3Unit 1: PERSIA Notes Political Economics Religion Social Intellectual Small Clans/ Tribes 30-60EconomicsHunters and gatherersSlash and Burn agricultureBasin IrrigationPastoralismReligionPolytheismSumerian= influential towards the Old Testament and Recreation of “Hell” (Jews, Christians, Muslims)SocialNomadicPatriarchal Social Systems= men > womenIntellectualPhoenicians= developed 22 letter alphabet Greek and LatinCuneiform= writing based off of wedged charactersArtsSpears, daggers, hammers, bow and arrowPotteryMetallurgy
4Important People/Peoples Alexander the Great- King of Macedon. He was a pupil of Aristotle. While in Egypt he founded Alexandria his first and best-known city.Aristotle- Greek philosopher, scientist and pupil of Plato. Lydians- came up with the concept of coined moneyPhoenicians- established naval city-states all along Mediterranean and developed a simple alphabet that used only 22 lettersHebrews- significant because of their religious beliefs (Judaism)Assyrians- learned to use iron
5Important TermsCultural Diffusion- transmission of ideas and products from one culture to anotherCuneiform- system of writing from MesopotamiaForaging- term for hunting and gatheringHieroglyphics- system of picture writing used in EgyptHellenistic Age- era in which Greek culture blended with Persian and other Eastern influences spread throughout the former empire of Alexander the GreatMatrilineal- social system in which descent and inheritance are traced through their motherPax Romana- the Roman Peace; the period of prosperity and stability throughout the Roman Empire in the first two centuries C.E.Ziggurat- A multilayered pyramid constructed by Mesopotamians
6Early Civilizations/ Neolithic Revolution The Neolithic/ Agricultural Revolution- from 8000 BCE to 3000 BCE; people figured out how to grow their own plants – allowed people to permanently settle down and form larger communities (not full scale civilization yet)- people start to think in terms ofowning land; they don’t have to move around anymore so they want private property- food surplus- more food than just enough to feed people- allowed for more specialized jobs; no longer need everyone making food so the other people fill other occupations- agricultural societies become more complex and societies form – early civilizations; farming villages turned into small towns and cities- animals used for labor- technologies invented (sharpened granite for farming tools, pottery to cook in, and MOST IMPORTANTLY- knowledge on how to use metals (later parts of Neolithic revolution called Bronze AgeNomads- Nomads hunted their food, following animals for food and maintained rudimentary sheltersForaging Societies: Hunter gatherers- traveled from point to point as plants and animals dictated; could not build permanent shelters; could not preserve foodPastoral Societies- tamed animals and raised animals to eat instead of hunting/following animals; still could not farm; more and more domesticated animals
7How River valley civilizations came about Many civilizations started here for the fertile land, and later produced the own irrigation.Stable weather conditions
8Olmecs 1200BCE – 400BCE Located in Mexico (near Veracruz) Grew corn beans and squash primarilyVast trade networks, encompassing very diverse areas, but small territory relative to land available- no empire/political unificationEach center seems to have fallen due to a violent rebellion (defaced monuments)Colossal mounds used in religious ceremonies, importance of animal motifs, calendar/writingClear social structure, elites controlled labor pool (increased food production), merchants
9Chavin 900 – 250 BCEVery diverse environment (Andes mountains, jungles, coastal plains)Maize, quinoa, potatoes, LLAMASCenter of regional tradeSystem of reciprocal labor obligations (monumental structures and irrigation)American metallurgy first developed in Andean regionNot conquered or brought down by rebellionRulers were buried with lots of gold, etc.Similar religious beliefs as Olmecs- jaguars, priests/shamans, etc.LLAMA extremely important for trade, carrying massive quantities aroundLLAMA extremely important for trade, carrying massive quantities around
11Toltecs (968-1150) After collapse of the Mayans Leader Topiltzin dedicated to Quetzalcoatl (Feathered Serpent)Strong militaristic ethic & cult of sacrificeAreaNorthern Mexico to areas of GuatemalaCapitol: TulaDestroyed by nomadic invaders
12Rise of the Aztecs Also known as Mexicas Formed in 1325 10,000 migrated to Lake Texcoco and formed the capitol TenochtitlanIntrusive and militant groupHuman sacrifice and conquest united with political power of the ruler and the nobilityArea: Tarascan Frontier to Mayan areaSubject people forced to pay tribute, surrender lands, and military service
13Aztecs cont. Women somewhat equal Ruled 1.5-25 million Religion Little distinction between the world of gods and natural worldFestivals, ceremonies, and sacrificesSacrifices used to fuel the sun godDeities ex. gods of rain, fire, waterMale and Female form
14Aztec Captiol: Tenochtitlan Metropolis- central zone of palacesAdobe brick houses (nobility had larger homes)Geographically connected to island by four causewayCapulli ruled neighborhoodsEconomyChinampas- irrigation system of floating islands that provided agricultureTrade: market, barter or cacao beans/gold for currency, and long distance trade with Pochteca
16Life of the Inca Twantinsuyu - highly centralized Various ethnic groupsUnified languageIrrigated agricultureCombined ways of previous civilizations ex. agriculture, religion, metallurgyRuled 9-13 millionConquestEconomic growth and political pwer
17Inca cont. Political Religion Ruler considered a god Power divided into 4 provincesNobility ear spools (orejones)Labor instead of tributesReligionPolitical and social life related to religionHoly shrinestones, mountains, tombs, rivers, huacas etc.Temple of the Sun- center of state religion
18Inca Cultural Acheivements No writing system or wheelMath- knotted quipo to countInfrastructureTambos- system of roadsLand/water managementArchitecture & public buildingsTerrace farmingArt- built on predecessor peoplesMetallurgy and pottery
19Similarities Represented military and imperial organization success Controlled circulation of goodsAgricultural based with a food surplusNobles became more important than local leadersAllowed for diversity as long as authorityEmpires acquired by conquest of sedentary peoplesBelief systems, cosmology similar roots
20Qin/Han Dynasty Qin Dynasty- 221-206 B.C.E leadership of Ying Zheng (Qin Shi Huang)Feudalism was abandonedLegalism- The main idea was to make a system that will make and culture ideal citizens who will subordinate their will to that of the state.Han Dynasty- 207 B.C.E- 220 A.DConfucian ideals of government was usedIntellectual, literary, and artistic endeavors revived and flourishedTo ensure peace with non-Chinese local powers, the Han court developed a mutually beneficial "tributary system."
21Roman EmpireEarly Rome was governed by kings, but after only seven of them had ruled, the Romans took power over their own city and ruled themselves. They then instead had a council known as the 'senate' which ruled over them. From this point on one speaks of the 'Roman Republic'.The Roman Republic was a very successful government. It lasted from 510 BC until 23 BC - almost 500 years. In comparison the United States of America only exist since less than 250 years.The Roman empire in the end was overrun by millions of barbarians from the north and east of Europe. It is believed to have happened two or three times in history that huge migrations took place across Europe, where peoples moved to settle in new territories. The great migration proved too much for the Romans to stem
22Byzantine Empire 330 AD- 1453330 AD: Constantine founds the new capital of the Roman Empire on the existing site of the ancient Greek city Byzantium: Byzantium was renamed Constantinople and it would become the capital of the Byzantine Empire.395: The Roman Empire divides in half, with the Eastern Roman Empire based in Constantinople and the Western Roman Empire based in Rome/Ravenna.476: The Western Empire Falls: The Eastern Empire survives and now is labeled as the Byzantine Empire.568: Lombards invade Italy, eventually taking Northern Italy from the Byzantines.610: Heraclius becomes emperor. Temporary possession of Mesopotamia. The theme system is installed. The Empire's language changes to Greek. Eventual Lost of Syria, Palestine, and Egypt to Muslims.693: Muslims attack Constantinople.690: Loss of North Africa to Muslims.721: Regains control of Asia Minor from the Muslims 917: Bulgars under Symeon overrun Thrace.924: Bulgars unsuccessfully attack Constantinople unsuccessfully.941: Prince Igor of Kiev attacks Bithynia and later attacks Constantinople: The Byzantines destroys the Russian fleet.976: Basil II becomes Emperor.992: Venetians granted extensive trading rights in the Byzantine Empire
23Byzantine Empire 330 AD- 14531014: Basil II destroys the Bulgar army, earning the epithet Bulgaroktonos ("Bulgar Slayer").1071: Defeat at Manzikert to the Seljuk Turks. Permanent loss of most of Asia Minor.1075: Loss of Syria to Muslims.1054: The Great Schism: The Latin Roman Church and the Greek Orthodox Church excommunicate each other.1087: Byzantines defeated in Thrace.1121: Reconquest of southwestern Asia Minor.1179: Byzantine Army defeated by the Sultanate of Rum at Myriokephalon. Hopes of regaining Asia Minor are lost.1202: Fourth Crusade is assembled at Venice.1204: Fourth Crusade captures Constantinople. The Latin Empire of Constantinople is formed as well as many Byzantine successor states. The capture of Constantinople in 1204 was a blow from which the Byzantines never fully recovered.1261: The successor state of Nicaea recaptures Constantinople and restores the Byzantine Empire.1453: Fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans. End of the Byzantine Empire.
25CrusadesThe Crusades were a series of wars taking place in Asia Minor and the Levant between 1095 and 1291, in which Western European nations engaged using the propaganda of religious expeditionary wars.There was a total of NINE Crusades!First Crusade: , established the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, providing more lands for the crusading knights.Second Crusade: , success of the Christians in the First Crusade had been largely due to the disunion among their enemies.Third Crusade: , Not many years after the Second Crusade, the Moslem world found in the famous Saladin a leader for a holy war against the Christians.Fourth Crusade:1202 – 1261Fifth Crusade: , the Battle of al-MansuraSixth Crusade: , achieved some small measure of successSeventh, Eighth, And Ninth Crusasdes: : Led by King Louis IX of France, the Seventh and Eighth Crusades were complete failures. In the Seventh Crusade Louis sailed to Egypt in 1248 and recaptured Damietta. In 1270 he set off on the Eighth Crusade, landing in North Africa in the hope of converting the sultan of Tunis to Christianity but died before he got far. King Edward I of England in 1271 who tried to join Louis in Tunis, the Ninth Crusade would fail in the end.
26Christianity Hinduism Islam Judaism Confucianism Buddhism Shinto 7 Major ReligionsChristianityHinduismIslamJudaismConfucianismBuddhismShintoObinnna Egbuna
27MonotheisticChristianity-Spread through missionaries and colonization of other countries.Islam-Spread through people and trade within India after the prophet Mohammed's death.Judaism-Judaism originated in the Middle East and has spread throughout all parts of the world because of both voluntary migrations and forced exile or expulsions.Buddhism-Spread partially through government aid of the Chinese government in Asia but mainly through trade with middle east.
28Polytheistic/OtherConfucianism-Did not exactly serve a god but moral was to honor those of higher authority. Spread through Confucius himself and partially through the government.Hinduism-Hinduism is the major religion of India, and the vast majority of India's population today is Hindu, and it is a vast majority of religions mixed together.Shintoism- Shintoism is considered a local religion located solely in Japan. However, the basis of this belief comes from main land Asia. Some consider Shintoism as a way of life instead of a religion, because there is no God, no set of rules in which to follow
29The Rise of IslamIslam spread quickly to become one of the world’s most popular religionsRemains so to this dayMuslim merchants played a crucial role in trade and cultural diffusion5 Pillars of IslamAbbasid was a “Golden Age” for IslamCourt-life, literature, learning
31Importance of IslamExpansion into Sub-Saharan Africa, the Swahili Coast of East Africa, parts of Europe and AsiaCaliph: political and religious successor of MuhammadQu’ranIslamic law known as Shari’a
34Qin/Han Dynasty Qin Dynasty- 221-206 B.C.E leadership of Ying Zheng (Qin Shi Huang)Feudalism was abandonedLegalism- The main idea was to make a system that will make and culture ideal citizens who will subordinate their will to that of the state.Han Dynasty- 207 B.C.E- 220 A.DConfucian ideals of government was usedIntellectual, literary, and artistic endeavors revived and flourishedTo ensure peace with non-Chinese local powers, the Han court developed a mutually beneficial "tributary system."
35Ottoman Empire 1299-1923 Muslim empire Peak at 1590 due to it’s expansionHad a military administration and civil administrationSultan was the highest position in the administration but really served as figure head once the janissaries began to manipulate his decisionsIslam major religionCharged tax if a person belonged to any religion that wasn’t ISLAMHad an agricultural based economyInstead of focusing on industrializing focused more on expansionExpansion is what gained them most of their wealthindependent actions (like always corrupted)It didn’t industrialize at the pace of Western Europe which didn’t allow them to become economically stable
36Cont’d Decline factors Major problems was brought upon the political system when the lots of people claimed caliphate when sultan died.Advisors also were in charge of making decisions and often were corruptedThere was local rulers which sometimes took Old man of EuropeThe ottoman empire completely ended during WWI when it allied itself with the Allies that lost the war.After the Ottoman empire terminated the countries became independent.
37MongolsThe Mongols were central nomadic people that arose around 1200 BCE, they are said to be the world's largest empire.Their first leader was a man by the name of Chinggis Khan(Genghis) ,he helped to unite the Mongols and aided in the capturing/destruction of cites/civilizations.The Mongols are know for their skilled ability on horseback and for their vicious fighting methods and ability to capture major cities, as well as their aiding in establishing trading routes/methods. The Mongols hand crafted some of the many weapons that they used to defeat other citiesMany years after the death of Chinggis Khan, his great-grandson Kubilai Khan defeated a Qin dynasty army but Kabul was interested in the Chinese empires and was constantly surrounded by either Buddhist, Daoist, or Confucian advisors.Therefore changing the Mongol empire onto the Yuan dynasty in China, this arose out of Kubilai’s fascination with Chinese empires but as the years continued on Song loyalist started revolting and due the new beliefs emphasized by Kubilai and his new religious beliefs the Yuan dynasty military was to weak to fight back. So eventually they were over thrown by the Ming dynasty therefore ending their long reign over China.
38Trade Network/Diffusion The Silk road- Know as one of the major trade that stretched across China and helped in trading silk along with other goods, along with the trading of goods the Silk road helped spread different languages/dialects and religions across China as well as diseases…Black DeathRoyal road- Used by the Persian empire was a trade network that united the empire and delivered mail to other empires as well as being a trade route for the Persians.Indian Ocean Trade- The trade network used between Africa and Asia, this trade network allowed the Asian people especially the Indians to trade goods with the Africans, allow African goods to come to the European/Indian land area, therefore creating a bases that would eventually include slave tradeSaharan Trade- African trade that included salts and helped to spread culture/religion throughout AfricaSub-Saharan trade- Significant because it helped in the spreading of the Bantu language which is significant to African history
40Spain Conquista of America How It began: Christopher Columbus (in 1492) was looking for a shorter route to get to India (India because they wanted to take part in the spice trade. Go cinnamon!) (Shorter route B/C of Galileo’s theory of Earth being round) and they hit the Americas!Background Info!He went and asked the kingdom of France and Britain—denied.Queen Isabella And King Francis had just come out of a 800 year religious war with Muslims, Catholics, and Jews. Very Pro-Catholic!Effects: Discovered the West Indies. Columbus started exploration in the Americas.Other Explorers:Hernan Cortes (1512) conquered the Aztecs.Francisco Pizarro (1531) conquered the Inca.How they did it:DiseaseSuperior weaponsThe Aztec thought Cortes was a godEstablished cultural, economic, and socialimperialism*REMEMBER TREATY OF TORDESILLAS -----
41Renaissance Time period 1350-1550 Age of learning, literature, art and cultureHumanism- Encouraged people to be curious and to question received wisdom .Questioned religious beliefs.Turned of attention to scientific discoveries. (ex. Astronomy and Anatomy).Humanist principles were applied to art work.
42Colonization in Africa and Asia Colonization in Africa pushed by three main factors: economic, political, and social.European powers wanted control of the natural resourced produced in Africa like precious metals and even people.1885 Berlin Conference and the Scramble for Africa:End of slavery in Africa “Commerce, Christianity, and Civilization”South Africa = British vs. Boers settlers.French in North AfricaBelgium = CongoNewly formed political boundaries caused tribes to clash and a lot of native Africans lived and worked under harsh conditions.China and Japan allowed minimal trade with the West so Europe began its sights on IndiaFrench-Indian WarBritish East India Company
43Imperialism: ;The desire or tendency of extending control of one country over another territoryIgnoring the claims of African ethnic groups, kingdoms, and city-states, Europeans established colonial claimsEuropean nations expand their empires by seizing territories from Muslim statesAs the Mughal Empire declined, Britain seized almost the whole subcontinent of IndiaDemand for Asian products drove Western imperialists to seek possession of Southeast Asian lands.
45What is The French Revolution? Between 1789 and 1802 France was wracked by a revolution which changed the government, administration, military and culture of the nation as well as plunging Europe into a series of wars.France went from a largely feudal state under an absolutist monarch to a republic which executed the king and then to an empire under Napoleon Bonaparte.
46Effects of the Revolution In France the bourgeois and landowning classes emerged as the dominant powerThe Revolution unified France and enhanced the power of the national state.Feudalism was dead; social order and contractual relations were consolidated by the Code Napoléon
47The Role of Women: women assumed roles like cooking cleaning and educating children.: roles expanded to more manual labor.1791: Declaration of Women’s rights.1805: women began to work in textile factories.1832: Unmarried women established their right to vote.1876: Specialized training schools opened up.1944: Women built weapons, vehicles, aircrafts, and ships in WWII
48Decolonization Africa South Africa Decolonization- The process of becoming free of colonial status and achieving statehood or independence.Between WWI and WWII, movements for independence began in Africa and Asia.National self-determination-fight for independence.Europe’s power was destroyed by WWII.– Virtually every colony achieved independence.Independence movements led by western educated elites.Great Britain and France could no longer afford colonies, but still wanted to keep trade after independence.Few professionals/skilled people to run the gov’t – resulted in national identity issues.Kwame NkrumahEgypt became independent in 1952Formation of National African Congress in 1912White minority had more power over black majority – created a system of segregation known as apartheid.Most black nations gained independence in the late 1950’s and 1960’s.AfricaSouth Africa
49Decolonization Latin America If the Americans,French, and Hatians can get freedom then so can I!There had been unsuccessful revolts in Latin Americatwo and three hundred yearsbut these revolutions.BUT in the 19th Century Europe was cray cray because of the vertically challenged Napoleon. *1This distracted Europe from its American holdings.*1 Napoleon was actually above average height, the short rumors was started by England and America. They are historically very messy.
50Decolonization in Middle East 1917: Balfour Declaration1922: Britain receives League of Nations mandate for Palestine: Arab uprisings in Palestine1948: Partition of Palestine and First Arab- Israeli War1952: King Farouk is overthrown in Egypt1956: Egypt nationalizes the Suez Canal1958: United Arab Republic is formed1964: The Palestine Liberation Organization is formed.
51World War I 1914-1918 Central Powers vs. Allies Causes CP: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and TurkeyA: 3 members of the Triple Entente: Britain and the British Empire France and RussiaCausesTensions between Russia and AustriaImperialism competition for landNationalism: BalkansAlliances- growth of military, generals, armyAssassination:ArchDuke Ferdinand from AustriaPrincep, a member of the Black Hand group, killed Ferdinand in Sarajero.
52World War IICauses:Deliberate strides towards military expansion by new regimes in Japan and GermanyGermany disliked the Treaty of VersaillesWar guilt cause: takes blame (no option; forced)Pay reparations ($33 billion for war damages)Army decrease, no navy, no subs, buffer zone between France/ Germany (Rhineland)Land- don’t keep colonies: give land to France and Great Britain; 13% of Germans living in that territory given was lost.Sparked War in Europe when Hitler invaded Poland in 1939Holocaust: genocide of JewsDeaths in gas chambers (mustard gas, chlorine gas, cyanide gas, etc.)United NationsDifferences w/ League of Nations:US involvementHQ in USSecurity council has military authority that can be used to stop aggression by “rogue” actions
53WWI Global EffectsKilled more, involved more countries, and costed more than any previous war in history.Resulted in the downfall of Russian and German monarchies.Caused the Ottoman Empire and Austria-Hungary to completely collapse.Contributed to the Bolshevik rise to power in Russia and the triumph of fascism in Italy.Ignited colonial revolts in the Middle East and in Southeast Asia.Just about everything that happened in the remainder of the century was a result of World War I, including the Holocaust and World War II.Sparked the development of the atomic bomb and the use of poison gas.The Great Depression, the Cold War, and the collapse of European colonialism can also be related to the First World War.Caused the creation of the League Of Nations
54WWIi Global EffectsThe United States assumed a new position as a global superpower.Many War Crime Trials.Caused the race for possession of nuclear arms.Created the United NationsEnormous technological progress was mademade the English develop radar which would be the forerunner of television.Broadened women’s rights.
55Cold War: Cuban Missile Crisis Following after WWII, two super powers, the U.S. and the Soviet Union, emerged and engaged in a major conflict known as the Cold war dating fromThe reasons they had so many problems were due to their conflicting political and economic views , and their different goals following WWII. For example how the U.S. wanted to allow self-determination in all nations while the Soviets wanted Communism in existing countries, and how the U.S. believed Germany should be reunited while the Soviets wanted Germany to remain weak and divided.As the Soviets started to take control and set up communist governments in eastern parts of Europe, the U.S. decided to go on with the “Containment” plan to stop Communism from spreading.3 examples of Containment were The Truman Doctrine, The Marshall Plan, and NATO that were formed to combat against Communism. The Soviets also in return created their own alliance called the Warsaw Pact in 1955.Next up was the nuclear arms race with the U.S. vs. the USSR. The Soviets had finally developed the Atomic Bomb in 1949 so the U.S. decided to step it up a notch and built the Hydrogen Bomb in This struck fear of a nuclear annihilation of the human race into the hearts of many people.
56Cold War: Cuban Missile Crisis Of the many Communist conflicts the U.S. had to face, one of them was with their next door neighbor, Cuba.The U.S. had tried to overthrow Castro in the Bay of Pigs invasion in April 1961, but failed.In October 1962, the U.S. had discovered the Soviets installing missiles in Cuba, 90 miles off the coast of Florida. The U.S. took action and blockade Cuba and for several days things were tense while Soviet ships approached Cuba and the blockade line.Finally the Soviet contacted the U.S. and agreed to remove the missiles if the U.S. didn’t invade Cuba. This was the closest the U.S. and Soviets ever came to nuclear war.Finally the Soviets and U.S. made the SALT I Treaty in 1972 to prohibit the manufacture of nuclear missiles by both sides. Later on the Soviets started to lose their grip on Eastern Europe as countries reformed or disbanded their communist gov. in the early 1990s. For Germany the Berlin Wall was torn down.Due to severe economic problems and growing political ferment in the USSR, the Soviet Union started to fall apart and by 1991, The Cold War was over.
58DBQ’s AND HOW THEY WORK BASIC CORE 0-7 pts Has acceptable thesis 1 pt Show basic understanding of all documentsSupports thesis with appropriate evidence from all documents2 ptsEvidence from all DocumentsEvidence from all but One DocumentsAnalyze POV in at Least Two DocumentsGrouping Two or ThreeAdditional Document1ptEXPANDED CORE (If you got all seven basic)0-2 pts
60Structure for the Essay I.IntroductionThesisRoadmapII.Body Paragraph(s)1st Sentence for each body paragraph should be a comparative (a directcomparison sentence)2nd sentence then explains/analysis the direct comparison in the first sentenceIII.Then subsequent sentences in the paragraph should provide at least 2 infostatements/evidence in each paragraph.IV.Conclusion Keep in Mind/ Tips:* the thesis can only be counted as the thesis and not also as a direct comparison* use linking comparative words such as “whereas” to help set up direct comparisons* if in the comparative question there is a parenthetical qualifier such as (political, economic, cultural), it is not required that evidence is given for each. This parenthetical qualifier helps students think about what to write.
61AP World History Compare/Contrast IdeasClear focus throughout, stays on topic, no irrelevant informationDetailed, accurate specificsInsight – consistently compares and contrasts in a thoughtful mannerAll parts of question thoroughly answeredOrganizationThesis statement takes a stand, answers all components of questionClear topic sentence for each body paragraphClear focus for each paragraphParagraphs divided into thoughtful categoriesTransitions between points
63Change and Continuity Example https://blu166.mail.live.com/mail/InboxLight.aspx?n= &fid=1&mid=8b59b1a7-b395-11e2-a ad84cb4&fv=1#!/mail/ViewOfficePreview.aspx?messageid=35bf11a9-b399-11e2-bb0a-00237de39d2a&folderid= &attindex=0&cp=-1&attdepth=0&n=