Presentation on theme: "In a Global perspective Johan Krop Food Technology & Production."— Presentation transcript:
in a Global perspective Johan Krop Food Technology & Production
Johan Krop Program manager Process & Food Technology Senior lecturer Academy of Technology, Innovation & Society incl. Engineering, Environment and Design programs The Hague University of Applied Sciences The Netherlands Who are you meeting today?
25th anniversary of the Faculty of Agricultural Technology Congratulations with the 25th anniversary of the Faculty of Agricultural Technology. Thank you very much for inviting me. Saya ucapkan selamat merayakan ulang tahun yang ke dua puluh lima tahun Fakultas Technoloki Pertanian. Terima kasih saya bisa hadir bersama kalian semua. Lan kulo ngucapin slamet untuk rong poloh limo perayaan ulang tahune kalian Matur suwon pansenengan semua ngundang kulo mriki.
Global : world wide & not detailed The world is small
ROUND like an ice BALL …or a cookie or hamburger
Food Technology Multinational or International companies Production on an Industrial scale
Production Processes From low quality raw materials to high valuable products Soy beans to soy food products & soy oil Milk to cheese & other dairy products Cocoa beans to Chocolate Sugar beet/cane to sweet crystal sugar & alcohol Cereals or grains to beer Palm fruit to edible palm oil Vegetable oil to biofuel Crude mineral oil to refinery products like fuel & plastic
Local vs Global and Traditional vs Industrial Subjects: Soy food Cheese Chocolate Sugar Beer Palm oil Biofuel
Soy Food Technology Although soy foods have been consumed for more than 1000 years, only for the past 25 years have they made an inroad into Western cultures and diets. Soy foods are typically divided into two categories: non fermented and fermented. Traditional non fermented soy food include fresh green soy beans, whole dry soy beans, soy nuts, soy sprouts, whole-fat soy flour, soy milk and soy milk products, tofu, okara and yuba. Traditional fermented soy food include tempeh, miso, soy sauces, natto and fermented tofu and soy milk products.
Flow chart of tempeh production. Soybeans I De-hull Hulls (mechanical or by soaking) I Water Soak 100 °C for 30 min in acidified water (with lactic or acetic acid to pH 4.3-5.3 I Cook in soak water for 90 min at 38°C I Drain and dry soybeans Water I Rhizopus oligosporus Inoculate and bag. I Incubate at 35-38 °C & 75-78% relative humidity for 18 to 24 hours. I Refrigerate
Tempeh Tempeh is a fermented soy food and is unique in its texture, flavor and versatility. It originated in Indonesia, where today it is still the most popular soy food. Tempeh, while not as popular as tofu in the United States, lends itself easily to being used as a meat alternative because of its chewy texture and distinct flavor. As a result, a wide variety of tempeh-based meat analogues are available. Tempeh is a cake of cooked and fermented soy beans held together by the mycelium of the fungus Rhizopus oligosporus. Tempeh can then be further processed or packaged and pasteurized for distribution.
Fermentation, refining and tempering Cocoa beans from Indonesia, Ghana, Brazil Fermentation is essential for development of appropriate flavors from precursors. The length of the fermentation also affects the aroma, so if well-developed aroma is wanted the beans have fermentation for a longer time. Fermented and dried cocoa beans will be refined to a roasted nib by winnowing and roasting. The ingredients required for chocolate manufacture are cocoa liquor, cocoa butter, sugar or other sweeteners, milk fat & powder, and emulsifiers(lecithin).
Sugar from beet or cane Molasses Alcohol Production Unit
Global production of sugar Sugar is produced in 121 Countries and global production now exceeds 120 Million tons a year. Approximately 70% is produced from sugar cane, a very tall grass with big stems which is grown in the tropical countries. The remaining 30% is produced from sugar beet.
Beer brewing Egyptian wooden model of beer making
Beer in Indonesia Bintang is a subsidiary of the giant Dutch brewer Heineken that claims to be the world’s major beer exporter, selling to 180 countries. The raw products used to make beer are an international mix. The malt comes from South Australia and Europe the yeast from Holland. The Mojokerto brewery only makes Bintang. The West Java brewery at Tangerang also produces Heineken. There’s no way the two can be mixed. Nor can you tell by taste whether a Bintang has been made in Mojokerto or Tangerang. The only difference is the code on the label. Although beer is not labelled halal (allowed) in Indonesia, nor is it haram (forbidden) to Muslims.
How low/non-alcohol beer is made Low-alcohol beer starts out as regular alcoholic beer, which is then cooked in order to evaporate the alcohol. Most modern breweries also utilize vacuum evaporation to preserve flavor and speed up the boiling process. An alternative process called reversed osmosis does not require heating. The beer is passed through a filter with pores are small enough that only alcohol and water (and a few volatile acids) can pass through. A last alternative process is to make use of a different yeast strain.
Palm oil As of 2009, Indonesia is the largest producer of palm oil, surpassing Malaysia in 2006, producing more than 20.9 million tonnes. The Indonesian aspires to become the world's top producer of palm oil. The use of palm oil in food products is often the focus of environmental activist groups, due to it being documented as a cause of substantial and often irreversible damage to the natural environment.
Palm oil processing Palm oil products are made using milling and refining processes. Crystallization and separation processes to obtain solid (stearin), and liquid (olein) fractions. Physical refining removes smells and coloration, to produce refined bleached deodorized palm oil (RBDPO). Free fatty acids are used as an important raw material in the manufacture of soaps, washing powders and other hygiene and personal care products
Fermentation & Distillation Fermentation from any feedstock containing fermentable sugars. Sugar from cane/beet, agave, grape Starch from cereals, patato after enzym reaction Cellulose from wood, paper through acidic hydrolysis Alcohol yield up to 50 kg per 100 kg of sugar Distillation based on the separation process of components with different boiling points and physical properties. Alcohol yield up to 96% strength by volume
Chemistry of biodiesel CH2OOR1 catalyst CH2OH | | CHOOR2 + 3CH3OH 3CH3OORx + CHOH | CH2OOR3 CH2OH Triglyceride 3 Methanols Biodiesel Glycerin R1, R2, and R3: fatty acid alkyl groups The fatty acids involved determine the final properties of the biodiesel
Transesterification & Refining Transesterification from vegetable oil or grease: Soy oil from soy bean Palm oil from palm fruit Recycled grease from restaurant and cooking grease 100 kg of oil or fat are reacted with 10 kg of a short-chain alcohol (usually methanol) with a catalyst to form 100 kg of biodiesel and 10 kg of glycerin. Refining based on the separation process of components with different boiling points and physical properties. Physical refining to remove impurities to the desired level, distillation to provide constant purity of product Soybean-biodiesel produces a 93 % energy gain vs. 25 % for corn-ethanol.
Black and blue: best countries with potential for economic biofuels Credit: University of Wisconsin, Madison The top-five potential producers, Malaysia, Indonesia, Argentina, the United States and Brazil, account for over 80 percent of that total.
Biodiesel Which producers are involved? Bioethanol
Conclusion High crude oil prices and government subsidies and policies have driven the increased global demand for using palm oil to create biofuels. Biofuels can play a role in meeting global energy needs, but should be balanced with the critical needs of providing food for a growing global population. Technology can and must be a source and a mean to prevent competition between Food and Energy. Food products produced for the local market can differ per region. Global products are mostly exactly the same wherever they are produced.