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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & COMPUTER ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF CENTRAL FLORIDA Group 28 Karel Castex, Julio Lara, David Wade, Jing Zou.

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Presentation on theme: "DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & COMPUTER ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF CENTRAL FLORIDA Group 28 Karel Castex, Julio Lara, David Wade, Jing Zou."— Presentation transcript:

1 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & COMPUTER ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF CENTRAL FLORIDA Group 28 Karel Castex, Julio Lara, David Wade, Jing Zou

2 Motivations and Goals Common interest in power electronics and power systems Renewable energy Unstable and uncontrollable To design a controller that can optimize the overall performance of an integrated wind and solar power system.

3 Objectives Small scaled Self-sustained Efficient User friendly

4 Requirements Able to produce steady output power Able to charging the batteries with variations Consume as little power as possible Safe both for users and electronic devices

5 Specifications Solar Panel Output Power>75W Open Circuit Output Voltage>12V Short Circuit Output Current>4A Weight< 20lb Wind Turbine Output Voltage>12V Output Power> 250W Generates power at> 3mph SizeSmall

6 Specifications Microcontroller Clock FrequencyLow Serial PortsYes Programming LanguageHigh level similar to C Programming Memory≥16K Analog PinsYes Digital input/output PinsYes PWM Output PinsYes Programming DebuggingYes Power consumptionLow, good sleep mode LCD Current DrawLow VoltageLow Lines Needed1 to 3

7 Specifications Battery Bank Voltage12V Depth of Discharge75% Lifespan Cycles Efficiency72-78% CostLow DC/DC Inverter (Voltage Regulator) Maximum Voltage> 15V Output Voltage> 12V DC/AC Inverter Continuous Max Power W Input Voltage12V Output Voltage VAC

8 Overall Block Diagram

9 Switching Algorithm

10 Wind Generator: Alternatives Model THE WORKHORSE 250W Hyacinth P-300WApollo 550W Rated Power250W300W450W Rated Voltage12 VAC Starting wind speed6 m/s3 m/s3.5 m/s Rated wind speed15 m/s12.5 m/s13 m/s Price$129$275$438

11 Wind Generator P-300W Hyacinth

12 VA ℃ AμAμAVA SQL Wind Generator: Three-phase full-wave bridge rectifier Diode 50A 1000V

13 Wind Generator Battery Charging System: Main Components LTC High Efficiency, Synchronous, 4-Switch Buck-Boost Controller LTC High Voltage High Current Controller for Battery Charging and Power Management

14 Wind Generator Battery Charging System: Main Components LTC3789 High Efficiency, Synchronous, 4-Switch Buck-Boost Controller details: Single Inductor Architecture Allows V IN Above, Below or Equal to the Regulated V OUT Programmable Input or Output Current Wide V IN Range: 4V to 38V 1% Output Voltage Accuracy: 0.8V < V OUT < 38V Synchronous Rectification: Up to 98% Efficiency Current Mode Control Phase-Lockable Fixed Frequency: 200kHz to 600kHz No Reverse Current During Start-Up V OUT Disconnected from V IN During Shutdown True Soft-Start and V OUT Short Protection, Even in Boost Mode

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16 Buck-Boost Controller: 4V Input Output: 1.8A fsw = 400kHz

17 Buck-Boost Controller: 15V Input Output: 2A fsw = 400kHz

18 Wind Generator Battery Charging System: Main Components LTC4000 Charging Controller & Power Manager details: Complete High Performance Battery Charger When Paired with a DC/DC Converter Wide Input and Output Voltage Range: 3V to 60V Input Ideal Diode for Low Loss Reverse Blocking and Load Sharing Output Ideal Diode for Low Loss PowerPath™ and Load Sharing with the Battery Instant-On Operation with Heavily Discharged Battery Programmable Input and Charge Current: ±1% Accuracy ±0.25% Accurate Programmable Float Voltage

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21 Battery Charging System: 12V Input Output: 13.4V

22 Linear Technologies Texas Instruments Vin (Max) (V)60 V40 V Cell Chemistry lithium, nickel and lead acid Lead Acid # Series CellsMultiple Charge Current (Max) (A) 20>2 A Charge Status Outputs 22 Control TopologySwitch-Mode Approx. Price (US$) $3.95 $3.35 Battery Charging IC Component

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24 Photovoltaic Panels Types Mono-Crystalline Silicon Polycrystalline Silicon Thin Film and Amorphous Silicon

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26 Polycrystalline Silicon SunWize SW-85PSolarland SLP-085 Rated Power (W)85 Rated Voltage (Vmp) Rated Current (Imp) Open Circuit Voltage (Voc) Short Circuit Current (Isc) Weight (lbs) Cost$249.85$260.00

27 SunWize SW-85P

28 Mounting Angles for Central Florida MonthJanFebMarAprMayJune 46°54°62°70°78°86° MonthJulAugSeptOctNovDec 78°70°62°54°46°38°

29 Mounting Bracket

30 Solar Charger with MPPT Morningstar SS- MPPT Solar Boost 2000e Peak Efficiency97.5%95% Nominal Battery Voltage 12V to 24V Maximum Battery Current 15A20A Current Consumption35mA90mA Cost$199.00$227.80

31 SunSaver MPPT Solar Charger

32 Switching Algorithm

33 Switching Circuit

34 Single P-Channel Power MOSFETS Texas Instruments CSD25211W1015 Power Management

35 2N7000 N-channel MOSFET 60V 0.2A 5 Ohm 1 inch

36 Controller Box IRPS concept for encapsulation of making decision main components Grouping linked actions to easily explain most IRPS functionality Controller box is important part of IRPS circuitry but not entire PCB design Encompass microcontroller, voltage sensors, current sensor, temperature sensor, LCD,USB interface

37 Microcontroller Low Clock Frequency Several Analog Inputs PWM Output Pins Serial UART Pins Programming Debugging Feature Programming Memory ≥ 16Kb High Level Programming Language (Similar to C) Convenient Software, Libraries, IDE Desirable Good Community Support

38 Atmel ATmega328Atmel AT91SAM7X512MSP430 (CC430)PIC24F Flash Memory32 Kb128 Kb32 Kb64 Kb Clock Speed16 MHz48 MHz20 MHz Voltage5V DC3.6V DC 3.3V DC Digital I/O14 I/O (6 PWM), 6 Analog Input 20 I/O (4 PWM,4 UART,SPI,I2C, 8 ADC Analog Input) 30 I/O (6 ADC,2 UART,SPI,I2C,PWM) 64 I/O (16 ADC,4 UART,SPI,I2C) CPU8 bit32 bit16 bit16 it DevelopmentArduino BoardNetduino BoardTI Dev. BoardMicrochip Board Prog. LanguageArduino (Similar to C)C,C#CC,C++ IDEArduino IDE (Free)Visual Studio (Free)TI IDE (<16 Kb Free)MPLAB IDE PriceBoard - $30, ATMega328 - $2.88 Board - $34.95, AT91SAM - $14.06 Board - $100 IDE- $200 if > 16Kb Board - $70 Microcontroller

39 Atmel ATmega328Atmel AT91SAM7X512MSP430 (CC430)PIC24F Flash Memory32 Kb128 Kb32 Kb64 Kb Clock Speed16 MHz48 MHz20 MHz Voltage5V DC3.6V DC 3.3V DC Digital I/O14 I/O (6 PWM), 6 Analog Input 20 I/O (4 PWM,4 UART,SPI,I2C, 8 ADC Analog Input) 30 I/O (6 ADC,2 UART,SPI,I2C,PWM) 64 I/O (16 ADC,4 UART,SPI,I2C) CPU8 bit32 bit16 bit16 it DevelopmentArduino BoardNetduino BoardTI Dev. BoardMicrochip Board Prog. LanguageArduino (Similar to C)C,C#CC,C++ IDEArduino IDE (Free)Visual Studio (Free)TI IDE (<16 Kb Free)MPLAB IDE PriceBoard - $30, ATMega328 - $2.88 Board - $34.95, AT91SAM - $14.06 Board - $100 IDE- $200 if > 16Kb Board - $70 Microcontroller

40 Voltage Sensor Connected to one Microcontroller ADC port It measures Wind Turbine, Solar panel, Both batteries output voltage Voltage Divider with a voltage follower and low pass filter Sensors scale down input voltage to 3.3 V which is the 100% microcontroller ADC reference 5.1V Zener Diode place in parallel to Microcontroller to control spikes Microcontroller receives data through internal ADC port and process it

41 Temperature Sensor TMP36DS1624 Supply Voltage2.7 – 5.5 V ConnectionOne analog input portI2C Bus MethodVoltage dropDigital output buffer Range-40 °C to +125 °C-55 to +125 °C Price$2 per unitFree (Sample)

42 Current Sensor Allegro ACS712Maxim MAX4172Honeywell CSLA2CD CurrentAC/DC DC Supply Voltage4.5V – 5.5V3V – 32V 6V – 12V Operating Temperature -40°C - 85°C -25°C - 85°C Bandwidth80kHz800kHz Output Sensitivity66 mV/A – 185 mV/A6.25 mV – 100 mV 32.7 mV Output Rise Time5µs 3µs Price $6.18$ 4.48 $29 Main advantage Easy to mount in on standard PCB Ideally for high current flow Amplification, totally isolation DisadvantageOnly works with DC Bulky size

43 Current Sensor Allegro ACS712 CurrentAC/DC Supply Voltage4.5V – 5.5V Operating Temperature -40°C - 85°C Bandwidth80kHz Output Sensitivity66 mV/A – 185 mV/A Output Rise Time5µs Price $6.18 Main advantage Easy to mount in on standard PCB Disadvantage

44 Switching Algorithm

45 LCD Serial Enabled 20x4 LCD - Black on Green 5V Faster boot-up time User definable splash screen Embedded PIC 16F88 utilizes onboard UART for greater communication accuracy VDD connect to 5V, GND to ground, RX and TX pins to microcontroller AT91SAM7X512 UART port chosen LCD is mean to display IRPS important reading such as: Solar Panel Voltage, Wind Turbine Voltage, Current Mode of Operation, Both Batteries percent of charge, Current System Output. Any alert or system running exception 105 mm 59.9 mm

46 Functionality Diagram Blue (boxes, arrows) mean logical stages and system direction flow Light red accent boxes describe physical components (interact with some stages) Red (boxes, arrows) denote critical system errors status Green (boxes, arrows) define successful checking of some components

47 Battery Bank AttributesLead AcidLi IonNaSNi-CdZn-Br Depth of Discharge 75%80%100% CostLowVery High High and auxiliary heating systems needed High Lifespan (Cycles) Efficiency72-78%100%89%72-78%75% Self-dischargeAverageNegligible HighNegligible Maturity of Technology MatureImmatureMature Immature

48 Battery Bank Deep-cycle lead-acid battery Periodically charge and discharge Large capacity High cycle count Absorbed glass mat (AGM) Eliminate the potential of acid leaking Durable Easy to transport (lower shipping cost) Practically resist damage from freezing Negligible water loss

49 7.15 in 6.60 in 3.06 in Battery Bank Universal Power Group (UPG) UB12180 D5745 Sealed AGM-type Lead-Acid Battery Nominal voltage: 12 volts Capacity at a 20 hour charge rate: 18Ah Internal resistance:18 mille-ohms Should be charged under constant voltage.

50 Dump and Diversion Loads Deal with the excess power Able to dissipate the maximum power of the wind turbine and solar panels used Vbattery = 14 voltsIwind = 32 amperesIsolar = 6 amperes Power = Voltage x Current Pwind = 448 watts Psolar = 85 watts

51 Dump and Diversion Loads WindyNation 12 volt dump load resistors Rload = 0.73 ohms Current = Battery Bank Voltage / Resistor’s resistance = amperes Pload = 268 watts Ability to hold up to 312 watts of power continuously

52 Dump and Diversion Loads Recall Pwind = 448 watts Psolar = 85 watts Wire multiple 268 watt resistors in parallel 448 watts = (268 watts) x (number of 0.73 Ohm resistors needed in parallel) Two of the WindyNation 0.73 ohm resistors needed for wind One for solar

53 Dump and Diversion Loads

54 Next Step Power supply for the Microcontroller, sensors, and LCD Switching Between the battery and dump load PCB System test

55 Completion Summary

56 Budget to the Date Parts ListCost per Part Number of Parts Total CostPurchased SW-S85P Solar Panels$ $ yes Mounting BracketFREE1 yes Hyacinth P-300W $2751 yes Morningstar SS- MPPT $ $ yes Printed Circuit Board (Student Special)$33.002$66.00 DS1624 Temperature Sensor$9.001FREE ACS712 Current Sensor $ yes Voltage Sensor$5.004$20.00 LCD Screens$ yes UPG UB12180 AGM-type Battery$49.982$99.96 yes 300 Watt Dump Load for 12 Volt Systems$21.983$65.94 yes DC/AC$ Power P-Channel MOSFETFREE6 yes Atmel AT91SAM7X512$21.512$43.02 yes Netduino$ yes LTC3789 Buck-Boost ControllerFREE1 LTC4000 Battery Charging ICFREE1 Total:$

57 Questions?


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