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Consciousness CHAPTER 6

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Presentation on theme: "Consciousness CHAPTER 6"— Presentation transcript:

1 Consciousness CHAPTER 6
In daily life, we change from one state of consciousness to another. The unseen world of body chemistry controls our various levels of awareness. Consciousness © West Educational Publishing EXIT

2 Levels of Consciousness
Consciousness - An organism’s or individual’s awareness of, or possibility of knowing what is happening inside or outside itself Subconscious - Consciousness just below the level of awareness. It contains thoughts and ideas just out of our awareness. Unconscious - A deeper level of awareness is the unconscious. It contains thoughts and desires about which we have no true or direct knowledge. © West Educational Publishing EXIT

3 Biological Clocks Biological clocks are internal units that control parts of the body and which are regulated by nature. They operate on free-running cycles (under their own control). Through entrainment, some cycles can be modified to fit a different rhythm (sleep-wake cycle). © West Educational Publishing EXIT

4 Circadian Rhythms The human body has a natural rhythm or cycle of sleep and wakefulness of 25 hours. Contrast this to the light-dark cycle of 24 hours. The human circadian rhythm is based on an entrained 24-hour cycle. Most people’s low points (temperature, blood pressure, and weakness ) generally fall between 3 a.m. and 5 a.m. © West Educational Publishing EXIT

5 The Nature of Sleep and Dreams
© West Educational Publishing EXIT

6 Brain Waves During Sleep
Alpha waves are rather large waves associated with relaxed wakefulness. The frequency is between 8-12 cycles per second. Beta waves occur when we are awake. Delta waves occur less than 4 cycles per second. It is marked by reduced heart rate, respiration and temperature and is considered to be the deepest part of sleep. © West Educational Publishing EXIT

7 Facts about REM Sleep People have REM periods every ninety minutes.
Each REM period in the night is slightly longer than the previous one. Rapid eye movement occurs. Vivid dreams and nightmares occur. Body is “paralyzed.” © West Educational Publishing EXIT

8 Non-REM Sleep Defined as non-rapid eye movement sleep.
Sleep walking and talking occurs during this time. Physiological arousal decreases. The growth hormone is secreted during this time, thus why adolescents sleep so much. 80% of the sleep time is non-REM sleep. © West Educational Publishing EXIT

9 The Purpose of Dreaming
One hypothesis about dreaming is that it is a time for the brain to replenish chemicals used up during the day and to process information. © West Educational Publishing EXIT

10 E=MC2 A second hypothesis says that dreams are used to work out problems experienced throughout the day. A third hypothesis about dreaming suggests that it gives the brain an opportunity to sift through and reorganize events of the day. It creates a dream to organize the events. We dream to make sense of the random situations. © West Educational Publishing EXIT

11 The Psychology of Dreams
Usually dreams contain everyday occurrences such as interactions with family, friends, school teachers, and so on. They also contain ideas about fears and inadequacies. Everyone dreams... © West Educational Publishing EXIT

12 Dream Content Usually contain imagined conquests
Take place outdoors more than indoors May be recurrent Usually involve running or jumping Usually involve strong emotions Contain visual, auditory, and even taste sensations. (About 50% of our dreams are in color. No one knows why.) © West Educational Publishing EXIT

13 Practical Issues in Sleep
If the body does not get enough sleep at the right point in the circadian cycle, the cycle gets off balance. If there is not enough REM, the body craves more. Social Entrainment Many people walk and talk in their sleep. It is normal. It is not dangerous to awaken a sleepwalker, as long as the person feels safe and secure. Walking and Talking © West Educational Publishing EXIT

14 Length of Sleep Sleep Disturbances
People vary in the amount of sleep they need. Most people need at least five hours of sleep a night. Teens need a little more sleep than adults. Length of Sleep Sleep Disturbances Insomnia occurs when a person cannot get enough sleep to feel rested. The two most common reasons for insomnia are getting out of the circadian cycle and taking drugs and alcohol. Narcoleptics are people who instantly fall asleep any place and anywhere. Sleep apnea occurs when people stop breathing for ten seconds during sleep. © West Educational Publishing EXIT

15 Hypnosis Hypnosis is a state of relaxation. Attention is focused on certain objects, acts, or feelings. Anton Mesmer believed power came from magnetism. Hypnotic results really come from the power of suggestion to focus or block. Trances are periods of deep relaxation. No one can be hypnotized to do something they wouldn’t do anyway. © West Educational Publishing EXIT

16 Summary of Main Topics Covered
Levels of Consciousness Biological Clocks Circadian Rhythms Sleep Dreams © West Educational Publishing EXIT

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