人想起无尽的沙拉。Dieting always seems to conjure up images of endless salads.
48Consolidation Activities- dealt with VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingdeal with: take the necessary action, especially in order to solve a probleme.g.别担心，这件事我会处理的。Don’t worry, I’ll deal with this.
49Consolidation Activities- seek out VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingseek out: try to find someone or something, especially when this is difficulte.g.我们的任务就是找出敌人然后消灭他们。Our mission is to seek out the enemy and then destroy them.
50Consolidation Activities- break up VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingbreak … up: if sth. breaks up, or if you break it up, it breaks into a lot of small piecese.g.好像那架飞机刚刚在空中解体了。It seems that the plane just broke up in the air.
51Consolidation Activities- relates to VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingrelate to: if two things relate to each other, they are connected in some waye.g.新法规是否只涉及盗窃案?Does the new law relate only to theft?
52Consolidation Activities- came up with VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingcome up with: think of an idea, answer, etc.e.g.我们被要求想些新点子。We’ve been asked to come up with some new ideas.
53Consolidation Activities- Synonym / Antonym1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWriting1. Poetry has become an almost totally foreign art form to many of us.Synonyms:irrelevant, unfamiliar, strange2. Once a person has written a poem, of whatever quality, he will feel comradeship with fellow poets and, hopefully, read their works.Synonyms:friendship, brotherhood3. Ideally, there would evolve a veritable society of poet-citizens, which would elevate the quality of life worldwide.Antonyms:lower, degrade
54Consolidation Activities- Synonym / Antonym2 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWriting4. It won’t even be mediocre.Antonyms:exceptional, excellent5. I cuddled your sight in the aroma of the night.Synonyms:caress, hug, embrace6. This line should be as prosaic as possible to give a “down-to-earth” mood to the poem.Antonyms:unrealistic, impractical
55Consolidation Activities- Synonym / Antonym3 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWriting7. Now that you’re a poet, feel free to read poetry by some of your more accomplished brothers and sisters in verse.Synonyms:skilled, expert, proficient, successful8. Chances are, you’ll find their offerings stimulating and refreshing.Synonyms:product, composition
56Consolidation Activities- Grammar main VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingNon-finite Verb Forms as Object or ComplementTense
57Consolidation Activities- Grammar1.1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingNon-finite Verb Forms as Object or ComplementA non-finite verb is a verb form that is not limited by a subject and, more generally, is not fully inflected by categories that are marked inflectionally in language, such as tense, aspect, mood, number, gender, and person. There are three kinds of non-finite verb: participles, gerunds and infinitives.A non-finite verb can be used as an object, for example:My evening routine involves jogging slowly around the block.A non-finite verb can also be used as a complement, for example:He has a lot of things to do today.
58Consolidation Activities- Grammar1.2 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingPracticeComplete the following sentences with the appropriate verb forms.1. They object to (speak) to like that.2. I am writing with a view to (find) out whether you have any news about my son.3. I felt the house (shake) with the explosion.4. He has been caught (steal) by the police.5. We regret (inform) you that your application has not been successful.being spoken_______________finding________shake______stealing_________to inform___________
59Consolidation Activities- Grammar2.1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingTenseTense is a grammatical category that locates a situation in time, that indicates when the situation takes place.TenseAffirmative / Negative/ QuestionUseSimplePresent A: He speaks. N: He does not speak. Q: Does he speak?Action in the present taking place once, never or several timesActions taking place one after anotherAction set by a timetable or schedule
60Consolidation Activities- Grammar2.2 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingTenseAffirmative / Negative / QuestionUsePresent Progressive A: He is speaking. N: He is not speaking. Q: Is he speaking?Action taking place in the moment of speakingAction taking place only for a limited period of timeAction arranged for the futureSimple Past A: He spoke. N: He did not speak. Q: Did he speak?Action in the past taking place once, never or several timesActions taking place one after anotherAction taking place in the middle of another action
61Consolidation Activities- Grammar2.2 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingTenseAffirmative / Negative / QuestionUsePastProgressive A: He was speaking. N: He was not speaking. Q: Was he speaking?Action going on at a certain time in the pastActions taking place at the same timeAction in the past that is interrupted by another actionPresentPerfectSimple A: He has spoken. N: He has not spoken. Q: Has he spoken?Putting emphasis on the resultAction that is still going onAction that stopped recentlyFinished action that has an influence on the presentAction that has taken place once, never or several times before the moment of speaking
62Consolidation Activities- Grammar2.2 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingTenseAffirmative /Negative / QuestionUsePresentPerfectProgressive A: He has been speaking. N: He has not been speaking. Q: Has he been speaking?Putting emphasis on the course or duration (not the result)Action that recently stopped or is still going onFinished action that influenced the presentPast Perfect SimpleA: He had spoken.N: He had not spoken.Q: Had he spoken?Action taking place before a certain time in the pastSometimes interchangeable with past perfect progressivePutting emphasis only on the fact (not the duration)
63Consolidation Activities- Grammar2.2 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingTenseAffirmative / Negative / QuestionUsePast Perfect Progressive A: He had been speaking.N: He had not been speaking.Q: Had he been speaking?Action taking place before a certain time in the pastSometimes interchangeable with past perfect simplePutting emphasis on the duration or course of an actionFuture I SimpleA: He will speak.N: He will not speak.Q: Will he speak?Action in the future that cannot be influencedSpontaneous decisionAssumption with regard to the future
64Consolidation Activities- Grammar2.2 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingTenseAffirmative / Negative / QuestionUseFuture I Simple(going to) A: He is going to speak.N: He is not going to speak.Q: Is he going to speak?Decision made for the futureConclusion with regard to the futureFuture I ProgressiveA: He will be speaking.N: He will not be speaking.Q: Will he be speaking?Action that is going on at a certain time in the futureAction that is sure to happen in the near futureFuture II SimpleA: He will have spoken.N: He will not have spoken.Q: Will he have spoken?Action that will be finished at a certain time in the future
65Consolidation Activities- Grammar2.2 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingTenseAffirmative / Negative / QuestionUseFuture II ProgressiveA: He will have been speaking.N: He will not have been speaking.Q: Will he have been speaking?Action taking place before a certain time in the futurePutting emphasis on the course of an action
66Consolidation Activities- Grammar2. VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingPracticeComplete the following sentences with the appropriate form of the verbs given.1. It’s no use trying to see him at six this evening, because he (give) a lesson then.2. The children were frightened because it (get) dark.3. It’s high time you (start) to think about your chances of landing a good job after graduation.will be giving_______________was getting_____________started________We use the past tense in the clauses after “it’s time”, “would rather”, “wish”.
67Consolidation Activities- Grammar2. VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWriting4. I hope the weather (be) nice.5. Please send my best wishes when you (meet) him.will be / is____________The verb hope can be followed by a present tense with a future meaning, especially in the first person.meet______
68Consolidation Activities- Translation1.1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingTranslate the following sentences into English.1. 当他有倦意的时候，经常喝杯浓浓的清咖啡提提神。(refresh)To refresh sb. is to make him/her feel less tired or less hot.He often refreshed himself with a cup of strong black coffee when he felt fatigued.
69Consolidation Activities- Translation1.2 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingPractice：她睡了一觉就精神了。She felt refreshed after her sleep.我喝了一杯咖啡给自己提提神。I refreshed myself with a cup of coffee.
70Consolidation Activities- Translation2.1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWriting2. 他挤过一群醉鬼和讨价还价的女人，随后穿过灯火闪耀（flaring）的街市。(thrust)If sb. thrust(s) sth., he/she is to push this thing somewhere roughly.He thrust a throng of drunken men and bargaining women and walked through the flaring streets.
71Consolidation Activities- Translation2.2 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingPractice：他从人群中挤了过去。He thrust (his way) through the crowd.他把两手插入衣袋里。He thrust his hands into his pockets.
72Consolidation Activities- Translation3.1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWriting3. 老道的翻译家虽然理论不多但可以用凭借经验将一种语言转换成另一种语言。(rule of thumb)If sb. is doing sth. by rule of thumb, he / she is doing it according to a rough figure or method of calculation, based on practical experience.Experienced translators, though lacking in theory, can render one language into another by rule of thumb.
73Consolidation Activities- Translation3.2 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingPractice：按常规来说，这个年纪的孩子家庭作业的时间不应超过一小时。As a general rule of thumb, children this age should not spend more than one hour on homework.每一个学生的法则应该都是用功读书。Every student’s rule of thumb should be: study hard!
74Consolidation Activities- Translation4.1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWriting4. 人们普遍认为外长此行的主要目的是打破两国关系的僵局。(break the ice)If sth. breaks the ice, it is meant to make people feel more friendly and willing to talk to each other.It was generally believed that the major purpose of the foreign minister’s trip was to break the ice with regards to the relations between the two countries.
75Consolidation Activities- Translation4.2 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingPractice：山姆的到来打破了僵局，大家开始谈笑。Sam’s arrival broke the ice and people began to talk and laugh.主人给他的客人讲了个笑话来打破僵局。The host tell a joke to his guest to break the ice.
76Consolidation Activities- Translation5.1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWriting5. 读好书、结交好朋友可以提升境界。(elevate)To elevate the mind, morals, etc. is to make them better or more educated.Reading good books and making friends with good people can elevate the mind.
77Consolidation Activities- Translation5.2 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingPractice：老师希望给小学生读宗教故事来提高他们的修养。The teacher hoped to elevate the minds of her young pupils by reading them religious stories.阅读好书使人思想高尚。Reading good books elevates your mind.
78Consolidation Activities- Translation6.1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWriting6. 鲜花和彩灯给这个古老的小镇带来了一种节日的气氛。(lend)To lend sth. to a situation or event, etc. is to give it a particular quality.The flowers and the colourful lights lent a festive atmosphere to this ancient small town.
79Consolidation Activities- Translation6.2 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingPractice：有他出席这一场合就更显庄严。His presence lent dignity to the occasion.方言的适当运用给这本小说增添了极大的魅力。The appropriate use of dialect lent the novel great charm.
81Consolidation Activities- Dictation VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingDictationYou will hear a passage read three times. At the first reading, you should listen carefully for its general idea. At the second reading, you are required to write down the exact words you have just heard (with proper punctuation). At the third reading, you should check what you have written down.
82Consolidation Activities- dictaion script1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingDictationPoetry as an art form may have predated literacy. / Some of the earliest poetry / is believed to have been orally recited or sung. / Following the development of writing, / poetry has since developed into increasingly structured forms, / though much poetry since the late 20th century / has moved away from traditional forms / towards the more vaguely defined free verse / and prose poem formats.Poetry is often closely related to musical traditions, / and much of it can be attributed to religious movements. / Many of the poems surviving from the ancient world / are a form of recorded cultural information / about the people of the past, / and their poems are prayers or stories /
83Consolidation Activities- dictaion script2 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingabout religious subject matter, / histories about their politics and wars, / and the important organizing myths of their societies.
84Consolidation Activities- cloze1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingFill in each blank in the passage below with ONE word you think appropriate.Poems, unlike crosswords, don’t have a straightforward solution. In fact, a careful examination of the clues laid by the poet may lead to more (1) than answers. Let’s start with this question: is poetry simply about expressing feelings? People (2) turn to poetry in extremis. Prison inmates, often famously, have expressed loneliness and communicated with absent loved (3) through poetry. Maybe this (4) for the egalitarian view often held of poetry — a view which doesn’t seem to (5) in the same way to opera-singing or carpentry, for example. If I sing, does that make me anquestions___________will____ones_____accounts__________apply______
85Consolidation Activities- cloze2 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingopera singer? Certainly if I nail together a few pieces of wood that doesn’t mean anyone would want to hire me to build their house. With poetry, (6) with any other craft, there are skills to be mastered. There is a (7) for ideas and a need for the poet to meditate on what might be termed his or her muse. But there is also a need for persistence and hard work.A common description of the writing process is “10% inspiration, 90% perspiration.” The muse, expert at inspiring, may be lousy (8) the technical side. The art of poetry resides in the technical detail more than one might like to believe. The writer artfully uses techniqueas____need______at____
86Consolidation Activities- cloze3 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingwith the express (9) of getting you to (10) what he or she wants you to feel. The poet manipulates emotions just as a composer may write a piece of (11)to evoke a particular mood. The composer orchestrates not only the instruments but also the listener. This is the (12) in poetry too.wishfeel___________music_______case______
87Consolidation Activities- Hints1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingMore … than … means “instead of”, so the answer is questions.
88Consolidation Activities- Hints2 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammatically speaking, an auxiliary verb is needed here before turn. The proper auxiliary verb used to say what always happens in a particular situation (such as in extremis in the sentence) should be will.
89Consolidation Activities- Hints3 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingA noun is needed after an adjective, and this noun has not been previously specified, so one is a proper choice. Moreover, as no articles or possessive pronouns are mentioned in the sentence, the word filled in the blank should be in plural form. So the right answer should be ones.
90Consolidation Activities- Hints4 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingThe previous sentence is talking about prison inmates writing poems to express their feelings, and this sentence uses the phrase egalitarian views meaning a view that every one should be the same. Therefore, the previous sentence has demonstrated the view in this sentence, and a verb phrase meaning this as well as having the collocation of for should be accounts for.
91Consolidation Activities- Hints5 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingThe following sentences with the examples of singing and carpentry show that the egalitarian view cannot be applied in these situations, so the proper verb in the blank should be apply.
92Consolidation Activities- Hints6 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingWith poetry and with any other craft are of coordinate relation, so the suitable conjunction that can connect these two parts should be as.
93Consolidation Activities- Hints7 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingThe following sentence says “there is also a need for …”, and the present sentence begins with there is a __ for … and a need for, so the word in the blank should also be need.
94Consolidation Activities- Hints8 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingThe collocation of lousy is examined here, so the proper preposition is at.
95Consolidation Activities- Hints9 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingExpress as an adjective is to modify a noun, and because the context tells us that the writer is to get the reader to do sth., it can be his / her wish.
96Consolidation Activities- Hints10 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingIn the latter part of the sentence, the object clause saying what he or she wants you to feel, so accordingly, the verb of this object should be feel.
97Consolidation Activities- Hints11 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingWhat a composer writes is a piece of music.
98Consolidation Activities- Hints12 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingThis sentence wants to convey that the situation of poetry is the same, so a noun with a collocation of in is needed, and a suitable choice is case.
99Consolidation Activities- Oral activities-main VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGiving a TalkHaving a Discussion
100Consolidation Activities- giving a talk VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingTopic: Why do people read less nowadays?Tip:Giving the issue: People are reading less these days.Providing reasons:1) The fast pace of life leaves people less time on reading.2) In the information age people have more resources other than books such as multimedia materials and on-line surfing, etc.
101Consolidation Activities- Having a discussion VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingTopic: Appreciating and Wring PoemsViewpoints for reference:a. It is time-consuming to appreciate an even very short poem because it is so rich in meaning and symbolism, with rules of form and rhythm.b. Appreciating a poem can be fun because it not only contains the idea the writer wants to express, but also has a special format nicely portrayed and a rhythm which can be beautifully read aloud. The more you read, the more you will dig out the deep meaning of it.
102Consolidation Activities- Writing1.1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingEssay Writing: How to Write a Narrative EssayWhen you write a narrative essay, you are telling a story. Narrative essays are written from a defined point of view, often the writer’s. When the writer uses this technique, he or she must be sure to include all the conventions of storytelling, i.e. plot, character, setting, climax, and ending.The basic qualities of a narrative essay include the following:A narrative essay is a piece of writing that recreates an experience through time.
103Consolidation Activities- Writing1.2 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingA narrative essay can be based on one of the writer’s own experiences, either past or present, or it can be based on the experiences of someone else.In addition to telling a story, a narrative essay also communicates a main idea or a lesson learned.
104Consolidation Activities- Writing1.3 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingIn writing a narrative essay, keep the following conventions in mind:Narratives are generally written in the first person, that is, using I to refer to the story-teller. However, third person (he, she, or it) can also be used.Narratives rely on concrete, sensory details to convey their point. These details should create a unified, forceful effect, a dominant impression.Narratives, as stories, should include these story conventions: a plot, including setting and characters; a climax; and an ending.
105Consolidation Activities- Writing1.4 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingSampleLearning something new can be a scary experience. One of the hardest things I’ve ever had to do was learn how to swim. I was always afraid of water, but I decided that swimming was an important skill that I should learn. I also thought it would be good exercise and help me to become physically stronger. What I didn’t realize was that learning to swim would also make me a more confident person.New situations always make me a bit nervous, and my first swimming lesson was no exception. After I changed into my bathing suit in the locker room, I stood timidly by the side of the pool waiting for the teacher and other students to show up. After a couple of minutes the teacher
106Consolidation Activities- Writing1.5 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingcame over. She smiled and introduced herself, and two more students joined us. Although they were both older than me, they didn’t seem to be embarrassed about not knowing how to swim. I began to feel more at ease.We got into the pool, and the teacher had us put on brightly colored water wings to help us stay afloat. One of the other students, May, had already taken the beginning class once before, so she took a kickboard and went splashing off by herself. The other student, Jerry, and I were told to hold on to the side of the pool and shown how to kick for the breaststroke. One by one, the teacher had us hold on to a kickboard while she pulled it through the water and we kicked. Pretty soon Jerry was off doing this by himself, traveling at a fast clip across the short end of the pool.
107Consolidation Activities- Writing1.6 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingThings were not quite that easy for me, but the teacher was very patient. After a few more weeks, when I seemed to have caught on with my legs, she taught me the arm strokes. Now I had two things to concentrate on, my arms and my legs. I felt hopelessly uncoordinated. Sooner than I imagined, however, things began to feel “right” and I was able to swim! It was a wonderful free feeling — like flying, maybe — to be able to shoot across the water.Learning to swim was not easy for me, but in the end my persistence paid off. Not only did I learn how to swim and to conquer my fear of the water, but I also learned something about learning. Now when I am faced with a new situation I am not so nervous. I may feel uncomfortable to begin with, but I know that as I practice being in that
108Consolidation Activities- Writing1.7 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingsituation and as my skills get better, I will feel more and more comfortable. It is a wonderful, free feeling when you achieve a goal you have set for yourself.
109Consolidation Activities- Writing1.8 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingAnalysis of the SampleThe sample essay begins with a general statement, “Learning something new can be a scary experience.” This statement introduces the subject of the essay, which is a particular learning experience that the writer had. The use of “I” in the essay indicates that what is being described is a personal experience.The essay is essentially a story about something that happened. The writer gives sufficient details about the people, place, and events so that the reader gets a clear idea of how the she feels about them. In the essay, the writer “stood timidly” and the teacher “smiled” and was “patient.” These words indicate the writer’s fears and the sense of security provided by the teacher who helped her get over her fear.
110Consolidation Activities- Writing1.9 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingIn the final paragraph of the essay, the writer reflects on the larger meaning or importance of the experience described. She concludes that learning to swim has helped her to feel more confident about herself in other new situations. The idea that self-confidence comes from conquering your fears conveys a meaningful message to all people. This is the point of the story.The essay is well-organized. After the introduction, the writer describes the experience as it happened in time — going to the pool the first day, having the first lesson, and the result of the subsequent lessons. The writer might have chosen, however, to talk about the things she learned in order of their importance or difficulty.
111Consolidation Activities- Writing2.1 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingPracticeWrite a narrative essay on the given topic: A Particular Incident Deep in Your Memory.Sample:Michelle on TapeAs I pulled into my parents’ driveway, I realized how loud the radio was. I turned it down, peeled my legs off the blue vinyl seat, and lugged my pile of laundry up to the front door. The doorknob wouldn’t turn and I still hadn’t gotten around to making myself a duplicate key.I rang the bell and waited. Nothing. Leaving my basket of dirty clothes on the steps, I tramped through the bushes in front of the living room
112Consolidation Activities- Writing2.2 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingwindow. Pep was across the room sitting in his usual chair and reading the paper. He was a familiar sight in his plaid flannel shirt, striped clip-on bow tie, and tweed cabby hat.I knocked on the window. He turned around, startled, and focused his eyes on me. I smiled and waved at him, but he just stared at me. I gestured toward the front door. His face had that hollow look, but something made him get up and let me in.“Hi, Pep.” I kissed him on the cheek. He made way for me and my laundry “Hello, how are you?” I headed for the washing machine. Pep trailed closely behind “Kevin and Clare aren’t home, but they should be here soon. Do you want to wait for them?”
113Consolidation Activities- Writing2.3 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWriting“Yah, I’ll be here.” I began separating whites from darks “Do you want anything to eat? There’s meat and bread in the ice box and some cookies in there.” “No thanks.” “I don’t know where Kevin and Clare are. They took Katie out somewhere. Do you know Katie?” I paused. Here we go. This was going to be one of those conversations. I should just say, “Why, yes, I know Katie.” But perhaps if I venture a bit further, something might jog his memory and we wouldn’t have to go through the whole routine. Dad says that Pep has a tape recorder in his brain, and bits and pieces keep getting erased I decided to give it a shot. “Pep, Katie is my sister.”
114Consolidation Activities- Writing2.4 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingIt didn’t work. Pep responded as though I hadn’t said a word. “Yah. Well, they went down to …” He doubled his chin and scratched his chest with both hands “You know, down …” “To the Donnellys’?” “Yah, that’s it. What did you say?” I repeated, “Donnellys’,” loud and clear. It was usually best to speak with as few words as possible. The name Donnelly had a vague significance in Pep’s mind, but he had no idea that the Donnellys were my mother’s sister and her family “Yes, that’s right, they went to the Donnellys’. How did you know? What did you say your name was?” “Michelle.”
115Consolidation Activities- Writing2.5 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingHe smiled politely. “Oh, are you a friend of Clare’s?” “Pep! I’m her daughter.” “Yah, well, I just want to tell Kevin and Clare who was here in case you leave before they get back.” “I’m home for the weekend. I’m not going anywhere.” “Okay,” he said, with an offended tone that left me feeling guilty. He turned around and headed for his chair. He truly did not know who I was. He had let a perfect stranger into our house to wash clothes When I was a child, Pep would spend hours with me, patiently teaching me all fifty states and their capitals. When I had those down, we moved on to state flowers, birds, and slogans. He would read me his poetry and tell me never-ending bedtime stories about giants and fairies
116Consolidation Activities- Writing2.6 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingand magical castles. We would sit in front of the Christmas tree and try to guess which ornament the other was thinking of. On this day, though, I had more important things on my mind. Whites. Darks. Delicates Pep returned a few minutes later with a pen and his notebook “Here, write down your name so I can tell Kevin and Clare you were here.” The prospect scared me. I was hoping he would realize who I was after a while and forget that he had forgotten me. But this was putting everything on the line. What if he saw my name and still couldn’t recognize me? As he eagerly offered me the pen and paper, I couldn’t say no. I wrote M-i-c-h-e-l-l-e in his notebook and gave it back to him.
117Consolidation Activities- Writing2.7 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingHe looked at it for a few seconds and then wrinkled his eyebrows and bit his lip. He looked at me with a hint of disbelief “Michelle.” He said it with the expression of a disappointed but amused parent. The name seemed to hang in space. I imagined what would come next. He might say, “You’re not Michelle” or “Who in the world is Michelle?” But he said, “All this time you were Michelle?” “Yes.” That giant lump shot into my throat and tears crept into my eyes “Well, thank God for you.” I smiled. He patted me on the shoulder and walked away, shaking his head and chuckling. I was relieved. I did
118Consolidation Activities- Writing2.8 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingstill exist in his mind, on his tape. But I was only a part-time visitor now, and I couldn’t help wondering how long it would be before I was permanently erased.
119Section Five Further Enhancement-main Text IIMemorable QuotesLead-in QuestionsTextQuestions for Discussion
120Lead-in questions Lead-in Questions Text IIMemorable QuotesLead-in QuestionsDo you enjoy reading poems in daily life? What is your way of understanding a poem; do you read line by line and consult materials or just have a fast reading to get a glimpse of idea?
121The Interpretation of Poetry Text1Text IIMemorable QuotesThe Interpretation of PoetryRobert DiYanniWhen we interpret a poem, we explain it to ourselves in order to understand it. We make sense of it, in short. If one of our initial acts is to somehow appropriate the poem personally by relating it to our experience, another is to consider its meaning. When we interpret a poem, we concern ourselves less with how it affects us than with what it means or suggests. Interpretation relies on our intellectual comprehension and rational understanding rather than on our emotional apprehension and response.
122Text2Text IIMemorable QuotesThe act of interpretation involves essentially four things: observing, connecting, inferring, and concluding. We observe details of description and action, of language and form. We look for connections among these details and begin to establish a sense of the poem’s coherence (the way its details fit together in meaningful relationships). On the basis of these connections we make inferences or interpretive guesses about their significance. And finally, we come to a provisional conclusion about the poem’s meaning based on our observations, connections, and inferences.
123Text3Text IIMemorable QuotesAs we continue our discussion of “Those Winter Sundays,” we will offer additional observations, inferences, and conclusions, pretty much in that order. This description of the interpretive process makes it seem as if we perform each of these analytical acts in succession. That’s not the way it happens. Just as our personal responses and subjective impressions, our memories, sensations, and associations are stirred up while we read and after, so too all four aspects of interpretation occur simultaneously.
124Text4.1Text IIMemorable QuotesTo see what Hayden’s poem implies, let’s give it a second look.ROBERT HADEN[ ]Those Winter SundaysSundays too my father got up early and put his clothes on in the blueblack cold then with cracked hands that ached from labor in the weekday weather made banked fires blaze. No one ever thanked him.I’d wake and hear the cold splintering, breaking. When the rooms were warm, he’d call,
125Text4.2Text IIMemorable QuotesAnd slowly I would rise and dress, Fearing the chronic angers of that house,Speaking indifferently to him, Who had driven out the cold And polished my good shoes as well What did I know, what did I know of love’s austere and lonely offices?We might notice, for example, that the first words, “Sundays too,” indicate that the speaker’s father performed his housewarming chores every day, including Sundays. We might notice also that the poem contrasts cold and warm, with the cold dissipated as the warmth of the fires the father has started suffuses the house.
126Text4.3Text IIMemorable QuotesAnd we might note further that the poem shifts from father to son, from “him” to “I.” The first stanza, for example, describes the father’s act, the second the boy’s awakening to a warm house, while the third records a different kind of awakening — the speaker’s realization of his earlier indifference and of his father’s love. It is in this third and final stanza that we feel most strongly the contrast between the speaker’s past and present, between the then and the now of the poem, between the love that the speaker neither noticed nor acknowledged and the love he later acknowledges and understands.
127Text5.1Text IIMemorable QuotesSo far we have centered on the poem’s speaker and its subject. (The speaker refers to the voice of the character we hear in the poem; the subject indicates what the poem is about.) Our first readings of a poem will usually focus on who is speaking about what, and why. In considering speaker and subject, we solidify our sense of what the poem implies, whether its implications concern, primarily, ideas or feelings. When the speaker notes that he feared “the chronic angers of that house,” we may sense that he points toward something important.
128TextText IIMemorable QuotesPresumably he feared his father’s anger, which on occasion may have been directed at him. But by using the plural form of the word rather than the singular (“angers” rather than “anger”) the speaker may be suggesting that there was discord between the father and other members of the family as well. Whatever the specific nature of his fear, the speaker intimates that his fear was the source of his own wariness and indifference toward his father.The lines that convey the speaker’s feeling most intensely, however, are those that end the poem:What did I know, what did I know of love’s austere and lonely offices?
129Text6.2Text IIMemorable QuotesIn these lines we sense the speaker’s remorse and regret for not being aware of all his father did for him; we sense further that even though he didn’t understand and feel the extent of his father’s devotion, he certainly does later. Moreover, we sense the intensity of his feelings both in his repetition of the phrase “what did I know,” and in the words that describe his father’s actions: “love’s austere and lonely offices.” “Austere” suggests both the rigor and self-discipline of the father’s acts and perhaps the stern severity with which he may have performed them. “Lonely” indicates that the father performed his early morning labors alone, without help from the other members of the family.
130TextText IIMemorable QuotesIt also suggests that the father was emotionally isolated from the speaker and perhaps from other members of the family.But the word “offices” conveys other ideas as well. It implies both the duties the father fulfills and the corresponding authority he possesses. In addition, it suggests something done for another, as in the good offices of a friend. Beyond these related meanings, “offices” also refers to the daily prayers recited by clerics. Thus, the words “austere” and “offices” convey the speaker’s understanding of his father’s sacrifices for him.
131TextText IIMemorable QuotesMoreover, the highly abstract language of the conclusion–so different from the concrete details of the preceding stanzas — may also indicate the speaker’s inability to express affection directly (an inadequacy he intimates his father suffered from as well).To read poetry well we need to slow down enough to observe details of language, form, and sound. By reading slowly and deliberately, we give ourselves a chance to form connections among the poem’s details. Read the following poem twice, once straight through without stopping, then again with the interpolated commentary.
132Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening Text8.2Text IIMemorable QuotesROBERT FROST[ ]Stopping by Woods on a Snowy EveningWhose woods these are I think I know, His house is in the village though; He will not see me stopping here To watch his woods fill up with snow.My little horse must think it queer To stop without a farmhouse near Between the woods and frozen lake The darkest evening of the year.
133Text8.3Text IIMemorable QuotesHe gives his harness bells a shake To ask if there is some mistake The only other sound’s the sweep Of easy wind and downy flake.The woods are lovely, dark and deep, But I have promises to keep, And miles to go before I sleep, And mils to go before I sleep.Read the poem once more, this time along with the comments that follow each stanza. Attend to the way you make sense of the poem during this reading, particularly in light of the suggestions made in the commentary.
134Text8.4Text IIMemorable QuotesWhose woods these are I think I know, His house is in the village though; He will not see me stopping here To watch his woods fill up with snow.Comment Frost’s poem opens with a speaker who seems concerned momentarily about who owns the woods. The speaker seems reassured that the owner can’t see him. We might wonder why the speaker should be concerned and why he bothers to mention it. Does he feel that he is doing something wrong? The poem doesn’t say; instead it paints a picture of man, of woods and snow. And it raises questions: Why does he stop? What attracts him? Again, the poem doesn’t provide explicit answers.
135Text8.5Text IIMemorable QuotesMy little horse must think it queer To stop without a farmhouse near Between the woods and frozen lake The darkest evening of the year.Comment In the first stanza the speaker describes the scene and his own action. In this stanza, although he further describes this scene and action, he begins by mentioning that his horse is unaccustomed to stopping without a reason. The first line says that the horse “must” think it queer to stop this way, indicating that the horse can’t really look at the man’s action any other way.
136Text8.6Text IIMemorable QuotesAccustomed to stops for food and rest, the horse couldn’t possibly understand the man’s impractical reason for stopping. And though the horse is said to “think,” we realize that the horse’s thoughts are really the speaker’s — that the speaker projects his thoughts onto the horse because a part of him sees the impracticality of his action.He gives his harness bells a shake To ask if there is some mistake The only other sound’s the sweep Of easy wind and downy flake.
137Text8.7Text IIMemorable QuotesComment The third stanza continues the emphasis of the second. The speaker interprets the horse’s shaking of his harness bells as a signal to move on, as a sign that stopping there serves no useful purpose. We might notice that the poet here emphasizes the stillness of the night, the isolation and privacy of the moment, which is broken only by the sound of the horse’s bell. Tension builds in the mind of the speaker: even though he seems to enjoy the stillness of the night and takes pleasure in the “easy wind” and the “downy flake,” he also experiences some doubt about what he is doing.
138Text8.8Text IIMemorable QuotesStanza four:The woods are lovely, dark and deep, But I have promises to keep, And miles to go before I sleep, And mils to go before I sleep.Comment The opening line summarizes the implications of the detail in the preceding stanzas. It’s as if the speaker here answers the questions why he stopped by the woods. He stopped because he was attracted by their dark beauty. He nevertheless feels a pressure to move on, to return to his responsibilities and obligations.
139Text9.1Text IIMemorable QuotesThe final stanza is solemn and serious: Frost slows its pace by including pauses (indicated by punctuation) and by repeating the third line, “And miles to go before I sleep,” which he uses to end the poem. In repeating this line, the poet lifts it beyond its literal meaning, inviting us to read “sleep” as the final sleep of death. Once wemake this interpretive leap, we can consider “Miles to go” as perhaps the time the speaker has left to live, and “promises” as the obligations and responsibilities he must fulfill before he dies. His stopping to look at the falling snow can be seen as a temporary reprieve from such responsibilities; it might also be seen as a desire to escape them.
140TextText IIMemorable QuotesThe essential point, however, seems to be the tug of war going on in the speaker’s mind between the two possibilities — stopping to contemplate the beauty of nature, and moving on to return to the active world of work and responsibility.We have been reading and interpreting the poem one stanza at a time to suggest the way interpretation builds cumulatively as we move through a poem. The process, however, is not simply linear or sequential.
141Text10.2Text IIMemorable QuotesFor although we interpret later details in light of earlier ones, we also make sense of earlier ones after having interpreted later ones. The act of interpretation, like the experience of reading generally, is recursive. We move back and forth through a text, remembering what we read and anticipating what is to come. The process of interpretation does not end with reading the poem; it continues as we reflect on it afterward. New ideas may come to us, particularly after we have discussed the work with a teacher and classmates or after we have read other works that we can relate to it.
142Text11.1Text IIMemorable QuotesOne final point about the interpretation of poetry (and of literature generally): interpretation never really ends. When we interpret a work, we should be concerned less with finding the single right way of understanding it than with arriving at a satisfying explanation, one that makes sense to us, and one whose logic and good sense will appeal to others. Some interpretations, nonetheless, will be more satisfying than others. They will be more convincing, largely because the take into account more of the poem’s details, more of its language and form and action. Other interpretations, while perhaps not as convincing, may be valuable for the intellectual stimulation they provide and for the pleasure they afford.
143Text11.2Text IIMemorable QuotesBecause we invariably bring different experiences of life and of literature to our reading of poems, we will see different things in them and will make different kinds of sense of them. The varying interpretations we make of poems depend largely on what matters to us, what we consider vital.
144Text – About the authorText IIMemorable QuotesAbout the author and the text: Robert DiYanni is professor of English and Director of Interdisciplinary Studies at Pace University. He has taught graduate classes in English at New York University and Queens College — City University of New York. Among his books are The Art of Reading; Modern American Poets; Prose Pieces; Essays and Stories; Reading Poetry; Modern American Prose; and Women’s Voices. Professor DiYanni received his B.A. from Rutgers University and his Ph.D. from the City University of New York.The text is taken from the book Literature — Reading Fiction, Poetry, Drama, and the Essay (Second Edition).
145Text – ROBERT HADENText IIMemorable QuotesROBERT HADEN (Para. 4): Robert Hayden ( ) was an American poet, essayist, educator. He was appointed Consultant in Poetry to the Library of Congress in 1976.
146Text – ROBERT FROSTText IIMemorable QuotesROBERT FROST (Para. 8): Robert Lee Frost ( ) was an American poet. He is highly regarded for his realistic depictions of rural life and his command of American colloquial speech. His work frequently employed settings from rural life in New England in the early twentieth century, using them to examine complex social and philosophical themes. A popular and often-quoted poet, Frost was honored frequently during his lifetime, receiving four Pulitzer Prizes for Poetry.
147Text– sense of the poem’s coherence Text IIMemorable Quotessense of the poem’s coherence (Paragraph 2): This is the point of the essay: the main task of reading a poem is to understand the logic in and the general meaning of the poem, or the general purpose of the poet served by the facts and details presented in the poem.
148Text– solidify our sense of what the poem implies Text IIMemorable Quotessolidify our sense of what the poem implies (Paragraph 5): confirm our understanding of the poem, including its general purpose
149Text- make this interpretive leap Text IIMemorable Quotesmake this interpretive leap (Paragraph 9): draw metaphoric inferences on the basis or even beyond the concrete facts and explicit logic in the poem
150Text- because we invariably… Text IIMemorable QuotesBecause we invariably bring different experiences of life and of literature to our reading of poems, we will see different things in them and will make different kinds of sense of them. (Paragraph 11): In fact, in reading a poem, our understanding is usually subjective and affected by our personal experiences and emotions. Readers form various big pictures of a single poem and draw different inferences about the poem.
151Questions for discussion1 Text IIMemorable Quotes1. What is our chief concern when we endeavor to interpret a poem?When we endeavor to interpret a poem, our chief concern is what the poem really means or suggests, rather than how the poem affects us. In other words, interpretation is based on our rational understanding and intellectual comprehension instead of our emotional responses.
152Questions for discussion2 Text IIMemorable Quotes2. How does the author interpret the poem “Those Winter Sundays” based on observations, inferences and conclusions?The author senses the poet’s remorse and regret for not being aware of all his father did for him; the author also senses the intensity of the poet’s feelings both in his repetition of the phrase “what did I know,” and in the words that describe his fathers’ actions: “love’s austere and lonely offices.”
153Questions for discussion3 Text IIMemorable Quotes3. What does the poet Robert Frost try to tell the reader in his poem “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening”?It is a rare beautiful sight: “The woods are lovely, dark and deep”, which might fit into the poet’s aesthetic view. That’s why the poet stops his horse to appreciate this wondrous scene. However, one can not indulge himself too much in a particular attraction, as he has miles to go before he goes to sleep, which might be interpreted as one has so many obligations to fulfill before his eternal sleep — death.
154Questions for discussion4 Text IIMemorable Quotes4. Why do we say that one should interpret a poem before he is able to evaluate the poem?When we try to interpret a poem, we are supposed to pay sufficient attention to details and understand them as accurately as possible by virtue of intellectual capabilities and rational thinking. However, when we try to evaluate a poem, we are supposed to assess its literary quality and make a judgment about how good it is and how successfully it realizes its poetic intentions. Our consideration may involve an investigation into more complicated elements. So in a sense, we may say that interpreting a poem should come before evaluating the poem.
155Memorable Quotes1 Never durst poet touch a pen to write Text IIMemorable QuotesNever durst poet touch a pen to writeUntil his ink were temper’d with Love’s sighs.— Shakespeare
156Memorable Quotes2 Poetry, therefore, we will call Musical Thought. Text IIMemorable QuotesPoetry, therefore, we will call Musical Thought.— Carlyle
157Questions for Discussion Text IIMemorable QuotesQuestions for Discussion1) According to Shakespeare, what is the quality most essential for a poet and why?2) Where do you think the beauty of poetry comes from?
158Memorable Quotes1-note Text IIMemorable QuotesWilliam Shakespeare ( ) was an English poet and playwright, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world’s pre-eminent dramatist. He is often called England’s national poet and the “Bard of Avon”.
159Memorable Quotes2-note Text IIMemorable QuotesThomas Carlyle (1795–1881) was a Scottish satirical writer, essayist, historian and teacher during the Victorian era. He called economics “the dismal science”, wrote articles for the Edinburgh Encyclopedia, and became a controversial social commentator.