Presentation on theme: "Communicable Diseases"— Presentation transcript:
1Communicable Diseases Chapter 13Communicable DiseasesLesson 1What Are Communicable Diseases?Click for:>> Main Menu>> Chapter 13 AssessmentTeacher’s notes are available in the notes section of this presentation.Next >>
2some pathogens can be very harmful to people’s bodies. Essential Question:How do I protect myself against disease?Enduring Understanding: Students will understand thatsome pathogens can be very harmful to people’s bodies.
3Germs that cause disease pathogensGerms that cause diseaseClick to reveal the definitions.
4PathogensAnalyzing a GraphicCreate a concept map that shows all the different types of pathogens. Provide at least one example for each one.
5In this lesson, you will learn to identify types of germs that can cause disease.describe what an infection is.explain how germs are spread.access information on communicable diseases.
6A disease such as the common cold is a communicable disease. Germs and DiseaseA disease such as the common cold is a communicable disease.disease Any condition that interferes with the normal or proper functioning of the body or mindcommunicable disease A disease that can be spread to a person from another person, an animal, or an object
7Communicable diseases are spread by germs. Germs and DiseaseCommunicable diseases are spread by germs.germs Organisms that are so small they can only be seen through a microscopeThe environment is filled with many types of germs.
8Pathogens are harmful germs. Germs and DiseasePathogens are harmful germs.pathogens Germs that cause disease
9When the body cannot fight of an infection, a disease develops. Germs and DiseaseWhen the body cannot fight of an infection, a disease develops.infection A condition that happens when pathogens enter the body, multiply, and cause harm
10Viruses are usually made of genetic material and protein. Kinds of PathogensViruses are not alive.viruses The smallest and simplest pathogensViruses cause upper respiratory infections and many other types of disease.Viruses are usually made of genetic material and protein.
11Bacteria exist in every environment on earth. Kinds of PathogensBacteria exist in every environment on earth.bacteria Simple one-celled organismsHelpful bacteria live in your digestive system and help break down food.Other bacteria live on your skin and prevent harmful bacteria from infecting you.Most kinds of bacteria are not only harmless, but actually helpful.
12Examples of fungi include molds, yeast, and mushrooms. Kinds of PathogensExamples of fungi include molds, yeast, and mushrooms.fungi Organisms that are more complex than bacteria but cannot make their own foodMost fungi are harmless, but some can cause disease.Fungi thrive in warm, moist environments.
13Many protozoa are harmless, but some can cause disease. Kinds of PathogensMany protozoa are harmless, but some can cause disease.protozoa One-celled organisms that are more complex than bacteriaOne type of protozoa causes malaria, which is transferred to people through mosquito bites.
15How Pathogens Spread Direct contact with others Indirect contact with othersHow Pathogens SpreadContact with animals or insectsContact with someone else’s bloodDirect contact with others:Washing your hands often with soap helps stop the spread of pathogens.Indirect contact with others:Pathogens can spread through the air. Using tissues to cover your mouth when you sneeze or cough can keep these pathogens from spreading.Pathogens can spread when people share drinking glasses, eating utensils, and other personal items.Contact with someone else’s blood:This can happened when someone injects drugs using a needle that someone else has used.In some cases, pathogens can spread when the blood from an infected person touches the broken skin of an non-infected person.Blood is screened for pathogens at blood donor clinics.Sexual contact:Pathogens can be spread through sexual contact. (Covered in lessons 5 and 6)Contact with contaminated food or water:Undercooked meat may contain bacteria that can make you sick. Illnesses people get from pathogens in food are called foodborne illnesses.Store food properly.Wash fruits and vegetables.Handle meat, poultry, eggs, and fish carefully.Wash all knives and surfaces that meat, poultry, and fish have touched.Tap water can become contaminated in times of emergency.Never drink directly from lakes and rivers.Contact with animals and insects:A deer tick can spread the virus that causes Lyme disease.Mosquitoes infected with the West Nile virus can spread that virus to birds, horses, and humans.Contact with contaminated food or waterSexual contact
16Mosquitoes can infect humans with West Nile Virus Mosquitoes can infect humans with West Nile Virus. Controlling mosquito populations is one way to help control the spread of West Nile Virus.
17Lesson 1 ReviewWhat I LearnedVocabulary Define communicable disease and pathogen. Write a sentence using both terms.A communicable disease can be spread to a person from another person, an animal, or an object. A pathogen is a germ that causes disease. Sentences will vary.
18What I Learned Identify What is an infection? Lesson 1 Review An infection occurs when pathogens enter the body, multiply, and cause harm.
19Lesson 1 ReviewWhat I LearnedGive Examples What are three kinds of pathogens? Give an example of a disease caused by each kind.Three kinds of pathogens are viruses, bacteria, and protozoa. Students should name diseases from Figure 13.1.
20Lesson 1 ReviewWhat I LearnedExplain Why is it important to clean kitchen cutting boards carefully?A cutting board gets food on it that may contain bacteria. People get foodborne illnesses from pathogens in food.
21Lesson 1 ReviewThinking CriticallyAnalyze How does keeping insect populations down help keep people healthy?Insects can spread pathogens. Controlling insects stops the spread of diseases.
22Lesson 1 ReviewThinking CriticallyApply Aaron wants a drink of water. He finds a plastic cup on the table but does not know if it has been used or not. Should Aaron use the cup? Explain your answer.Aaron should not use the cup because someone else may have used it, and pathogens can spread on drinking glasses.
23Communicable Diseases Chapter 13Communicable DiseasesLesson 4Preventing the Spread of DiseaseClick for:>> Main Menu>> Chapter 13 AssessmentTeacher’s notes are available in the notes section of this presentation.Next >>
24pathogens cleanliness hygiene Germs that cause disease Click to reveal the definitions.
25In this lesson, you will learn to describe how to protect yourself against pathogens.explain how to avoid spreading pathogens to others when you are sick.identify habits that can help you stay healthy.practice positive health behavior to prevent the spread of disease.
26Main Headings in this Lesson Finding the Main IdeaLook at the main headings in this lesson. For each heading, write one sentence that explains the main idea.Main Headings in this LessonKeeping Pathogens from SpreadingA Healthful Lifestyle
27Pathogens are harmful germs. Germs and DiseasePathogens are harmful germs.pathogens Germs that cause disease
28Keeping Pathogens from Spreading Good personal hygiene helps limit the number of pathogens you encounter.hygiene CleanlinessYou can’t avoid pathogens, but you can develop good habits to protect yourself from them.
29Protecting Yourself from Pathogens Avoid close contact with people who have a communicable disease.Never share eating utensils.Wash yourself thoroughly and often, especially before preparing foods.When washing your hands, use plenty of warm water. Remember to wash your hands after you use the bathroom, play with pets, visit a sick person, or touch garbage or any other source of pathogens.Keep your fingers and hands away from your mouth, nose, and eyes.
30Protecting Yourself from Pathogens Handle and prepare food safely.Wipe counters thoroughly.Empty the trash can often.Handling and preparing food safely is especially important for meat, poultry, and fish. Always wash vegetables and cook meat thoroughly.Keeps pets clean and healthy.
31Protecting Others from Pathogens If you feel sick, tell a parent or guardian.If you are ill, stay home from school and other public places.Cover your mouth and nose when you sneeze or cough.Early treatment helps keep your condition from getting worse and limits the number of people who are exposed to whatever is making you sick.If you are sick, limit your contact with other people and wash your hands often.Only use a tissue once and throw it away in the proper place. If you don’t have a tissue, sneeze or cough into the crook of your elbow rather than your hand.Don’t stop taking a medicine because you feel better.If a medical professional has told you to take medicine, follow the directions on the label exactly.
32A Healthful Lifestyle Eat a balanced diet. Bathe or shower regularly using soap and shampoo.Here are some positive health practices that you can develop.Avoid all tobacco products, alcohol, and other drugs.Get 8–9 hours of sleep every day.
33A Healthful LifestyleRest when you are sick.Ask a parent or guardian to make sure your immunizations are up to date.Here are some positive health practices that you can develop.Learn to manage stress.Visit the doctor for regular checkups and follow the advice of your doctor.
34What I Learned Lesson 4 Review Vocabulary Define hygiene, and use the term in a sentence.Hygiene is cleanliness. Sample sentence: Good personal hygiene can protect you from pathogens.
35What I Learned Lesson 4 Review Describe How can staying home when you are sick help keep others healthy?Staying home when you are sick avoids exposing others to the illness.
36What I Learned Lesson 4 Review Identify What are three strategies for protecting yourself from pathogens?Avoid close contact with people who have a communicable disease, don't share eating utensils, and wash your hands thoroughly and frequently.
37Thinking Critically Lesson 4 Review Explain Why do you think you should keep your trash can clean?Food can collect at the bottom of a trash can, and bacteria can grow.
38Thinking Critically Lesson 4 Review Apply Turtles and other reptiles carry salmonella. This bacteria often makes people sick if they ingest it. What would be a good way to make sure you don’t get sick from your friend’s pet turtle?You shouldn't handle the pet turtle if you can help it. If you have to pick up the turtle, you should wash your hands thoroughly.
39Communicable Diseases Chapter 13Communicable DiseasesLesson 5Sexually Transmitted DiseasesClick for:>> Main Menu>> Chapter 13 AssessmentTeacher’s notes are available in the notes section of this presentation.Next >>
40sexually transmitted diseases Infections that are spread from person to person through sexual contactA bacterial STD that may affect the reproductive organs, urethra, and anuschlamydiagenital wartsGrowths or bumps in the genital area cased by certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV)Click to reveal the definitions.genital herpesA viral STD that produces painful blisters on the genital area
41A bacterial STD that can affect many parts of the body syphilis A bacterial STD that affects the mucous membranes of the body, particularly the genital areagonorrheaA bacterial STD that can affect many parts of the bodyClick to reveal the definitions.syphilis
42What different ways can pathogens be spread? Do NOWWhat different ways can pathogens be spread?Provide at least four different ways that you can protect yourself against pathogens.John needs to attend school, but he is feeling sick this morning. If you were John’s parents what advice would you give to him..
43In this lesson, you will learn to identify common sexually transmitted diseases.explain how to protect yourself from sexually transmitted disease.access valid information about sexually transmitted disease.
44Finding the Main IdeaCreate a three-column table like the one shown below. As you go through the lesson, complete the table.STDSymptoms and EffectsPrevention
45What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases? Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are also called sexually transmitted infections (STIs)hygiene Infections that are spread from person to person through sexual contact
46What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases? The STD Fact FileSomeone who has an STD may not have visible symptoms, or may have symptoms that come and go. However, such a person may be contagious even when there are no symptoms.
47What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases? The STD Fact FileSTDs can be prevented by saying no to high-risk behaviors, such as sexual activity.
48What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases? The STD Fact FileSTDs can make a person sterile or infertile.
49What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases? The STD Fact FileNot all STDs are curable, and some are even fatal.
50What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases? The STD Fact FileA person who suspects that he or she is infected with an STD must see a doctor.
51What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases? The STD Fact FileVaccines are not available for most STDs.
52What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases? Chlamydia is often referred to as a “silent” disease because in many cases there are no symptoms.chlamydia A bacterial STD that may affect the reproductive organs, urethra, and anusWhen symptoms occur, they can include genital discharge and pain when urinating.Left untreated, chlamydia can cause infections in the body and infertility.
53What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases? Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections like genital warts are the most common type of STD.genital warts Growths or bumps in the genital area caused by certain types of human papillomavirusGenital warts can be treated, but there is no cure for the HPV infection itself. Some strains of HPV are linked to the development of cervical cancer.Like chlamydia, HPV is often a silent disease, causing no symptoms until many years after the initial infection.
54What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases? Even when the symptoms of genital herpes go away, the virus and the disease remain in the body.genital herpes A viral STD that produces painful blisters on the genital areaAdditional symptoms of genital herpes include pain anywhere in the lower half of the body and genital discharge.There is no known cure for genital herpes.
55What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases? Trichomoniasis can be treated and cured with medications.trichomoniasis An STD caused by the protozoan Trichomonas vaginalisSymptoms include vaginal discharge, discomfort during urination, and irritation or itching in the genital area.
56What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases? Gonorrhea can be treated with antibiotics.gonorrhea A bacterial STD that affect the mucous membranes of the body, particularly in the genital areaSymptoms include a thick yellowish discharge from the genitals and burning sensation when urinating.Left untreated, gonorrhea can infect other parts of the body, including the heart. It can also cause fertility problems for both males and females.
57What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases? If diagnosed and treated in the first or second stage, syphilis can be cured with antibiotics.syphilis A bacterial STD that can affect many parts of the bodyFirst stage of syphilis:Painless sores at the place of infectionSwollen lymph glandsSecond stage of syphilis:Severe rashLater stages of syphilis:The bacteria move throughout the body and can cause damage to other organs.If left untreated, syphilis can eventually cause mental disorders, heart problems, and death.
58What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases? Hepatitis B can be transmitted by sexual contact or through contaminated needles.hepatitis B A disease caused by the hepatitis B virus that affects the liverThere is a vaccine available for hepatitis B.
59Abstinence from Sexual Activity There is a 100 percent effective way to avoid STDs:AbstinenceYou cannot tell by looking at people if they have an STD.
60Abstinence from Sexual Activity The media often sends messages that sexual activity is exciting.There is no mention of the risks of STDs or unplanned pregnancies.Use refusal skills to avoid being pressured to take part in sexual activity.It’s normal to have sexual feelings when you are a teen. Talking about these feelings with a parent or guardian can help you deal with them.It also helps to understand your family’s values and what your parents expect of you.
61Abstinence from Sexual Activity You do not have to hide your feelings of affection.Appropriate ways for teens to show affection include holding hands and complimenting someone.Your relationships are built on shared interests and trust, rather than on sexual attraction.By practicing abstinence, you get to know someone in a way that goes beyond physical attraction.
62What I Learned Vocabulary Define sexually transmitted disease. Lesson 5 ReviewWhat I LearnedVocabulary Define sexually transmitted disease.A sexually transmitted disease is an infection that is spread from person to person through sexual contact.
63Lesson 5 ReviewWhat I LearnedExplain Why are some STDs referred to as “silent” diseases?In many cases there are no symptoms and a person can have the disease and not know it.
64What I Learned List What are two consequences of untreated chlamydia? Lesson 5 ReviewWhat I LearnedList What are two consequences of untreated chlamydia?other infections and infertility
65What I Learned Apply What is the best way to avoid STDs? Lesson 5 ReviewWhat I LearnedApply What is the best way to avoid STDs?Abstain from sexual activity.
66Lesson 5 ReviewWhat I LearnedExplain What are some appropriate ways for teens to show affection?Holding hands and complimenting someone are appropriate ways for teens to show affection.
67Lesson 5 ReviewThinking CriticallyAnalyze How do values influence a person’s decision to practice sexual abstinence before marriage?Respecting family values can influence a person to make the decision to practice sexual abstinence before marriage.
68Communicable Diseases Chapter 13Communicable DiseasesLesson 6HIV/AIDSClick for:>> Main Menu>> Chapter 13 AssessmentTeacher’s notes are available in the notes section of this presentation.Next >>
69HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) The virus that causes AIDS AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency virus)Click to reveal the definitions.A disease that interferes with the body’s ability to fight infection
70In this lesson, you will learn to explain how people become infected with HIV and develop AIDS.explain what is being done to fight AIDS.analyze how media messages about sexual activity might influence teens.describe how to protect yourself from HIV/AIDS.
71Identifying Problems and Solutions After reading this lesson, identify how HIV is transmitted and what can be done to prevent the spread of HIV.
72HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) attacks and kills T cells. What Are HIV and AIDS?HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) attacks and kills T cells.HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) The virus that causes AIDST cells coordinate the body’s response to infections. HIV destroys T cells. As a result, the immune system cannot fight HIV or any other infection.AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) A disease that interferes with the body’s ability to fight infection
73HIV does not kill T cells immediately. What Are HIV and AIDS?HIV does not kill T cells immediately.An infected person can have the virus for years without showing any signs or symptoms.Once a person is infected with HIV, the virus begins damaging the person’s immune system.Infected people can spread the disease to others.
74The Spread of HIV How HIV Is Spread Sexual Intercourse Contaminated NeedlesOtherThis is most common way that HIV spreadsHIV circulates in the bloodstream and in other bodily fluidsThe virus circulates in the body even before it destroys the immune systemAbstinence is the only protection against transmissionA single drop of blood left on a needle can contain enough HIV to infect someoneContaminated tattoo needles can transmit HIVPeople with diabetes and other who need to use needles should do so under supervision of a medical professionalA pregnant female can transmit HIV to her child during deliveryA pregnant female can transmit HIV to her child through breast milkBefore blood screening, people sometimes became infected during blood transfusions
75The Spread of HIV How HIV Is NOT Spread Swimming in a pool with an infected person.Sharing utensils with an infected person.Breathing the air near an infected person.Donating blood.Being bitten by a mosquito that has bitten an infected person.Hugging or shaking hands with an infected person.Using the same shower, bathtub, or toilet as an infected person.Sharing sports equipment with an infected person.
76Fighting AIDSIn the United States, more that 14,000 people die every year from AIDS.Scientists and educators around the world work to prevent HIV infection by teaching people about the disease.
77Many of these drugs have serious side effects and are very expensive. Fighting AIDSNew drugs work to slow the progress of the disease by preventing HIV from reproducing.Many of these drugs have serious side effects and are very expensive.Drugs that are being used to slow the progress of HIV may be losing their effectiveness because the virus is changing.
78Fighting AIDSScientists are working on a vaccines to protect people from HIV, but it will likely take many years to develop.The best weapon in the fight against HIV and AIDS so far has been knowledge.One challenge facing scientists is the fact that there are many forms of HIV.When people learn how HIV is spread, they can take steps to avoid getting it.
79People who inject illegal drugs face the dangers of getting diseases. Abstinence and HIVPeople who inject illegal drugs face the dangers of getting diseases.People who engage in sexual activity are exposing themselves to STDs.The only 100 percent sure way to avoid getting HIV is to avoid contact with sources of this virus.
80Abstinence and HIVIf you are pressured to use injectable drugs or have sexual activity, talk to your parents or guardians right away.Stay away from people who encourage you to make dangerous choices.
81Abstinence can save your life. Abstinence and HIVAbstinence can save your life.
82What I Learned Vocabulary Define HIV and AIDS. Lesson 6 Review HIV, human immunodeficiency virus, is the virus that causes AIDS. AIDS, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, is a deadly disease that interferes with the body's ability to fight infection.
83What I Learned Identify How is AIDS related to HIV? Lesson 6 Review AIDS is the disease a person gets who is infected with HIV.
84Lesson 6 ReviewWhat I LearnedGive Examples People are often mistaken about how HIV is transmitted. Name four ways HIV is not transmitted.Any four: by swimming in a pool with an infected person, sharing utensils with an infected person, breathing the air near an infected person, or donating blood
85Lesson 6 ReviewWhat I LearnedDescribe What happens to T cells that are infected with HIV?When T cells are infected with HIV, the virus uses the T cells to make copies of the virus, then the T cells are destroyed.
86Thinking Critically Analyze Why is HIV an especially dangerous virus? Lesson 6 ReviewThinking CriticallyAnalyze Why is HIV an especially dangerous virus?HIV cripples the immune system by killing the T cells that control immune responses.
87Lesson 6 ReviewThinking CriticallyApply Many people who have HIV do not know that they are infected with the virus. How can this be?A person can have the virus without showing any signs or symptoms.
88Communicable Diseases End ofChapter 13Communicable DiseasesLesson 6HIV/AIDSClick for:>> Main Menu>> Chapter 13 Assessment