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Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 6.3. 16-18 Intro 2: Introducing the Culture/Discipline Strand:

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Presentation on theme: "Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 6.3. 16-18 Intro 2: Introducing the Culture/Discipline Strand:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS Intro 2: Introducing the Culture/Discipline Strand:

2 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 → take up questions from yesterday‘s SE session → cognitive science approach → functionalism, interdisciplinary model → problems, diversification → your experience with cogsci, interdisciplinarity → models of interdisciplinarity +/- → interdisciplinarity: limits & alternatives → locating cogsci history → current challenges & opportunites bigger picture received view

3 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 → take up questions from yesterday‘s SE session: → cognitive science approach → functionalism, interdisciplinary model → problems, diversification → your experience with cogsci, interdisciplinarity → models of interdisciplinarity +/- → interdisciplinarity: limits & alternatives → locating cogsci history → current challenges & opportunites bigger picture received view

4 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 The Specific Cognitive Science Take on the Mind the cognitive revolution cybernetics behaviorism Interdisciplinarity Computer metaphor: Tinking as rule governed symbol manipulation Functionalism 1950ies1940ies1960ies1970ies1930ies 20ies key notion: „representation“

5 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 On the cognitivist view, symbols are objects that have three aspects: physical, syntactic, semantic. It is on the strenght of these symbols that cognitivism claims to be able to span the gap that separates the physical world from the world of meaning. Computiation may therfore be described as the central pier of the cognitivst bridge. Cognitivism also assumes that purely formal computations carried out at that syntactic level are materially empodied in the causal processes that occur within the computer insofar as it ist a physical object, and are interpreted at the semantic level on the basis of elementary meanings assigned to the symbols. Dupuy, J.-P. (1999). The Mechanization of the Mind: On the Origins of Cognitive Science. Princeton, Princeton University Press. p: 5 The „Trick“ of Functionalism to solve the „Mind-Body or Physical World/Meaning Problem

6 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 The Specific Cognitive Science Take on the Mind: Ambitious Beginnings: 1950ies1940ies1960ies1970ies1930ies the cognitive revolution cybernetics behaviorism 20ies Optimism: finally solving problems philosophers & haven‘t been able to deal with… McCarthy: Modeling vision as a summer project for one of his students Focus on: language, reasoning „higher“ cogn. functions Simon: by 1985 “machines will be capable of doing any work that a man can do.” ´67 Minsky: “Within 20 years computers won’t even keep us as pets.”

7 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 The Specific Cognitive Science Take on the Mind: The Current State of Cognitive Science: Diversification Classical Cognitive Science connectionism cognitive linguistics … 1980ies 1990ies 1950ies1940ies1960ies1970ies1920ies1930ies 2000 the cognitive revolution cognitive neuroscience cybernetics embodiment situatedness behaviorism a-life dynamical systems evolutionary psychology

8 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 → take up questions from yesterday‘s SE session: → cognitive science approach → functionalism, interdisciplinary model → problems, diversification → your experience with cogsci, interdisciplinarity → models of interdisciplinarity +/- → interdisciplinarity: limits & alternatives → locating cogsci history → current challenges & opportunites bigger picture received view

9 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 What do you think/how do you feel about the cognitive science take on the mind? Are the goals once set reached? What are the achievements of Cogsci? How much progress is there? What are your experiences with CogSci as a Discipline? Is it a Discipline? What are your experiences with its interdisciplinarity? What kind of interdisciplinarity is it, in your opinion? What about your identity ? The Specific Cognitive Science Take on the Mind and the Current State of Cognitive Science: Your Opinion

10 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 The Specific Cognitive Science Take on the Mind: Change & Diversification through (among other things): Classical Cognitive Science connectionism 1980ies 1990ies 1950ies1940ies1960ies1970ies1920ies1930ies 2000 the cognitive revolution cognitive neuroscience cybernetics embodiment situatedness behaviorism - technological progress… - reacting to problems dynamical systems But…. at the same time redefining the topic of investigation… e.g. „insect walking“, interest shifting to problems of control… +/-

11 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 - fragmentation? - stagnation? A Pessimist‘s View from within Cognitive Science: Crisis? „symbol grounding/ frame problem still firmly in place“ „stagnation in roboticist bottom up approaches: where to from insect walking?“ → scaling problem „AI is dead“ „no artificial life yet.“ is cognitive neuroscience taking over? „language, reasoning, etc. far from explained….“

12 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 Representation has been the central issue in artificial intelligence work over the last 15 years only because it has provided an interface between otherwise isolated modules and conference papers (Brooks 1991). A Critical Look back…. Interdisciplinarity?

13 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 taking a closer look at interdisciplinariy…

14 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 → take up questions from yesterday‘s SE session: → cognitive science approach → functionalism, interdisciplinary model → problems, diversification → your experience with cogsci, interdisciplinarity → models of interdisciplinarity +/- → interdisciplinarity: limits & alternatives → locating cogsci history → current challenges & opportunites bigger picture received view

15 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 What models of interdisciplinarity are there? In how far and how can different disciplinces work together? What ways of interaction and relating to each other are there? What are the respective roles of the different disciplines? Models of Interdisciplinarity: a First Approximation

16 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 Different Models of Interdisciplinarity: a few examples…

17 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 Thagard, P. (2005). Mind. Introduction to Cognitive Science. Cambridge, MA, Bradford MIT Press. Models of Interdisciplinarity: the Jigsaw Puzzle

18 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 Thagard, P. (2005). Mind. Introduction to Cognitive Science. Cambridge, MA, Bradford MIT Press. Models of Interdisciplinarity: the Jigsaw Puzzle How are the disciplines related, and what are their respective roles?

19 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 Models of Interdisciplinarity: the Layered Cake Churchland, P. S. and T. J. Sejnowski (1992). The Computational Brain. Cambridge, MA, MIT Press.

20 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 Models of Interdisciplinarity: the Layered Cake How are the disciplines related, and what are their respective roles?

21 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 Levels of Neuroscience

22 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 Levels of Neuroscience → see also early 20th century: unity of science movement

23 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 biological cognitive socio-cultural  mechanisch  elektrochemisch  Repräsentation  Normen... Models of Interdisciplinarity: the Layered Cake extended How are the disciplines related, and what are their respective roles?

24 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 biological cognitive socio-cultural  mechanisch  elektrochemisch...  Repräsentation  Normen... Models of Interdisciplinarity: the Layered Cake

25 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 biological cognitive socio-cultural  mechanisch  elektrochemisch  Repräsentation  Normen... Models of Interdisciplinarity: the Layered Cake relations & roles of disciplines - some keywords: reductionism, eliminativism, non-reductionism, „emergence“

26 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 "Blind monks examining an elephant", an 1888 ukiyo-e print by Hanabusa Itchō. Models of Interdisciplinarity: 6 Blind Men and Elephant

27 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 It was six men of Hindustan To learning much inclined, Who went to see the Elephant (Though all of them were blind) That each by observation Might satisfy the mind. The first approached the Elephant And happening to fall Against his broad and sturdy side At once began to bawl: "Bless me, it seems the Elephant Is very like a wall". The second, feeling of his tusk, Cried, "Ho! What have we here So very round and smooth and sharp? To me 'tis mighty clear This wonder of an Elephant Is very like a spear".

28 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 The third approached the animal, And happening to take The squirming trunk within his hands, Then boldly up and spake: "I see," quoth he, "the Elephant Is very like a snake." The Fourth reached out an eager hand, And felt about the knee. "What most this wondrous beast is like Is mighty plain," quoth he; "'Tis clear enough the Elephant Is very like a tree!" The Fifth, who chanced to touch the ear, Said: "E'en the blindest man Can tell what this resembles most; Deny the fact who can, This marvel of an Elephant Is very like a fan!"

29 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 The Sixth no sooner had begun About the beast to grope, Than, seizing on the swinging tail That fell within his scope, "I see," quoth he, "the Elephant Is very like a rope!" And so these men of Hindustan Disputed loud and long, Each in his own opinion Exceeding stiff and strong, Though each was partly in the right And all were in the wrong. So oft in theologic wars, The disputants, I ween, Rail on in utter ignorance Of what each other mean, And prate about an Elephant Not one of them has seen! John Godfrey Saxe ( )

30 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 "Blind monks examining an elephant", an 1888 ukiyo-e print by Hanabusa Itchō. Models of Interdisciplinarity: 6 Blind Men and Elephant How are the disciplines related, and what are their respective roles?

31 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 "Blind monks examining an elephant", an 1888 ukiyo-e print by Hanabusa Itchō. Models of Interdisciplinarity: 6 Blind Men and Elephant How are the disciplines related, and what are their respective roles? → Fleck, Kuhn, …?

32 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 "Blind monks examining an elephant", an 1888 ukiyo-e print by Hanabusa Itchō. Models of Interdisciplinarity: 6 Blind Men and Elephant Different ways of interpretation!

33 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 "Blind monks examining an elephant", an 1888 ukiyo-e print by Hanabusa Itchō. Models of Interdisciplinarity: 6 Blind Men and Elephant Consider what specific Philosophers of Science would say about the story: Popper Fleck Kuhn Feyerabend…

34 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 Models of Interdisciplinarity: 6 Blind Men and Elephant But… at least they are all blind … not one blind, one deaf, etc….

35 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 Models of Interdisciplinarity: 6 Blind Men and Elephant …and at least it is still one elephant, or ist it? „brain“ „mind“

36 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 „But…what‘s the cake?“ Models of Interdisciplinarity: the Cake-Slicing Model

37 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 → take up questions from yesterday‘s SE session: → cognitive science approach → functionalism, interdisciplinary model → problems, diversification → your experience with cogsci, interdisciplinarity → models of interdisciplinarity +/- → interdisciplinarity: limits & alternatives → locating cogsci history → current challenges & opportunites bigger picture received view

38 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 interdisciplinarity: vertical... AILing  PhiloNeuroCogsci (+) institutional autonomy, identity (-) tale of the ecumenical church → just one more discipline?

39 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 interdisciplinarity: horizontal... AILing  PhiloNeuro Cogsci interdisciplinary group / sequential disciplinarian / traveller? identity? potentially risky. who pays the bills? ;-)

40 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 → take up questions from yesterday‘s SE session: → cognitive science approach → functionalism, interdisciplinary model → problems, diversification → your experience with cogsci, interdisciplinarity → models of interdisciplinarity +/- → interdisciplinarity: limits & alternatives → locating cogsci history → current challenges & opportunites bigger picture received view

41 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 bigger picture: goals illustrate challenges & opportunites of modern cogsci deepening the concepts/outlook of the previous semester → demonstration of the utility of adopting a larger view providing a framework for discussing strategies → this course → the study/program curriculum → individual strategies

42 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 3 parts scope and limits of the interdisciplinary model of cogsci discuss opportunity and challenges of pluralism/fragmentation → emphasis on strategy revisit the history of cognitive science → locating paradigms

43 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 inspired by: Dupuy, J.-P. (1999). The Mechanization of the Mind: On the Origins of Cognitive Science. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

44 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 interdisciplinary model: PR

45 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 interdisciplinary model: more realistic

46 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 Howards Gardner’s 5 Principles (1985) level of analysis (mental representations) wholly separate from the biological/neurological and from the sociological level the electronic computer as the most viable model to how the human mind functions de-emphasize certain factors: affects/emotions, historical and cultural factors, background context interdisciplinarity Western philosophy → field has changed enormously in the last two decades…

47 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 interdisciplinary model: more realistic autonomous from biology/neuroscience & socio-cultural studies electronic computer as model for the mind emotions, background context

48 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 connotations of “cognitive science“ paradigm (traditional) community field of cognitive sciences

49 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 taking stock (+) there is much more to be gained even from within the traditional 6 disciplines that is (intentionally) not part of the traditional cogsci approach (-) getting oriented in even one or two disciplines this is quite hard and takes a veeery long time… → challenge of integration remains… → partly the strategy of the study program: disciplinary column

50 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 history of cognitive science revisited

51 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 phase 0: fertile ground cybernetics cognitive behaviorism neurophysiology … …

52 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 phase 1a: early institutionalization computer science (symbol systems) neuroscience (neurology) linguistics (Chomskean) psychology (cognitive) cutting off many of its rich roots was the price that early cognitive science had to pay for passing from an exploratory stage to a full-fledged research program from a cloud to a crystal (Francisco Varela)

53 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 phase 1b: institutionalization

54 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 phase 1b: institutionalization

55 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 phase 2: broadening scope → connectionism: neural networks (cybernetics) re-enter → dynamical systems (cybernetics) re-enter → emotion & motivation become hot topics again … → autonomous robots (cybernetics) re-enter

56 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 phase 3: bursting (artist‘s impression ;-)

57 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 phase 3: examples Human Computer Interaction (HCI) Psychology Linguistics Computer Science

58 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 phase 3: examples Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) Computer Science Anthropology Psychology

59 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 phase 3: examples Cognitive Ethology Animal Psychology Cognitive Science(!) Ethology

60 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 phase 3: examples Computational Neuroscience Computer Modeling Physics (applied maths) Neurobiology

61 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 mainstream cognitive science? time

62 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 time pluralism / fragmentation! mainstream cognitive science? what do you think? [return to this]

63 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 Locating the paradigms: cognitivism cognitivism

64 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 Locating connectionism (and beyond) inner tension cogsci model-toolkit (beyond symbol systems): connectionist networks, graphs, maps, holograms, dyn. systems, agents, internal models, structured nets … → pragmatism, not truth → machine learning, etc. [more about this → modeling] → right tool for the right job

65 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 Locating embodied action → importing questions, explanatory strategies and worldviews from biologists into cognitive science biological sciences [more about this → physiology] outer tension 1 → via robotics

66 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 Locating situated cognition → making use of the concerns, worldview, and explanatory strategies of social scientists (and everyone working on environment/ecology) socio-cultural sciences outer tension 2 [more about this → culture] → via social informatics

67 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 Locating paradigms → nicely explains the nature of these “revolutions“ (embodiment & situatedness) → broaden, not supplant traditional cogsci → common cause? excesses of cognitivism

68 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 Locating paradigms → nicely explains the nature of these “revolutions“ (embodiment & situatedness) → broaden, not supplant traditional cogsci → common cause? excesses of cognitivism recommendation: look beyond situated cognition recommendation: look beyond embodied action

69 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 pluralism / fragmentation: challenges & opportunities

70 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 traditional strategy

71 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 multidisciplinary field strategy pragmatic (usually little theoretical integration) proven to work partly the strategy of the study program: 2nd year spend more time (+) easier to work together decide early on (-) more narrow approach going directly for a new “multidisciplinary master?

72 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 more integrative / intercultural strategy? first step: take a step back → bigger picture need a set of maps rather than a list partly the goal of this seminar: analysis in terms of approaches

73 Rossmanith, Reichelt SS08 time [return to this] A more optimistic view on current cognitive science: many interesting new fields and new challenges popping up, but need for orientation – and integration?


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