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C1. 同性戀是天生抑或後天? Is Homosexuality in-born? Myths versus Reality Robert Spitzer 性傾向改變的調查 Copyright © Melvin W. Wong, Ph.D. 1996-2003 Melvin W. Wong, Ph.D.

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Presentation on theme: "C1. 同性戀是天生抑或後天? Is Homosexuality in-born? Myths versus Reality Robert Spitzer 性傾向改變的調查 Copyright © Melvin W. Wong, Ph.D. 1996-2003 Melvin W. Wong, Ph.D."— Presentation transcript:

1 C1. 同性戀是天生抑或後天? Is Homosexuality in-born? Myths versus Reality Robert Spitzer 性傾向改變的調查 Copyright © Melvin W. Wong, Ph.D Melvin W. Wong, Ph.D. Licensed Clinical Psychologist ChristianMentalHealth.com 220 Montgomery St., Suite 1098, San Francisco, CA Tel (510) Fax (510)

2 Studies prove: homosexuals are born? “There is no evidence at present to substantiate a biological theory… The appeal of current biological explanations for sexual orientation may derive more from a dissatisfaction with the present status of psychosocial explanations than from a substantiating body of experimental data.” William Byne & Bruce Parsons, Human Sexual Orientation: The Biologic Theories Reappraised, Archives of General Psychiatry, Vol 50, March 1993, pp

3 “Gay Gene” Research D. H. Hamer et al, “A Linkage Between DNA Markers on the X-chromosome & Male Sexual Orientation,” Science (1993), 261, np. 5119, pp “Research Points Toward a Gay Gene,” Wall Street Journal, 16, July 1993“Research Points Toward a Gay Gene,” Wall Street Journal, 16, July 1993 –A geneticist was quoted, “the gene…may be involved in something other than sexual behavior. For example, it may be that the supposed gene is ‘associated’ with homosexuality, rather than a ‘cause’ of it.” New York Times “Report Suggests homosexuality is Linked to Genes,” noted that other researchers warned against over-interpreting the work, “or taking it to mean anything as simplistic as that he ‘gay gene’ had been found.”New York Times “Report Suggests homosexuality is Linked to Genes,” noted that other researchers warned against over-interpreting the work, “or taking it to mean anything as simplistic as that he ‘gay gene’ had been found.”

4 “The Personality of Genes” J. Madeleine Nash, Time, April 27, 1998 p “Unlike the genes that are responsible for physical traits, Hamer emphasizes, these genes do not cause people to become homosexuals,” “Still, as critics emphasize & Hamer himself acknowledges, genes alone do not control the chemistry of the brain. Ultimately, it is the environment that determines how these genes will express themselves.” “Indeed, while Hamer has maintained a professional distance from his studies, it is impossible to believe he is not also driven by a desire for self-discovery.” (He turned 40, ‘bored’) “He has tried to stop smoking & failed, he confesses, dozens of times. ‘If I quit,’ he says, ‘it will be an exercise of character.’ and not, it goes without saying, of his genes.”

5 Brain Dissection Studies: Dr. Simon LeVay LeVay, S., " A Difference in Hypothalamic Structure Between Heterosexual & Homosexual Men," Science, 253: , 1991 Neurobiologist & homosexual activist, he studied 41 cadavers He focused on a tiny region of the hypothalamus, a part of the brain that regulates body temperature, blood pressure, pulse rate & hormone production. It is also "the chief coordinator of instinct & drives," including sex drive. INAH-3 (the third interstitial nucleus of the anterior hypo- thalamus), no bigger than a grain of sand. Speculating that the INAH-3 controls sexual orientation, he compared the brains of 19 homosexuals with those of 16 "presumed heterosexual men" & 6 "presumed heterosexual" women INAH-3 region in females & homosexuals tended to be only half the size of that in heterosexuals

6 “Twin Study” Bailey, J. M. & Pillard, R. C., "A Genetic Study of Male Sexual Orientation." Archives of General Psychiatry, 48: , 1991 Professors at North-Western & Boston UniversitiesProfessors at North-Western & Boston Universities Recruited 161 bisexual or homosexual men with at least one male sibling & then interviewed them to see how many brothers were also homosexualRecruited 161 bisexual or homosexual men with at least one male sibling & then interviewed them to see how many brothers were also homosexual Found 52% of identical twins were both homosexuals, compared with only 22% of fraternal twins & 11% of adoptive brothersFound 52% of identical twins were both homosexuals, compared with only 22% of fraternal twins & 11% of adoptive brothers

7 Sexual Orientation & Identical Twins Tim Wilkins, The Cross Examiner, March 1998 Questionable subject recruitment method: ad in homosexual magazines; concordant (both homosexual) twins respond more than discordant (1 homosexual, other not) twins. Alleged claim: Non-responding twin was homosexual. Same-sex Twin Sexual Experimentation: King & McDonald “Homosexuals Who are Twins: A study of 46 Probands” British Journal of Psychiatry, /5 same-sex twins had sex with one another. Same room, same bed. 100% Genetic Similarity = 100% Incidence Rate: Identical twins share identical genetic material, when 1 twin is homosexual, the other twin should always be homosexual

8 Problems: Genetic Studies on Homosexuality Too Small Sample SizeToo Small Sample Size Biased Subject Selection (Randomization problem)Biased Subject Selection (Randomization problem) Lack of a Control GroupLack of a Control Group Correlation does not mean causationCorrelation does not mean causation Flawed comparison of disparate featuresFlawed comparison of disparate features Exaggeration of findingsExaggeration of findings Ideologically influenced designs & reportingIdeologically influenced designs & reporting –Statistically significant correlation not “Cause” Unable to Replicate Findings in other studiesUnable to Replicate Findings in other studies

9 200 Subjects Who Claim to Have Changed Their Sexual Orientation from Homosexual to Heterosexual Robert L. Spitzer, M.D. Chief, Biometrics Research and Professor of Psychiatry, Columbia University 1051 Riverside Drive, Unit 60, NYS Psychiatric Institute New York, NY (Presented at the APA: American Psychiatric Association Meeting: May 9, 2001, New Orleans, U.S.A.)

10 Sexual Attraction Scale Mean (100 = same sex, 0 = opposite sex)

11 Exclusively Homosexual BEFORE Exclusively Heterosexual AFTER 42% 46% 17% 55%

12 Three Variables in the 56 Subjects Having Regular Heterosexual Sex Both BEFORE and AFTER Satisfying emotional relationship (7+ on 1-10 scale) Sex physically satisfying (7+ on 1-10 scale) Often (20+% during sex think of same sex) 25% 98% 43% 100% 52% 6%

13 “Markedly” or “Extremely” Bothered by Depression 43% 47% 1% 4% 1% 4%

14 Change effort was “Very Helpful” in… …feeling more [masculine, feminine] 87% …developing nonsexual relations with same sex 93%


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