2 LINEAR POWER SUPPLY Circuit Skills: Power Supply .
3 SMPS (SWITCH MODE POWER SUPPLY) Practically all electronic systems require some form of energy conversion. A device that transfers electric energy from a given source to a given load using electronic circuits is referred to as power supply. Of course, it does not really supply power, it just converts it, so "converter" is a more accurate term for such a device. A typical application of a DC power supply unit (PSU) is to convert AC voltage into regulated DC voltages required for electronic equipment. Original PSUs were linear. Nowadays most of them are of SMPS type. What is it? The units in which the energy flow is controlled with semiconductors that are continuously switching on and off with high frequency are referred to as switch mode power supplies or SMPS.
4 SMPS offer greater efficiency compared with linear supplies because a switch can control energy flow with low losses: when a switch is on, it has low voltage drop and will pass any current imposed on it; when it is off, it blocks the flow of current. As the result, in such a switch the power dissipation which is the product of voltage and current, can be relatively low in both states. Switching mode units are also smaller in size and lighter in weight due to the reduced size of passive components and lower heat generation.In general, SMPS can be classified into four types according to the form of input and output voltages: AC to DC ,DC to DC (voltage or current converter), AC to AC and DC to AC (inverter).
6 SMPS power handling electronic components are continuously switching on and off with high frequency in order to provide the transfer of electric energy via energy storage components (inductors and capacitors). By varying duty cycle, frequency or a relative phase of these transitions the average value of output voltage or current is controlled. The frequency range of a commercial SMPS units varies typically from 50 kHz to several MHz.
7 The lowpass EMI filter is designed to reduce high frequency currents getting from PSU into the AC line to an acceptable level. This is necessary to prevent the PSU from causing interference on the other devices connected to the input wiring.
8 The AC is rectified by a full-wave bridge rectifier The AC is rectified by a full-wave bridge rectifier. The rectified voltage is next applied to the power factor correction (PFC) pre-regulator followed by output DC-DC converter(s).TRUE POWERIS THE ACTUAL POWER USED BY THE CIRCUIT.IT IS MEASURED WITH A WATTMETER.APPARENT POWERPOWER IN A CIRCUIT WHEN VOLTAGE AND POWER ARE MEASURED SEPARATELY IT IS CALCULATED IN UNITS OF VOLTAMPERE. (VA)PF: It measures how effectively AC power is being used by a device. The difference between true power andPOWER FACTORIS THE RATIO OF TRUE POWER/APPARENT POWER.WHEN CURRENT AND VOLTAGE ARE IN PHASE THE POWER FACTOR = 1.IF 90° OUT OF PHASE THE POWER FACTOR = 0.POWER FACTOR OF A CIRCUIT CAN VARY BETWEEN O AND 1.
9 The rectified input voltage is next fed into (PFC) stage, which increases power factor (PF). In the process it usually boosts the voltage to a regulated VDC. PF by definition is the ratio between watts and volt-amps. A PFC pre-regulator controls input AC current so that it is in phase with mains AC voltage and its waveform repeats the input voltage waveform. Without this, the input current would be delivered to the SMPS in short high peak pulses, which have a high harmonic content. The current harmonics do not supply any real power to the load, but cause additional heating in the wiring and distribution equipment. They also reduce the maximum amount of electricity that can be taken from a standard wall outlet, since home circuit breakers are rated by current rather than by watts..
10 Locating the primary and the secondary. SMPS Repair