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同性戀能改變嗎 從臨床經驗談天生論的迷思 Melvin W. Wong, Ph.D. 黃偉康 博士 Licensed Clinical Psychologist ChristianMentalHealth.com 220 Montgomery Street, Suite 1098, San Francisco,

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Presentation on theme: "同性戀能改變嗎 從臨床經驗談天生論的迷思 Melvin W. Wong, Ph.D. 黃偉康 博士 Licensed Clinical Psychologist ChristianMentalHealth.com 220 Montgomery Street, Suite 1098, San Francisco,"— Presentation transcript:

1 同性戀能改變嗎 從臨床經驗談天生論的迷思 Melvin W. Wong, Ph.D. 黃偉康 博士 Licensed Clinical Psychologist ChristianMentalHealth.com 220 Montgomery Street, Suite 1098, San Francisco, California, U.S.A. ( 思仁 翻譯 )

2 Dispelling Common Myths Overview of Myths 10% Myth: that 10% of population is homosexual ‘4810% Myth: that 10% of population is homosexual ‘48 Homosexuality is not a mental illness (DSM)’73Homosexuality is not a mental illness (DSM)’73 Brain dissection of cadavers: Dr. Simon LeVey, ‘91Brain dissection of cadavers: Dr. Simon LeVey, ‘91 Twin studies: Drs. Bailey & Pillard, ‘91Twin studies: Drs. Bailey & Pillard, ‘91 “Gay Gene”: Dr. Dean Hamer, ‘93 Science“Gay Gene”: Dr. Dean Hamer, ‘93 Science “Immutability” & “Sexual minority” perspective“Immutability” & “Sexual minority” perspective Homosexuals are a “Deprived minority” groupHomosexuals are a “Deprived minority” group Homosexual “love” is a committed, monogamousHomosexual “love” is a committed, monogamous Homosexuals are “chic”, youthful & healthyHomosexuals are “chic”, youthful & healthy AIDS is not a homosexual diseaseAIDS is not a homosexual disease

3 Dispelling Common Myths “Political Correctness” Homosexuals are born not made: An “ethnic” qualityHomosexuals are born not made: An “ethnic” quality Homosexuals can’t changeHomosexuals can’t change –If you don’t accept; you’re homophobic 10% of population is destined to be homosexuals10% of population is destined to be homosexuals Homosexuality as another life-style & is healthy& harmless: Physically, Emotionally & Spiritually?Homosexuality as another life-style & is healthy& harmless: Physically, Emotionally & Spiritually? That sexuality, like a rainbow, is a continuumThat sexuality, like a rainbow, is a continuum Sin of Sodom is not about homosexualitySin of Sodom is not about homosexuality Biblical condemnation on homosexuality is not the same as we know it todayBiblical condemnation on homosexuality is not the same as we know it today

4 “Ten-Percent” Project Ten in schools Kinsey, A.C, Pomeroy W.B., & Martin, C.E., Sexual Behavior in the Human Male 1948 Philadelphia:W.B.Saunders Co. Allegedly Kinsey was believed to have been an advocate & promoter of homosexualityAllegedly Kinsey was believed to have been an advocate & promoter of homosexuality Homosexual activists claim a consistent 10% across time & cultures, which they offer as supportive evidence that homosexuality is biologically basedHomosexual activists claim a consistent 10% across time & cultures, which they offer as supportive evidence that homosexuality is biologically based “If this condition is genetic & since most homosexuals do not reproduce, there should be a gradual decrease of instances of this condition, & not an increase”“If this condition is genetic & since most homosexuals do not reproduce, there should be a gradual decrease of instances of this condition, & not an increase” Yen, R., MD, PhD "No Need Of Any More Social Experimentation With Our Military, An Open Letter to President Clinton," Challenger, Vol 32, No. 4. April 1993

5 Homosexuality is not a mental illness (DSM-IV) American Psychiatric Association deleted homosexuality from its official Diagnostic & Statistical Manual in 1973American Psychiatric Association deleted homosexuality from its official Diagnostic & Statistical Manual in 1973 By implication their action declared homosexuality to be "a normal form of sexual life” (There was no explicit statement)By implication their action declared homosexuality to be "a normal form of sexual life” (There was no explicit statement) This was a decision voted on by committee members that passed with a very narrow margin. Many observed there were intimidation tactics & moving personal testimoniesThis was a decision voted on by committee members that passed with a very narrow margin. Many observed there were intimidation tactics & moving personal testimonies This was a political decision & not scientific or medicalThis was a political decision & not scientific or medical Wide dissension among mental health professionals about treatability of homosexuality:(Political intolerance present)Wide dissension among mental health professionals about treatability of homosexuality:(Political intolerance present)

6 What does the DSM-IV say about Gender Identity Disorder & Homosexuality

7 “By late adolescence or adulthood, about three-quarters of boys who had a childhood history of Gender Identity Disorder report a homosexual or bisexual orientation, but without concurrent Gender Identity Disorder.” “Most of the remainder report a heterosexual orientation, also without concurrent Gender Identity Disorder.”

8 Homosexuality is normal, biologically determined & cannot be changed There is no scientific research indicating a physiological cause for homosexuality Biological factors, as yet unknown, may play a role in the predisposition to homosexuality Research most strongly suggests that individuals are likely to become homosexual when subjected to childhood trauma & disturbances in family structure E.g. Problems in early family relationships, sexual seduction, emotional conflict, & sense of inadequacy with same-sex peers, with resulting disturbance in gender identity

9 Comments from a geneticist & anesthesiologist Yen, R., MD, PhD "No Need Of Any More Social Experimentation With Our Military, An Open Letter to President Clinton," Challenger, Vol 32, No. 4. April 1993 "Obviously, these people could not be here if both parents were homosexual. Two sperms cannot make a baby. If a gay man wants to have a baby, he will need a partner of the opposite sex. Since lesbians prefer females as sex partners, the gay man will need the help of a heterosexual female. Therefore, half of the baby's genes come from a hetero- sexual. It is clear, then, if there are genes that determine homosexuality, 50% of them will be lost in one generation. No genes can long survive this kind of Darwinian attrition. If homosexuality is based on the passing of "homosexual genes" from one generation to another, gays & lesbians would long have become extinct."

10 Brain Dissection Studies: Dr. Simon LeVay LeVay, S., " A Difference in Hypothalamic Structure Between Heterosexual & Homosexual Men," Science, 253: , 1991 Neurobiologist & homosexual activist, he studied 41 cadavers He focused on a tiny region of the hypothalamus, a part of the brain that regulates body temperature, blood pressure, pulse rate & hormone production. It is also "the chief coordinator of instinct & drives," including sex drive. INAH-3 (the third interstitial nucleus of the anterior hypo- thalamus), no bigger than a grain of sand. Speculating that the INAH-3 controls sexual orientation, he compared the brains of 19 homosexuals with those of 16 "presumed heterosexual men" & 6 "presumed heterosexual" women INAH-3 region in females & homosexuals tended to be only half the size of that in heterosexuals

11 Brain Dissection Studies: Dr. Simon LeVay LeVay, S., " A Difference in Hypothalamic Structure Between Heterosexual & Homosexual Men," Science, 253: , 1991 Size of INAH-3 is so small it is difficult to measure. In addition, it does not have clear boundaries, therefore it is hard to tell where it begins & where it ends. So the measurements of the same INAH-3 in a cadaver may be different from one researcher to another Here it is important to note that LeVay may not have been an objective researcher since he is a homosexual "looking for support that homosexuality is inborn." It would have been a lot better in the research design to use at least two observers who do not know the intent of this study to make measurements of the same INAH-3 to see if they agree. When measurements agree, then the data will be included in the statistical analysis to test the hypothesis

12 Brain Dissection Studies: Dr. Simon LeVay LeVay, S., " A Difference in Hypothalamic Structure Between Heterosexual & Homosexual Men," Science, 253: , 1991 Sexual orientation of his cadavers can be confusing because LeVay relied on medical records that are un-reliable in identifying homosexuals versus heterosexuals. So what he thought as homosexual may be heterosexual & vice versa Even if there were definitive identifiers to separate a homosexual from a heterosexual, the definition of what made a person homosexual needed clarifying. –If a man had one homosexual contact in his life-time does that make this man homosexual? –For how long does a person have to practice the homosexual life- style before he or she be admitted as homosexual? –How does the duration of this homosexual practice influence the dimension of INAH-3? –Does it affect male homosexuals differently than females?

13 “Twin Study” Bailey, J. M. & Pillard, R. C., "A Genetic Study of Male Sexual Orientation." Archives of General Psychiatry, 48: , 1991 Professors at North-Western & Boston UniversitiesProfessors at North-Western & Boston Universities Recruited 161 bisexual or homosexual men with at least one male sibling & then interviewed them to see how many brothers were also homosexualRecruited 161 bisexual or homosexual men with at least one male sibling & then interviewed them to see how many brothers were also homosexual Found 52% of identical twins were both homosexuals, compared with only 22% of fraternal twins & 11% of adoptive brothersFound 52% of identical twins were both homosexuals, compared with only 22% of fraternal twins & 11% of adoptive brothers

14 Sexual Orientation & Identical Twins Tim Wilkins, The Cross Examiner, March 1998 Questionable subject recruitment method: ad in homosexual magazines; concordant (both homosexual) twins respond more than discordant (1 homosexual, other not) twins. Alleged claim: Non-responding twin was homosexual. Same-sex Twin Sexual Experimentation: King & McDonald “Homosexuals Who are Twins: A study of 46 Probands” British Journal of Psychiatry, /5 same-sex twins had sex with one another. Same room, same bed. 100% Genetic Similarity = 100% Incidence Rate: Identical twins share identical genetic material, when 1 twin is homosexual, the other twin should always be homosexual

15 “Gay Gene” Research D. H. Hamer et al, “A Linkage Between DNA Markers on the X-chromosome & Male Sexual Orientation,” Science (1993), 261, np. 5119, pp “Research Points Toward a Gay Gene,” Wall Street Journal, 16, July 1993“Research Points Toward a Gay Gene,” Wall Street Journal, 16, July 1993 –A geneticist was quoted, “the gene…may be involved in something other than sexual behavior. For example, it may be that the supposed gene is ‘associated’ with homosexuality, rather than a ‘cause’ of it.” New York Times “Report Suggests homosexuality is Linked to Genes,” noted that other researchers warned against over-interpreting the work, “or taking it to mean anything as simplistic as that he ‘gay gene’ had been found.”New York Times “Report Suggests homosexuality is Linked to Genes,” noted that other researchers warned against over-interpreting the work, “or taking it to mean anything as simplistic as that he ‘gay gene’ had been found.”

16 “The Personality of Genes” J. Madeleine Nash, Time, April 27, 1998 p “Unlike the genes that are responsible for physical traits, Hamer emphasizes, these genes do not cause people to become homosexuals,” “Still, as critics emphasize & Hamer himself acknowledges, genes alone do not control the chemistry of the brain. Ultimately, it is the environment that determines how these genes will express themselves.” “Indeed, while Hamer has maintained a professional distance from his studies, it is impossible to believe he is not also driven by a desire for self-discovery.” (He turned 40, ‘bored’) “He has tried to stop smoking & failed, he confesses, dozens of times. ‘If I quit,’ he says, ‘it will be an exercise of character.’ and not, it goes without saying, of his genes.”

17 Problems: Genetic Studies on Homosexuality Too Small Sample SizeToo Small Sample Size Biased Subject Selection (Randomization problem)Biased Subject Selection (Randomization problem) Lack of a Control GroupLack of a Control Group Correlation does not mean causationCorrelation does not mean causation Flawed comparison of disparate featuresFlawed comparison of disparate features Exaggeration of findingsExaggeration of findings Ideologically influenced designs & reportingIdeologically influenced designs & reporting –Statistically significant correlation not “Cause” Unable to Replicate Findings in other studiesUnable to Replicate Findings in other studies

18 Studies prove: homosexuals are born? “There is no evidence at present to substantiate a biological theory… The appeal of current biological explanations for sexual orientation may derive more from a dissatisfaction with the present status of psychosocial explanations than from a substantiating body of experimental data.” William Byne & Bruce Parsons, Human Sexual Orientation: The Biologic Theories Reappraised, Archives of General Psychiatry, Vol 50, March 1993, pp

19 Homosexual Treatment is Inhumane & Immoral Electric Shock TreatmentElectric Shock Treatment –Electro-convulsive therapy for depression: Myths & realities It was first used as an experimental resort to treat depressionIt was first used as an experimental resort to treat depression It is consider controversial & ethically procedureIt is consider controversial & ethically procedure It has been widely used before there was effective medicationIt has been widely used before there was effective medication It is used currently in the SF bay area in very severe depressions only: such as severe vegetative states & suicidesIt is used currently in the SF bay area in very severe depressions only: such as severe vegetative states & suicides This may have been used in parts of Russia or ChinaThis may have been used in parts of Russia or China This methodology may be used by some psychologist for addictionsThis methodology may be used by some psychologist for addictions Reparative TherapyReparative Therapy –It is a term to describe a treatment procedure/protocol –It is counseling by talking, support & guidance: No physical contacts

20 二百個自稱已將他們的性取向從 同性戀者改變成為異性戀者 羅拔使賓莎博士 哥倫比亞大學

21 Sexual attractionSexual attraction Lustful thoughtsLustful thoughts Same sex fantasies during masturbationSame sex fantasies during masturbation Same sex fantasies during heterosexual sexSame sex fantasies during heterosexual sex Yearning for romantic emotional intimacyYearning for romantic emotional intimacy Homosexual behavior with excitementHomosexual behavior with excitement Key Homosexual Indicators

22 Mental health professional 47% ExGay/ religious support group 34% Other (mentoring, books, spiritual work) 19% Most Helpful or Only Type of Help

23 Age (mean)43 Currently marriedM=76%F=47% Married before change20% Caucasian95% Completed college76% Sample Description

24 Religion Protestant81% Catholic8% Mormon7% Jewish3% Religion “extremely” or “very important” 93% Had publicly spoken in favor of efforts to change 78%

25 Time Line Age Onset of same sex arousal12 Begin change effort30 Begin to feel different sexually 32 End of change effort (for 78% of subjects) 35

26 Gay life-style not emotionally satisfying 81% Religious conflict79% Desire to get or stay married Male 67% Female3 5% Reasons for Wanting to Change

27 Assessment of Change in Sexual Orientation Indicators BEFORE: 12 months before change effort AFTER: past 12 months

28 Sexual Attraction Scale Mean (100 = same sex, 0 = opposite sex)

29 Exclusively Homosexual BEFORE Exclusively Heterosexual AFTER 42% 46% 17% 55%

30 AFTER: Good Heterosexual Functioning in 33 Males Who Before Change Effort Were Extreme on Homosexual Indicators No teenage opposite sex attractionNo teenage opposite sex attraction Never had heterosexual sexNever had heterosexual sex Before: no heterosexual masturbatory fantasiesBefore: no heterosexual masturbatory fantasies Before: attraction 95+ (homosexual)Before: attraction 95+ (homosexual) 67%

31 Three Variables in the 56 Subjects Having Regular Heterosexual Sex Both BEFORE and AFTER Satisfying emotional relationship (7+ on 1-10 scale) Sex physically satisfying (7+ on 1-10 scale) Often (20+% during sex think of same sex) 25% 98% 43% 100% 52% 6%

32 “Markedly” or “Extremely” Bothered by Depression 43% 47% 1% 4% 1% 4%

33 Change effort was “Very Helpful” in… …feeling more [masculine, feminine] 87% …developing nonsexual relations with same sex 93%

34 Also… Reported Change Strategies Narratives linking childhood or family experiences to conditionNarratives linking childhood or family experiences to condition Building on an intense emotional relationship to effect change in sexual feelingsBuilding on an intense emotional relationship to effect change in sexual feelings Group or individual supportGroup or individual support Thought stoppingThought stopping Avoiding situations that triggered feelingsAvoiding situations that triggered feelings

35 What we conclude… Some highly motivated individuals through a variety of change efforts can make substantial changes in multiple indicators of sexual orientation and achieve good heterosexual functionSome highly motivated individuals through a variety of change efforts can make substantial changes in multiple indicators of sexual orientation and achieve good heterosexual function Subjects who made less substantial changes still believed that such changes were extremely beneficialSubjects who made less substantial changes still believed that such changes were extremely beneficial Complete change uncommonComplete change uncommon

36 Difficulty finding subjects suggests… Those rejected from study indicate that many who claim to have changed sexual orientation, have only changed identity and or behaviorThose rejected from study indicate that many who claim to have changed sexual orientation, have only changed identity and or behavior –For these individuals, such limited change was experienced as substantial improvement

37 Misuse of Study Results To assume that it shows that homosexual orientation is changeable for most highly motivated individualsTo assume that it shows that homosexual orientation is changeable for most highly motivated individuals To dismiss the value to some conflicted homosexuals of a shift in sexual identity and unwanted sexual behavior, even when sexual orientation is not substantially changedTo dismiss the value to some conflicted homosexuals of a shift in sexual identity and unwanted sexual behavior, even when sexual orientation is not substantially changed To justify coercive treatment and the denial of civil rightsTo justify coercive treatment and the denial of civil rights


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