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© West Educational Publishing Consciousness C HAPTER 6 I n daily life, we change from one state of consciousness to another. The unseen world of body chemistry controls our various levels of awareness. EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Levels of Consciousness Subconscious - Consciousness just below the level of awareness. It contains thoughts and ideas just out of our awareness. Unconscious - A deeper level of awareness is the unconscious. It contains thoughts and desires about which we have no true or direct knowledge. Consciousness - An organism’s or individual’s awareness of, or possibility of knowing what is happening inside or outside itself EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Biological Clocks Biological clocks are internal units that control parts of the body and which are regulated by nature. They operate on free- running cycles (under their own control). Through entrainment, some cycles can be modified to fit a different rhythm (sleep-wake cycle). EXIT
© West Educational Publishing The human body has a natural rhythm or cycle of sleep and wakefulness of 25 hours. Contrast this to the light-dark cycle of 24 hours. The human circadian rhythm is based on an entrained 24-hour cycle. Most people’s low points (temperature, blood pressure, and weakness ) generally fall between 3 a.m. and 5 a.m. Circadian Rhythms EXIT
© West Educational Publishing The Nature of Sleep and Dreams EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Brain Waves During Sleep Alpha waves are rather large waves associated with relaxed wakefulness. The frequency is between 8-12 cycles per second. Beta waves occur when we are awake. Delta waves occur less than 4 cycles per second. It is marked by reduced heart rate, respiration and temperature and is considered to be the deepest part of sleep. EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Facts about REM Sleep People have REM periods every ninety minutes. Each REM period in the night is slightly longer than the previous one. Rapid eye movement occurs. Vivid dreams and nightmares occur. Body is “paralyzed.” EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Non-REM Sleep Defined as non-rapid eye movement sleep. Physiological arousal decreases. The growth hormone is secreted during this time, thus why adolescents sleep so much. 80% of the sleep time is non-REM sleep. Sleep walking and talking occurs during this time. EXIT
© West Educational Publishing The Purpose of Dreaming One hypothesis about dreaming is that it is a time for the brain to replenish chemicals used up during the day and to process information. EXIT
© West Educational Publishing A second hypothesis says that dreams are used to work out problems experienced throughout the day. A third hypothesis about dreaming suggests that it gives the brain an opportunity to sift through and reorganize events of the day. It creates a dream to organize the events. We dream to make sense of the random situations. E=MC 2 EXIT
© West Educational Publishing The Psychology of Dreams Usually dreams contain everyday occurrences such as interactions with family, friends, school teachers, and so on. They also contain ideas about fears and inadequacies. Everyone dreams... EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Usually contain imagined conquests Take place outdoors more than indoors May be recurrent Usually involve running or jumping Usually involve strong emotions Contain visual, auditory, and even taste sensations. (About 50% of our dreams are in color. No one knows why.) Dream Content EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Practical Issues in Sleep If the body does not get enough sleep at the right point in the circadian cycle, the cycle gets off balance. If there is not enough REM, the body craves more. Many people walk and talk in their sleep. It is normal. It is not dangerous to awaken a sleepwalker, as long as the person feels safe and secure. Social Entrainment Walking and Talking EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Insomnia occurs when a person cannot get enough sleep to feel rested. People vary in the amount of sleep they need. Most people need at least five hours of sleep a night. Teens need a little more sleep than adults. The two most common reasons for insomnia are getting out of the circadian cycle and taking drugs and alcohol. Narcoleptics are people who instantly fall asleep any place and anywhere. Sleep apnea occurs when people stop breathing for ten seconds during sleep. Length of Sleep Sleep Disturbances EXIT
© West Educational Publishing No one can be hypnotized to do something they wouldn’t do anyway. Hypnosis Hypnosis is a state of relaxation. Attention is focused on certain objects, acts, or feelings. Anton Mesmer believed power came from magnetism. Hypnotic results really come from the power of suggestion to focus or block. Trances are periods of deep relaxation. EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Summary of Main Topics Covered Levels of Consciousness Biological Clocks Circadian Rhythms Sleep Dreams EXIT
Ch 6 Consciousness. I. Defining Consciousness - the organism ’ s awareness of, or possibility of knowing what is happening inside or outside itself.
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