Presentation on theme: "HSP3M. Purpose of Sleep... Takes up almost a 1/3 of our lives; Deprivation of sleep leads to diminished immunity to disease, hand tremors, irritability."— Presentation transcript:
Purpose of Sleep... Takes up almost a 1/3 of our lives; Deprivation of sleep leads to diminished immunity to disease, hand tremors, irritability and inattention; Needed to replenish chemicals used up during the waking period; Growth hormone from the pituitary, is released; as we age, the pituitary releases less of this hormone and we spend less time in deep sleep.
Stages of Sleep Our brainwaves proceed through 4 stages every 90 minutes; (4 or 5 REM periods/night) Stage One: NREM or transitional sleep (5-10mins) Stage Two: (20mins) rhythmic sleep; heart rate slows Stage Three: transition between light & deep Stage Four: delta sleep; deep sleep (30mins) Stage Five: REM sleep; dreaming happens REM (Rapid Eye Movement) occurs during resurfacing back to stage one; this is when we dream. If prevented from dreaming, subjects become short- tempered & less able to concentrate; Deep sleep becomes briefer & REM sleep becomes longer. We have about four dreams every night.
What do Dreams Mean... We usually dream of events relating to our daily life; More emotional dreams tend to wake us; Freud was first person to take dreams seriously: “A dream is like a safety valve that harmlessly discharges otherwise unacceptable feelings”; he believed they express secret desires that would be threatening during consciousness. dreams have hidden meanings & language, revealed through symbols, images and even jokes;
Findings about dreams... DREAM: a story-like sequence of visual images, usually occurring during REM sleep; We dream every night; We have about 4/5 dreams a night; As the night progresses, we are more likely to be dreaming ; Most dreams are mundane and refer to recent life events
Dreams can incorporate external stimuli (e.g. Falling = grab the bed) We can reason while dreaming and even, to an extent, control our dreams: lucid dreaming – ability to be aware that one is dreaming and to direct one’s dreams. Dreams can disguise their true meaning (use symbols to represent their true meaning – sexual to Freud).
Other viewpoints... Some believe, if dreams are symbolic, than any interpretation is acceptable; and don’t having hidden sexual meanings Could be simply information processing & storing Cognitive psychologists suggest they are a way of sifting, sorting & fixing the day’s experiences in memory
Content of dreams... About half our dreams include material about waking events of the previous day. Recurrent dreamers tended to report more stress in their lives, lower levels of psychological well being, and more negative topics in their dreams. Nightmare: a frightening dream occurs during REM sleep; tend to occur when we feel emotionally distressed
Night Terrors: occur during NREM sleep, in which the individual may suddenly sit up, let out bloodcurdling scream, speak incoherently, and quickly fall back asleep, yet usually fails to recall it on awakening. Content of dreams can be affected by immediate environmental stimuli (i.e. ringing of an ice cream truck and awake to ringing of your phone. During stressful times or intense learning periods, REM sleep tends to increase.
Purpose of Dreams... Dreaming as wish fulfillment (Freud) - Manifest content: dream as recalled by the dreamer (contains symbols that disguise its latent sexual & aggressive content). - Latent content: dream’s hidden, under- lying meaning Dreaming as problem solving: dreaming provides a more creative approach to problem solving because it is freer and less constrained by logical thinking in everyday life.
Dreaming as an aid to memory: sleep can help form long term memories of material you learn during the day. - the more REM sleep we have during the night, the better our memory will be for material learned the day before v5F8&feature=related Lucid Dreams on Discovery Chanel clip
Carl Jung ( ) A student of Freud’s who disagreed with the emphasis on sexuality of human behaviour. Coined the term “psyche”; believed achieving balance within the psyche would allow people to reach their true potential (Jung, 1964) Believed two parts to the UNCONSCIOUS mind: collective unconscious (contains memories of our ancestors, shared by all humans regardless of their culture) and the personal unconscious (unique to each individual.
Personality: an individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling & acting... Carl Jung believed that we are all either introverted or extroverted. He added 4 additional Functional Types: Thinking (uses reason), Feeling (uses emotion),Opposites Sensation (uses 5 senses) Intuition (uses perception)Opposites Jung theorized that we CONSCIOUSLY gravitate to one functional type while our UNCONSCIOUS gravitates to the opposite type.
Jung’s Archetypes Believed certain images and symbols tend to appear over and over; models of people, behaviours and personalities. Called these images universal ARCHETYPES that we are born with. ○ “Mother” – nurturing & soothing ○ “Father” – stern, powerful, controlling ○ “Hero” – courageous champion ○ “Trickster” – deceptive We tend to feel emotionally connected to these images & therefore, they are deeply ingrained in our psyche.
Jung’s methods... Similar to Freud’s: past experiences, dreams and fantasies Therapy sessions could include creative projects (painting) using their imagination (e.g. Art therapy) Goal was to achieve “individualization” Documentary of Carl Jung: Part 2 (9:02mins)
Interpretation of Dreams First Nations cultures believe dream interpretation is one aspect of spirituality Iroquois believe they are msg’s from God; use “dream quests” for guidance Odawa believe they are guide to wisdom In Australia, Aboriginal cultures believe in “Dreamtime”, an all-together time where past, present & future are experienced together.
Freud vs. Jung Interpretations Freud believed that people, situations and images represented suppressed sexual desires; this was largely criticized & discredited Vs Jung believed the symbols were the unconscious mind communicating with the conscious mind; message carriers from the instinctive to the rational parts.