2XVII. The Age of Imperialism A. With the decline of the slave trade, Europeans were eager to reach the interior of Africa. In the past, they were dependent upon Africans to bring goods to the coast for trading. Now, Europeans want to extract the good themselves. They will rely on explorers to describe the interior of Africa. Africa was known as the "Dark Continent" because Europeans did not know anything about the interior.
3What were the reasons that Europeans wanted to control Africa? 1. EconomicNations needed raw materials for industrialization.2. PoliticalNations wanted to establish empires and scrambled for colonies in Africa and Asia.3. ReligiousDuty to spread Christianity.
4C. There were two innovations which helped Europeans advance into the interior of Africa. 1. New medical knowledge which prevented malaria and yellow fever.2. The Maxim gun – This was a new version of the machine gun which gave the Europeans an advantage when they fought against the African who were using muskets and spears.D. The scramble of Africa began. European nations were claiming colonies in all parts of Africa. By 1914, the only two African nations that remained independent: Ethiopia and Liberia.
6E. So many European nations are interested in Africa and conflicts are starting to erupt over land claims. In 1884, European nations meet at the Congress of Berlin to divide Africa.1. African tribes and representatives were not at the Congress!2. European nations accepted the boundaries which were already set by the French, Germans, and Portuguese.3. Belgium won the claim to the Congo.F. The age of African exploration leads to the colonization of the continent.
8*Imperialism video: G. African Resistance G. African ResistanceMany Africans resisted European rule with military force. However, millions of African will die due to the advanced weapons and technology of the Europeans.Only in Ethiopia will resistance succeed. Emperor Menelik II hired Europeans to train and equip his forces. In 1896, Ethiopia defeated the Italian army to win independence.See handout!In other cases, Europeans were aided by diseases foreign to the African environment.Small PoxRinderpest – A disease which affects cattle.
9H. Struggle for Southern Africa Historically, there has always been a struggle over who controls Southern Africa. The area was full of resources and minerals. Many groups searched for a more favorable place to live. Although they had different cultures, all of their languages are rooted in Bantu.The Zulu’s had a powerful empire in southern Africa (northeast of the Orange River). Groups that were defeated and had to move southward. This movement disrupted the traditional migration pattern of many tribes that lived within that area.3. The Boer’s were Dutch settlers in southern Africa who settle Cape Town in The blacks living in that area were forced to work (not quite slavery, but had limited freedoms- 2nd class citizens).
104. In the 1800’s, the British had taken control of Cape Colony 4. In the 1800’s, the British had taken control of Cape Colony. When they outlawed slavery, the Boers retreated on the Great Trek from 1835 – In a series of wagon trains, they left the Cape and traveled inland and set up two independent states in Zulu lands.5. Battles between the Boers and Zulus ensued for decades. But eventually, the British assist the Boers in defeating the Zulus.
12The whole situation changes with the discovery of diamonds and gold… In 1902, The British defeated the Dutch in the Boer War. Brits gained control of the mineral rich former Boer Republics. The British then established the Union of South Africa.
14At that point, the Boers became the lowest part of society, even below the Africans. The majority of people living in South Africa were Boers and became known as Afrikaners.The Afrikaners organized a political party called the National Party. They encouraged all of their members to have many children. Since the constitution only granted the right to vote to white men, the plan was to gain control of the country by voting the British out.Over time, they were able to take over the government. In 1934, South Africa gains independence. Once the Afrikaners gained control, they started to impose their views on South Africa.
15I. ApartheidA. The term apartheid comes from the Afrikaans word for "apartness". It was a policy that extends back to the beginning of white settlement in South Africa in In 1948, the social custom of apartheid was systematized into law.
171. The Population Registration Act: People were placed into race groups. The groups were Bantu, Coloured, White and Asian.2. The Group Areas Act:Each race established a separate section in which to live, work, or own land. They were not permitted in any other section.3. Pass Laws:All non whites were required to carry a pass in order to travel within white areas.4. The Bantu Homelands Citizenship Act:Small nations for blacks within South Africa where they were considered citizens. They could fully participate within their Homeland governments, but, were excluded from the South African government.
20Anti-Apartheid Leaders: Albert Luthuli (Nobel Peace prize 1960)Archbishop Desmond TuTu (also won)Nelson Mandela (Imprisoned for life in 1964)“During my lifetime I have dedicated myself to this struggle of the African people. I have fought against white domination, and I have fought against black domination. I have cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society in which all persons live together in harmony and with equal opportunities. It is an ideal which I hope to live for and to achieve. But if needs be, it is an ideal for which I am prepared to die.”Robben IslandOTL video:ROBBEN ISLAND:
21B. Many blacks were upset with the political and social situation inside of South Africa. The banded together and formed the African National Congress. Following the success of Gandhi, they used non violent resistance to address their grievances. Unlike India, the non violent resistance did reap positive results. With mounting international pressure in the 1980s, the South African government led by F.W. De Klerk had to make reforms or face economic sanctions. Nelson Mandela was released from prison (1990) and four years later was elected President of South Africa (1994).
23Effects of European Rule European nations set up colonial governments that were similar to their own. The traditional governmental systems of the African colonies were not considered. France and Great Britain were the two main European nations who controlled the majority of Africa. European nations scrambled for African colonies to obtain natural resources and build empires. Colonies could supply natural resources, labor and expanded markets. Once the land was divided, there were several ways that the colonies were ruled.Direct Rule –When the colonial power controls the government at every level.EXAMPLE: France – Governor enforces the laws that come straight from France.Military Force –Good decisions were not made and the military had to maintain control.French Colonial Assimilation –Educating Africans in France and then returning to the colony to spread French culture.Effects of European Rule
24Indirect Rule – Why did the British system When traditional leaders remained in place. However, the European officials made all of the decisions and expected local rulers to enforce them.EXAMPLE: Great Britain – Had a HUGE empire… did not have enough official send to every colony. Thus, local governor made laws.If the laws were not working, the governor could change them immediately.Why did the British systemof governing colonies work well?The governors had the abilityto react or act to any situation.
25Who had a better colonial policy? It all depends upon your point of view…However, there really was NO good colonial policy.
26While colonial rule did bring improvements to Africa… New systems of transportation and communication were built.Along with hospitals, better medical care, improved sanitation and water systems, and advancement in battling diseases.Another benefit of colonial rule was the increased opportunity for education. Mandatory elementary education, development of secondary schools created a new social class. This group started to question the ideas and actions of the Europeans. They would eventually lead African independence!!!!Elite – Small group of people with high social status. Some went to school in Europe and returned to high level government jobs.
27Some of the improvements led to the decline of African culture. People were forced to work on building projects for low wages.Railroads and roads allowed colonial governments to extend their control.Encourages the migration of workers which weakened family and villages ties.The main problem with colonial rule was that it distributed traditional African leaders' power and influence. It also impacted the legal system. The European legal system did not match African culture. As a result, Africans thought the system was impersonal and unjust because it lacked discussion and consensus.
28Some Europeans did settle in African colonies. They mostly were farmers. The settlers influenced the money economy systems of the colonies. They required the African to pay taxes in cash instead of the traditional barter system. As a result, the many people had to leave their families to work in the cities. The close knit village life was destroyed. Europeans also introduced the idea of personal land ownership. African farmers were encouraged to grow cash crops to pay for taxes and for export. However, the value of the crops was dependent upon the international market.
29II. African Nationalism The sense of pride in one's nation spread across Africa in the 1900's. It was difficult due to the effects of the Congress of Berlin. Colonies were divided without considering ethnicity. When these nations were granted independence, the boundary lines became the nation. Africans also traditionally identify first with their ethnic groups and not with a nation. African nationalists realized that they had to create a sense of unity among diverse groups if they wanted to gain independence.Pan - Africanism –Unifying all African nations.
30With the end of World War II the demand for independence increased With the end of World War II the demand for independence increased. Many of the European powers were weak and the Cold War was gaining momentum. Each of the superpowers took a stance on the issue of colonies.US – As a former colony, the US was against colonialism.USSR – Condemned imperialism and helped some nations to gain independence.
31African nationalist groups attempted to transfer loyalty from the ethnic group to the nation. They emphasized flags, pledges in public schools, teaching the history of the country, teaching about the founder, and a common language.After European colonization, there were only four independent African nations in 1950.1. Liberia 2. Ethiopia3. Egypt 4. South AfricaMost African nations are able to gain independence peacefully. Utilizing peaceful resistance and boycotts, European nations slowly granted freedom.Boycott –The refusal to buy a product oruse a service.
32Why did European nations grant independence? The colonies were not longer economically beneficial.Algeria was not able to gain their independence through peaceful methods.Many French citizens were living in Algeria and considered it to be a part of France. However, the Africans living there did not. After brutal fighting, the Evian Accords were signed in Two million Frenchmen left the country to return to France.Kenya also resorted to violence in order to gain independence. The Kenya African Union was made up primarily of the Kikuyu ethnic group and lobbied for Kenyan independence. Their approach was a first peaceful, however, they were not gaining any political or economic rights. The Kenya African Union slowly moved from a peaceful to a militant approach of obtaining independence.Mau Mau –Armed resistance
33Jomo Kenyatta, the leader of the Kenya African Union, was imprisoned for encouraging force against the British. The British reacted violently and tried to suppress the revolt. After 15 years, Kenya was officially granted independence and Kenyatta became the first president.Kenyatta Day – December 12thKenyan Independence
34Colonial Legacy The effects of colonial rule lasted a long time… 1. Countries were not prepared for independence.2. African rulers were replaced or weakened.3. Countries were not assisted in setting up democracies.4. Rival ethnic groups and small countries of less than 10 million people.
36After IndependenceAfter independence, African nations were looking forward to a bright future of higher wages, increased buying power, lower taxes and the chance to improve their lives. However, there were problems. Value on the family and ethnic groups made it hard to create national unity. Also economic differences among nations also caused conflict. Some of these nations experienced civil wars.
37EXAMPLE: The Congo was ruled by Belgium EXAMPLE: The Congo was ruled by Belgium. Their colonial policy was directed at economic exploitation and did not develop the local government. The newly created country was composed of 14 million people who were divided into 200 different ethnic groups. The mineral resources within the nation were not evenly distributed. The province of Katanga was rich in cooper and wanted and to be completely independent.
38Explain the problem with the newly independent Congo? The Congo was not prepared for independence and the rival ethnic groups were competing for power.Belgium did grant independence to Katanga which had a negative affect on the Congo. How would the secession of Katanga impact the Congo?The Congo would not have an economic base
39The United Nations did not take any action The United Nations did not take any action. Eventually, a military leader gained control of the country. The nation was renamed Zaire and European nations were allowed to extract natural resources.Concerns over natural resources was not the only issue. There were multiple ethnic groups within each nation. Many of the groups believed that they should have their own independent nation. As conflicts between the groups increased, many turned to genocide.Genocide is defined as "the deliberate and systematic destruction, in whole or in part, of an ethnic, racial, religious, or national group”
40Why would you participate in GENOCIDE? 1. Food 2. Money 3. Land In most cases, the international community did not become involved until the genocide was over. The response was to send United Nations troops and supplies to maintain order. Resolution of the cause of the genocide generally was never achieved.POWER!
41A map representing conflict death tolls between 1990 and 2007 where the square area of continents/regions corresponds to their proportion of conflict death tolls:Among the places civil war & genocide has occurred in Africa: Rwanda(1994), Congo(1996 to ?), Somalia(1991 to ?), Sudan(2003 to ?), Nigeria( & 2010), and Uganda(1986 to ?)
43Joseph Kony 2012 ? Unfortunately, NOT new… Huffington Post Article:
44Blood Diamonds - Sierra Leone 60 Minutes:Lost Boys of Sudan-Blood Diamonds - Sierra Leone&
45In response to colonization… There is also a trend toward Africanization and creating national unity after independence. Since colonial times, European culture was considered to be superior. As a result, many of the Africans tried to adopt European ways. In the aftermath of colonization, there was a desire to become more African.1. Reduce European clothing2. European writing on building were destroyed3. Changing European based names to African namesCongo to Zaire
46Independence, Unity and Economy… The goal of Pan - Africanism was never reached but it never died. There were several organizations that were created to unify the continent.At independence, each African nation joined the United Nations. They have worked for policies that favor developing nations. They may agree on some issues, however, they do not always vote together. Although these nations are part of numerous international organizations, many still have strong ties to their former colonial powers.Both of the superpowers were interested in Africa for resources during the Cold War. The African nations attempted to remain neutral. Usually, nations were tied to receive aid from both superpowers.
47The majority of nations within Africa have a Gross Domestic Product of less than $10,000. Out of 53 nations, 35 nations have a GDP of less than $2,500.Out of 53 nations, 14 nations have a GDP of $2,501 to $10,000.
48Nations across the African continent have developed at different economic rates. This is due to the large variety of resources that each nation contains. Some of the poorer nations have gone to international organizations for help, mainly the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. Both of these organizations are now demanding that debtor nations make major economic changes before they receive aid. The economic changes generally deal with the reduction of governmental influence within the economy.
49Literature and ArtsCombining current issues with things from the past within a story, poem, or piece of art can describe African art. The goal is to convey a moral or lesson with generally expresses the universal order and respect for the environment.Today, storytellers can be heard on the radio and on television.Griot – A story teller who held a position of power in the village.A new form of art is decorated coffins which are built in Ghana. The coffins reflect the life of the person. They can be seen displayed in museums around the world.
50AIDS in Africa HIV/AIDS in AFRICA: A 10 MINUTE OVERVIEW The AIDS Highway – Africa (Journeyman Pictures)
51Fantasy Coffins built in Ghana have been featured in art museums around the world.