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WORLD HISTORY AP PRACTICE SESSION

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1 WORLD HISTORY AP PRACTICE SESSION
FRIDAY MAY 3rd

2 UNIT ONE

3 Unit 1: PERSIA Notes Political Economics Religion Social Intellectual
Small Clans/ Tribes 30-60 Economics Hunters and gatherers Slash and Burn agriculture Basin Irrigation Pastoralism Religion Polytheism Sumerian= influential towards the Old Testament and Recreation of “Hell” (Jews, Christians, Muslims) Social Nomadic Patriarchal Social Systems= men > women Intellectual Phoenicians= developed 22 letter alphabet  Greek and Latin Cuneiform= writing based off of wedged characters Arts Spears, daggers, hammers, bow and arrow Pottery Metallurgy

4 Important People/Peoples
Alexander the Great- King of Macedon. He was a pupil of Aristotle. While in Egypt he founded Alexandria his first and best-known city. Aristotle- Greek philosopher, scientist and pupil of Plato.  Lydians- came up with the concept of coined money Phoenicians- established naval city-states all along Mediterranean and developed a simple alphabet that used only 22 letters Hebrews- significant because of their religious beliefs (Judaism) Assyrians- learned to use iron

5 Important Terms Cultural Diffusion- transmission of ideas and products from one culture to another Cuneiform- system of writing from Mesopotamia Foraging- term for hunting and gathering Hieroglyphics- system of picture writing used in Egypt Hellenistic Age- era in which Greek culture blended with Persian and other Eastern influences spread throughout the former empire of Alexander the Great Matrilineal- social system in which descent and inheritance are traced through their mother Pax Romana- the Roman Peace; the period of prosperity and stability throughout the Roman Empire in the first two centuries C.E. Ziggurat- A multilayered pyramid constructed by Mesopotamians

6 Early Civilizations/ Neolithic Revolution
The Neolithic/ Agricultural Revolution- from 8000 BCE to 3000 BCE; people figured out how to grow their own plants – allowed people to permanently settle down and form larger communities (not full scale civilization yet) - people start to think in terms of owning land; they don’t have to move around anymore so they want private property - food surplus- more food than just enough to feed people - allowed for more specialized jobs; no longer need everyone making food so the other people fill other occupations - agricultural societies become more complex and societies form – early civilizations; farming villages turned into small towns and cities - animals used for labor - technologies invented (sharpened granite for farming tools, pottery to cook in, and MOST IMPORTANTLY- knowledge on how to use metals (later parts of Neolithic revolution called Bronze Age Nomads- Nomads hunted their food, following animals for food and maintained rudimentary shelters Foraging Societies: Hunter gatherers- traveled from point to point as plants and animals dictated; could not build permanent shelters; could not preserve food Pastoral Societies- tamed animals and raised animals to eat instead of hunting/following animals; still could not farm; more and more domesticated animals

7 How River valley civilizations came about
Many civilizations started here for the fertile land, and later produced the own irrigation. Stable weather conditions

8 Olmecs 1200BCE – 400BCE Located in Mexico (near Veracruz)
Grew corn beans and squash primarily Vast trade networks, encompassing very diverse areas, but small territory relative to land available- no empire/political unification Each center seems to have fallen due to a violent rebellion (defaced monuments) Colossal mounds used in religious ceremonies, importance of animal motifs, calendar/writing Clear social structure, elites controlled labor pool (increased food production), merchants

9 Chavin 900 – 250 BCE Very diverse environment (Andes mountains, jungles, coastal plains) Maize, quinoa, potatoes, LLAMAS Center of regional trade System of reciprocal labor obligations (monumental structures and irrigation) American metallurgy first developed in Andean region Not conquered or brought down by rebellion Rulers were buried with lots of gold, etc. Similar religious beliefs as Olmecs- jaguars, priests/shamans, etc. LLAMA extremely important for trade, carrying massive quantities around LLAMA extremely important for trade, carrying massive quantities around

10 UNIT TWO

11 Toltecs (968-1150) After collapse of the Mayans
Leader Topiltzin dedicated to Quetzalcoatl (Feathered Serpent) Strong militaristic ethic & cult of sacrifice Area Northern Mexico to areas of Guatemala Capitol: Tula Destroyed by nomadic invaders

12 Rise of the Aztecs Also known as Mexicas Formed in 1325
10,000 migrated to Lake Texcoco and formed the capitol Tenochtitlan Intrusive and militant group Human sacrifice and conquest united with political power of the ruler and the nobility Area: Tarascan Frontier to Mayan area Subject people forced to pay tribute, surrender lands, and military service

13 Aztecs cont. Women somewhat equal Ruled 1.5-25 million Religion
Little distinction between the world of gods and natural world Festivals, ceremonies, and sacrifices Sacrifices used to fuel the sun god Deities ex. gods of rain, fire, water Male and Female form

14 Aztec Captiol: Tenochtitlan
Metropolis- central zone of palaces Adobe brick houses (nobility had larger homes) Geographically connected to island by four causeway Capulli ruled neighborhoods Economy Chinampas- irrigation system of floating islands that provided agriculture Trade: market, barter or cacao beans/gold for currency, and long distance trade with Pochteca

15 Social Hiearchy

16 Life of the Inca Twantinsuyu - highly centralized
Various ethnic groups Unified language Irrigated agriculture Combined ways of previous civilizations ex. agriculture, religion, metallurgy Ruled 9-13 million Conquest Economic growth and political pwer

17 Inca cont. Political Religion Ruler considered a god
Power divided into 4 provinces Nobility ear spools (orejones) Labor instead of tributes Religion Political and social life related to religion Holy shrine stones, mountains, tombs, rivers, huacas etc. Temple of the Sun- center of state religion

18 Inca Cultural Acheivements
No writing system or wheel Math- knotted quipo to count Infrastructure Tambos- system of roads Land/water management Architecture & public buildings Terrace farming Art- built on predecessor peoples Metallurgy and pottery

19 Similarities Represented military and imperial organization success
Controlled circulation of goods Agricultural based with a food surplus Nobles became more important than local leaders Allowed for diversity as long as authority Empires acquired by conquest of sedentary peoples Belief systems, cosmology similar roots

20 Qin/Han Dynasty Qin Dynasty- 221-206 B.C.E
 leadership of Ying Zheng (Qin Shi Huang) Feudalism was abandoned Legalism- The main idea was to make a system that will make and culture ideal citizens who will subordinate their will to that of the state. Han Dynasty- 207 B.C.E- 220 A.D Confucian ideals of government was used Intellectual, literary, and artistic endeavors revived and flourished To ensure peace with non-Chinese local powers, the Han court developed a mutually beneficial "tributary system."

21 Roman Empire Early Rome was governed by kings, but after only seven of them had ruled, the Romans took power over their own city and ruled themselves. They then instead had a council known as the 'senate' which ruled over them. From this point on one speaks of the 'Roman Republic'. The Roman Republic was a very successful government. It lasted from 510 BC until 23 BC - almost 500 years. In comparison the United States of America only exist since less than 250 years. The Roman empire in the end was overrun by millions of barbarians from the north and east of Europe. It is believed to have happened two or three times in history that huge migrations took place across Europe, where peoples moved to settle in new territories. The great migration proved too much for the Romans to stem

22 Byzantine Empire 330 AD- 1453 330 AD:   Constantine founds the new capital of the Roman Empire on the existing site of the ancient Greek city Byzantium:   Byzantium was renamed Constantinople and it would become the capital of the Byzantine Empire. 395:   The Roman Empire divides in half, with the Eastern Roman Empire based in Constantinople and the Western Roman Empire based in Rome/Ravenna. 476:   The Western Empire Falls:   The Eastern Empire survives and now is labeled as the Byzantine Empire. 568:   Lombards invade Italy, eventually taking Northern Italy from the Byzantines. 610:   Heraclius becomes emperor. Temporary possession of Mesopotamia. The theme system is installed. The Empire's language changes to Greek. Eventual Lost of Syria, Palestine, and Egypt to Muslims. 693:   Muslims attack Constantinople. 690:   Loss of North Africa to Muslims. 721:   Regains control of Asia Minor from the Muslims 917:   Bulgars under Symeon overrun Thrace. 924:   Bulgars unsuccessfully attack Constantinople unsuccessfully. 941:   Prince Igor of Kiev attacks Bithynia and later attacks Constantinople: The Byzantines destroys the Russian fleet. 976:   Basil II becomes Emperor. 992:   Venetians granted extensive trading rights in the Byzantine Empire

23 Byzantine Empire 330 AD- 1453 1014:   Basil II destroys the Bulgar army, earning the epithet Bulgaroktonos ("Bulgar Slayer"). 1071:   Defeat at Manzikert to the Seljuk Turks. Permanent loss of most of Asia Minor. 1075:   Loss of Syria to Muslims. 1054:   The Great Schism: The Latin Roman Church and the Greek Orthodox Church excommunicate each other. 1087:   Byzantines defeated in Thrace. 1121:   Reconquest of southwestern Asia Minor. 1179:   Byzantine Army defeated by the Sultanate of Rum at Myriokephalon. Hopes of regaining Asia Minor are lost. 1202:   Fourth Crusade is assembled at Venice. 1204:   Fourth Crusade captures Constantinople. The Latin Empire of Constantinople is formed as well as many Byzantine successor states. The capture of Constantinople in 1204 was a blow from which the Byzantines never fully recovered. 1261:   The successor state of Nicaea recaptures Constantinople and restores the Byzantine Empire. 1453:   Fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans. End of the Byzantine Empire.

24 Feudalism

25 Crusades The Crusades were a series of wars taking place in Asia Minor and the Levant between 1095 and 1291, in which Western European nations engaged using the propaganda of religious expeditionary wars. There was a total of NINE Crusades! First Crusade: , established the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, providing more lands for the crusading knights. Second Crusade: , success of the Christians in the First Crusade had been largely due to the disunion among their enemies. Third Crusade: , Not many years after the Second Crusade, the Moslem world found in the famous Saladin a leader for a holy war against the Christians. Fourth Crusade:1202 – 1261 Fifth Crusade: , the Battle of al-Mansura Sixth Crusade: , achieved some small measure of success Seventh, Eighth, And Ninth Crusasdes: : Led by King Louis IX of France, the Seventh and Eighth Crusades were complete failures. In the Seventh Crusade Louis sailed to Egypt in 1248 and recaptured Damietta. In 1270 he set off on the Eighth Crusade, landing in North Africa in the hope of converting the sultan of Tunis to Christianity but died before he got far.  King Edward I of England in 1271 who tried to join Louis in Tunis, the Ninth Crusade would fail in the end.

26 Christianity Hinduism Islam Judaism Confucianism Buddhism Shinto
7 Major Religions Christianity Hinduism Islam Judaism Confucianism Buddhism Shinto Obinnna Egbuna

27 Monotheistic Christianity-Spread through missionaries and colonization of other countries. Islam-Spread through people and trade within India after the prophet Mohammed's death. Judaism-Judaism originated in the Middle East and has spread throughout all parts of the world because of both voluntary migrations and forced exile or expulsions. Buddhism-Spread partially through government aid of the Chinese government in Asia but mainly through trade with middle east.

28 Polytheistic/Other Confucianism-Did not exactly serve a god but moral was to honor those of higher authority. Spread through Confucius himself and partially through the government. Hinduism-Hinduism is the major religion of India, and the vast majority of India's population today is Hindu, and it is a vast majority of religions mixed together. Shintoism- Shintoism is considered a local religion located solely in Japan. However, the basis of this belief comes from main land Asia. Some consider Shintoism as a way of life instead of a religion, because there is no God, no set of rules in which to follow

29 The Rise of Islam Islam spread quickly to become one of the world’s most popular religions Remains so to this day Muslim merchants played a crucial role in trade and cultural diffusion 5 Pillars of Islam Abbasid was a “Golden Age” for Islam Court-life, literature, learning

30 Five Pillars of Islam Explained

31 Importance of Islam Expansion into Sub-Saharan Africa, the Swahili Coast of East Africa, parts of Europe and Asia Caliph: political and religious successor of Muhammad Qu’ran Islamic law known as Shari’a

32 ISLAM history-prezi-period-3-middle-east- southwest-asia-timeline/

33 UNIT THREE

34 Qin/Han Dynasty Qin Dynasty- 221-206 B.C.E
 leadership of Ying Zheng (Qin Shi Huang) Feudalism was abandoned Legalism- The main idea was to make a system that will make and culture ideal citizens who will subordinate their will to that of the state. Han Dynasty- 207 B.C.E- 220 A.D Confucian ideals of government was used Intellectual, literary, and artistic endeavors revived and flourished To ensure peace with non-Chinese local powers, the Han court developed a mutually beneficial "tributary system."

35 Ottoman Empire 1299-1923 Muslim empire
Peak at 1590 due to it’s expansion Had a military administration and civil administration Sultan was the highest position in the administration but really served as figure head once the janissaries began to manipulate his decisions Islam major religion Charged tax if a person belonged to any religion that wasn’t ISLAM Had an agricultural based economy Instead of focusing on industrializing focused more on expansion Expansion is what gained them most of their wealth independent actions (like always corrupted) It didn’t industrialize at the pace of Western Europe which didn’t allow them to become economically stable

36 Cont’d Decline factors
Major problems was brought upon the political system when the lots of people claimed caliphate when sultan died. Advisors also were in charge of making decisions and often were corrupted There was local rulers which sometimes took Old man of Europe The ottoman empire completely ended during WWI when it allied itself with the Allies that lost the war. After the Ottoman empire terminated the countries became independent.

37 Mongols The Mongols were central nomadic people that arose around 1200 BCE, they are said to be the world's largest empire. Their first leader was a man by the name of Chinggis Khan(Genghis) ,he helped to unite the Mongols and aided in the capturing/destruction of cites/civilizations. The Mongols are know for their skilled ability on horseback and for their vicious fighting methods and ability to capture major cities, as well as their aiding in establishing trading routes/methods. The Mongols hand crafted some of the many weapons that they used to defeat other cities Many years after the death of Chinggis Khan, his great-grandson Kubilai Khan defeated a Qin dynasty army but Kabul was interested in the Chinese empires and was constantly surrounded by either Buddhist, Daoist, or Confucian advisors. Therefore changing the Mongol empire onto the Yuan dynasty in China, this arose out of Kubilai’s fascination with Chinese empires but as the years continued on Song loyalist started revolting and due the new beliefs emphasized by Kubilai and his new religious beliefs the Yuan dynasty military was to weak to fight back. So eventually they were over thrown by the Ming dynasty therefore ending their long reign over China.

38 Trade Network/Diffusion
The Silk road- Know as one of the major trade that stretched across China and helped in trading silk along with other goods, along with the trading of goods the Silk road helped spread different languages/dialects and religions across China as well as diseases…Black Death Royal road- Used by the Persian empire was a trade network that united the empire and delivered mail to other empires as well as being a trade route for the Persians. Indian Ocean Trade- The trade network used between Africa and Asia, this trade network allowed the Asian people especially the Indians to trade goods with the Africans, allow African goods to come to the European/Indian land area, therefore creating a bases that would eventually include slave trade Saharan Trade- African trade that included salts and helped to spread culture/religion throughout Africa Sub-Saharan trade- Significant because it helped in the spreading of the Bantu language which is significant to African history

39 UNIT FOUR

40 Spain Conquista of America
How It began: Christopher Columbus (in 1492) was looking for a shorter route to get to India (India because they wanted to take part in the spice trade. Go cinnamon!) (Shorter route B/C of Galileo’s theory of Earth being round) and they hit the Americas! Background Info! He went and asked the kingdom of France and Britain—denied. Queen Isabella And King Francis had just come out of a 800 year religious war with Muslims, Catholics, and Jews. Very Pro-Catholic! Effects: Discovered the West Indies. Columbus started exploration in the Americas. Other Explorers: Hernan Cortes (1512) conquered the Aztecs. Francisco Pizarro (1531) conquered the Inca. How they did it: Disease Superior weapons The Aztec thought Cortes was a god Established cultural, economic, and social imperialism *REMEMBER TREATY OF TORDESILLAS -----

41 Renaissance Time period 1350-1550
Age of learning, literature, art and culture Humanism- Encouraged people to be curious and to question received wisdom . Questioned religious beliefs. Turned of attention to scientific discoveries. (ex. Astronomy and Anatomy). Humanist principles were applied to art work.

42 Colonization in Africa and Asia
Colonization in Africa pushed by three main factors: economic, political, and social. European powers wanted control of the natural resourced produced in Africa like precious metals and even people. 1885 Berlin Conference and the Scramble for Africa: End of slavery in Africa “Commerce, Christianity, and Civilization” South Africa = British vs. Boers settlers. French in North Africa Belgium = Congo Newly formed political boundaries caused tribes to clash and a lot of native Africans lived and worked under harsh conditions. China and Japan allowed minimal trade with the West so Europe began its sights on India French-Indian War British East India Company

43 Imperialism: ;The desire or tendency of extending control of one country over another territory Ignoring the claims of African ethnic groups, kingdoms, and city-states, Europeans established colonial claims European nations expand their empires by seizing territories from Muslim states As the Mughal Empire declined, Britain seized almost the whole subcontinent of India Demand for Asian products drove Western imperialists to seek possession of Southeast Asian lands.

44 UNIT FIVE

45 What is The French Revolution?
Between 1789 and 1802 France was wracked by a revolution which changed the government, administration, military and culture of the nation as well as plunging Europe into a series of wars. France went from a largely feudal state under an absolutist monarch to a republic which executed the king and then to an empire under Napoleon Bonaparte.

46 Effects of the Revolution
In France the bourgeois and landowning classes emerged as the dominant power The Revolution unified France and enhanced the power of the national state. Feudalism was dead; social order and contractual relations were consolidated by the Code Napoléon

47 The Role of Women : women assumed roles like cooking cleaning and educating children. : roles expanded to more manual labor. 1791: Declaration of Women’s rights. 1805: women began to work in textile factories. 1832: Unmarried women established their right to vote. 1876: Specialized training schools opened up. 1944: Women built weapons, vehicles, aircrafts, and ships in WWII

48 Decolonization Africa South Africa
Decolonization- The process of becoming free of colonial status and achieving statehood or independence. Between WWI and WWII, movements for independence began in Africa and Asia. National self-determination-fight for independence. Europe’s power was destroyed by WWII. – Virtually every colony achieved independence. Independence movements led by western educated elites. Great Britain and France could no longer afford colonies, but still wanted to keep trade after independence. Few professionals/skilled people to run the gov’t – resulted in national identity issues. Kwame Nkrumah Egypt became independent in 1952 Formation of National African Congress in 1912 White minority had more power over black majority – created a system of segregation known as apartheid. Most black nations gained independence in the late 1950’s and 1960’s. Africa South Africa

49 Decolonization Latin America
If the Americans,French, and Hatians can get freedom then so can I! There had been unsuccessful revolts in Latin America two and three hundred years but these revolutions. BUT in the 19th Century Europe was cray cray because of the vertically challenged Napoleon. *1 This distracted Europe from its American holdings. *1 Napoleon was actually above average height, the short rumors was started by England and America. They are historically very messy.

50 Decolonization in Middle East
1917: Balfour Declaration 1922: Britain receives League of Nations mandate for Palestine : Arab uprisings in Palestine 1948: Partition of Palestine and First Arab- Israeli War 1952: King Farouk is overthrown in Egypt 1956: Egypt nationalizes the Suez Canal 1958: United Arab Republic is formed 1964: The Palestine Liberation Organization is formed.

51 World War I 1914-1918 Central Powers vs. Allies Causes
CP: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey A: 3 members of the Triple Entente: Britain and the British Empire France and Russia Causes Tensions between Russia and Austria Imperialism competition for land Nationalism: Balkans Alliances- growth of military, generals, army Assassination: ArchDuke Ferdinand from Austria Princep, a member of the Black Hand group, killed Ferdinand in Sarajero.

52 World War II Causes: Deliberate strides towards military expansion by new regimes in Japan and Germany Germany disliked the Treaty of Versailles War guilt cause: takes blame (no option; forced) Pay reparations ($33 billion for war damages) Army decrease, no navy, no subs, buffer zone between France/ Germany (Rhineland) Land- don’t keep colonies: give land to France and Great Britain; 13% of Germans living in that territory given was lost. Sparked War in Europe when Hitler invaded Poland in 1939 Holocaust: genocide of Jews Deaths in gas chambers (mustard gas, chlorine gas, cyanide gas, etc.) United Nations Differences w/ League of Nations: US involvement HQ in US Security council has military authority that can be used to stop aggression by “rogue” actions

53 WWI Global Effects Killed more, involved more countries, and costed more than any previous war in history. Resulted in the downfall of Russian and German monarchies. Caused the Ottoman Empire and Austria-Hungary to completely collapse. Contributed to the Bolshevik rise to power in Russia and the triumph of fascism in Italy. Ignited colonial revolts in the Middle East and in Southeast Asia. Just about everything that happened in the remainder of the century was a result of World War I, including the Holocaust and World War II. Sparked the development of the atomic bomb and the use of poison gas. The Great Depression, the Cold War, and the collapse of European colonialism can also be related to the First World War. Caused the creation of the League Of Nations

54 WWIi Global Effects The United States assumed a new position as a global superpower. Many War Crime Trials. Caused the race for possession of nuclear arms. Created the United Nations Enormous technological progress was made made the English develop radar which would be the forerunner of television. Broadened women’s rights.

55 Cold War: Cuban Missile Crisis
Following after WWII, two super powers, the U.S. and the Soviet Union, emerged and engaged in a major conflict known as the Cold war dating from The reasons they had so many problems were due to their conflicting political and economic views , and their different goals following WWII. For example how the U.S. wanted to allow self-determination in all nations while the Soviets wanted Communism in existing countries, and how the U.S. believed Germany should be reunited while the Soviets wanted Germany to remain weak and divided. As the Soviets started to take control and set up communist governments in eastern parts of Europe, the U.S. decided to go on with the “Containment” plan to stop Communism from spreading. 3 examples of Containment were The Truman Doctrine, The Marshall Plan, and NATO that were formed to combat against Communism. The Soviets also in return created their own alliance called the Warsaw Pact in 1955. Next up was the nuclear arms race with the U.S. vs. the USSR. The Soviets had finally developed the Atomic Bomb in 1949 so the U.S. decided to step it up a notch and built the Hydrogen Bomb in This struck fear of a nuclear annihilation of the human race into the hearts of many people.

56 Cold War: Cuban Missile Crisis
Of the many Communist conflicts the U.S. had to face, one of them was with their next door neighbor, Cuba. The U.S. had tried to overthrow Castro in the Bay of Pigs invasion in April 1961, but failed. In October 1962, the U.S. had discovered the Soviets installing missiles in Cuba, 90 miles off the coast of Florida. The U.S. took action and blockade Cuba and for several days things were tense while Soviet ships approached Cuba and the blockade line. Finally the Soviet contacted the U.S. and agreed to remove the missiles if the U.S. didn’t invade Cuba. This was the closest the U.S. and Soviets ever came to nuclear war. Finally the Soviets and U.S. made the SALT I Treaty in 1972 to prohibit the manufacture of nuclear missiles by both sides. Later on the Soviets started to lose their grip on Eastern Europe as countries reformed or disbanded their communist gov. in the early 1990s. For Germany the Berlin Wall was torn down. Due to severe economic problems and growing political ferment in the USSR, the Soviet Union started to fall apart and by 1991, The Cold War was over.

57 ESSAYS

58 DBQ’s AND HOW THEY WORK BASIC CORE 0-7 pts Has acceptable thesis 1 pt
Show basic understanding of all documents Supports thesis with appropriate evidence from all documents 2 pts Evidence from all Documents Evidence from all but One Documents Analyze POV in at Least Two Documents Grouping Two or Three Additional Document 1pt EXPANDED CORE (If you got all seven basic) 0-2 pts

59

60 Structure for the Essay
I. Introduction Thesis Roadmap II. Body Paragraph(s) 1st Sentence for each body paragraph should be a comparative (a direct comparison sentence) 2nd sentence then explains/analysis the direct comparison in the first sentence III. Then subsequent sentences in the paragraph should provide at least 2 info statements/evidence in each paragraph. IV. Conclusion  Keep in Mind/ Tips: * the thesis can only be counted as the thesis and not also as a direct comparison * use linking comparative words such as “whereas” to help set up direct comparisons * if in the comparative question there is a parenthetical qualifier such as (political, economic, cultural), it is not required that evidence is given for each. This parenthetical qualifier helps students think about what to write.

61 AP World History Compare/Contrast
Ideas Clear focus throughout, stays on topic, no irrelevant information Detailed, accurate specifics Insight – consistently compares and contrasts in a thoughtful manner All parts of question thoroughly answered Organization Thesis statement takes a stand, answers all components of question Clear topic sentence for each body paragraph Clear focus for each paragraph Paragraphs divided into thoughtful categories Transitions between points

62

63 Change and Continuity Example
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