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Chapter 13 Communicable Diseases Lesson 1 What Are Communicable Diseases? Next >> Click for: Teacher’s notes are available in the notes section of this.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 13 Communicable Diseases Lesson 1 What Are Communicable Diseases? Next >> Click for: Teacher’s notes are available in the notes section of this."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 13 Communicable Diseases Lesson 1 What Are Communicable Diseases? Next >> Click for: Teacher’s notes are available in the notes section of this presentation. >> Main Menu >> Chapter 13 Assessment

2 Essential Question:  How do I protect myself against disease? Enduring Understanding: Students will understand that some pathogens can be very harmful to people’s bodies.

3  pathogens Germs that cause disease

4 Analyzing a Graphic Create a concept map that shows all the different types of pathogens. Provide at least one example for each one. Pathogens

5 In this lesson, you will learn to  identify types of germs that can cause disease.  describe what an infection is.  explain how germs are spread.  access information on communicable diseases.

6 Germs and Disease A disease such as the common cold is a communicable disease. disease Any condition that interferes with the normal or proper functioning of the body or mind communicable disease A disease that can be spread to a person from another person, an animal, or an object

7 Germs and Disease Communicable diseases are spread by germs. germs Organisms that are so small they can only be seen through a microscope

8 Germs and Disease Pathogens are harmful germs. pathogens Germs that cause disease

9 Germs and Disease When the body cannot fight of an infection, a disease develops. infection A condition that happens when pathogens enter the body, multiply, and cause harm

10 Kinds of Pathogens Viruses are not alive. viruses The smallest and simplest pathogens Viruses are usually made of genetic material and protein.

11 Kinds of Pathogens Bacteria exist in every environment on earth. bacteria Simple one-celled organisms Most kinds of bacteria are not only harmless, but actually helpful.

12 Kinds of Pathogens Examples of fungi include molds, yeast, and mushrooms. fungi Organisms that are more complex than bacteria but cannot make their own food Fungi thrive in warm, moist environments.

13 Kinds of Pathogens Many protozoa are harmless, but some can cause disease. protozoa One-celled organisms that are more complex than bacteria

14 Kinds of Pathogens

15 How Pathogens Spread Direct contact with others Indirect contact with others Contact with someone else’s blood Sexual contact Contact with contaminated food or water Contact with animals or insects

16 Mosquitoes can infect humans with West Nile Virus. Controlling mosquito populations is one way to help control the spread of West Nile Virus.

17 What I Learned Vocabulary Define communicable disease and pathogen. Write a sentence using both terms. Lesson 1 Review

18 What I Learned Identify What is an infection? Lesson 1 Review

19 What I Learned Give Examples What are three kinds of pathogens? Give an example of a disease caused by each kind. Lesson 1 Review

20 What I Learned Explain Why is it important to clean kitchen cutting boards carefully? Lesson 1 Review

21 Thinking Critically Analyze How does keeping insect populations down help keep people healthy? Lesson 1 Review

22 Thinking Critically Apply Aaron wants a drink of water. He finds a plastic cup on the table but does not know if it has been used or not. Should Aaron use the cup? Explain your answer. Lesson 1 Review

23 Chapter 13 Communicable Diseases Lesson 4 Preventing the Spread of Disease Next >> Click for: Teacher’s notes are available in the notes section of this presentation. >> Main Menu >> Chapter 13 Assessment

24  hygiene cleanliness Germs that cause disease  pathogens

25 In this lesson, you will learn to  describe how to protect yourself against pathogens.  explain how to avoid spreading pathogens to others when you are sick.  identify habits that can help you stay healthy.  practice positive health behavior to prevent the spread of disease.

26 Finding the Main Idea Look at the main headings in this lesson. For each heading, write one sentence that explains the main idea. Main Headings in this Lesson Keeping Pathogens from Spreading A Healthful Lifestyle

27 Germs and Disease Pathogens are harmful germs. pathogens Germs that cause disease

28 Keeping Pathogens from Spreading Good personal hygiene helps limit the number of pathogens you encounter. hygiene Cleanliness

29 Protecting Yourself from Pathogens Avoid close contact with people who have a communicable disease. Never share eating utensils. Wash yourself thoroughly and often, especially before preparing foods. Keep your fingers and hands away from your mouth, nose, and eyes.

30 Protecting Yourself from Pathogens Handle and prepare food safely. Wipe counters thoroughly. Empty the trash can often. Keeps pets clean and healthy.

31 Protecting Others from Pathogens If you feel sick, tell a parent or guardian. If you are ill, stay home from school and other public places. Cover your mouth and nose when you sneeze or cough. If a medical professional has told you to take medicine, follow the directions on the label exactly.

32 A Healthful Lifestyle Eat a balanced diet. Bathe or shower regularly using soap and shampoo. Avoid all tobacco products, alcohol, and other drugs. Get 8–9 hours of sleep every day.

33 A Healthful Lifestyle Rest when you are sick. Ask a parent or guardian to make sure your immunizations are up to date. Learn to manage stress. Visit the doctor for regular checkups and follow the advice of your doctor.

34 What I Learned Vocabulary Define hygiene, and use the term in a sentence. Lesson 4 Review

35 What I Learned Describe How can staying home when you are sick help keep others healthy? Lesson 4 Review

36 What I Learned Identify What are three strategies for protecting yourself from pathogens? Lesson 4 Review

37 Thinking Critically Explain Why do you think you should keep your trash can clean? Lesson 4 Review

38 Thinking Critically Apply Turtles and other reptiles carry salmonella. This bacteria often makes people sick if they ingest it. What would be a good way to make sure you don’t get sick from your friend’s pet turtle? Lesson 4 Review

39 Chapter 13 Communicable Diseases Lesson 5 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Next >> Click for: Teacher’s notes are available in the notes section of this presentation. >> Main Menu >> Chapter 13 Assessment

40  sexually transmitted diseases Infections that are spread from person to person through sexual contact A bacterial STD that may affect the reproductive organs, urethra, and anus  chlamydia Growths or bumps in the genital area cased by certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV)  genital warts A viral STD that produces painful blisters on the genital area  genital herpes

41 A bacterial STD that affects the mucous membranes of the body, particularly the genital area  gonorrhea A bacterial STD that can affect many parts of the body  syphilis

42 Do NOW 1.What different ways can pathogens be spread? 2.Provide at least four different ways that you can protect yourself against pathogens. 3.John needs to attend school, but he is feeling sick this morning. If you were John’s parents what advice would you give to him..

43 In this lesson, you will learn to  identify common sexually transmitted diseases.  explain how to protect yourself from sexually transmitted disease.  access valid information about sexually transmitted disease.

44 Finding the Main Idea Create a three-column table like the one shown below. As you go through the lesson, complete the table. STDSymptoms and EffectsPrevention

45 What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases? Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are also called sexually transmitted infections (STIs) hygiene Infections that are spread from person to person through sexual contact

46 What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases? The STD Fact File Someone who has an STD may not have visible symptoms, or may have symptoms that come and go. However, such a person may be contagious even when there are no symptoms.

47 What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases? The STD Fact File STDs can be prevented by saying no to high-risk behaviors, such as sexual activity.

48 What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases? The STD Fact File STDs can make a person sterile or infertile.

49 What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases? The STD Fact File Not all STDs are curable, and some are even fatal.

50 What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases? The STD Fact File A person who suspects that he or she is infected with an STD must see a doctor.

51 What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases? The STD Fact File Vaccines are not available for most STDs.

52 What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases? Chlamydia is often referred to as a “silent” disease because in many cases there are no symptoms. chlamydia A bacterial STD that may affect the reproductive organs, urethra, and anus Left untreated, chlamydia can cause infections in the body and infertility.

53 What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases? Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections like genital warts are the most common type of STD. genital warts Growths or bumps in the genital area caused by certain types of human papillomavirus Like chlamydia, HPV is often a silent disease, causing no symptoms until many years after the initial infection.

54 What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases? Even when the symptoms of genital herpes go away, the virus and the disease remain in the body. genital herpes A viral STD that produces painful blisters on the genital area There is no known cure for genital herpes.

55 What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases? Trichomoniasis can be treated and cured with medications. trichomoniasis An STD caused by the protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis Symptoms include vaginal discharge, discomfort during urination, and irritation or itching in the genital area.

56 What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases? Gonorrhea can be treated with antibiotics. gonorrhea A bacterial STD that affect the mucous membranes of the body, particularly in the genital area Symptoms include a thick yellowish discharge from the genitals and burning sensation when urinating.

57 What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases? If diagnosed and treated in the first or second stage, syphilis can be cured with antibiotics. syphilis A bacterial STD that can affect many parts of the body If left untreated, syphilis can eventually cause mental disorders, heart problems, and death.

58 What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases? Hepatitis B can be transmitted by sexual contact or through contaminated needles. hepatitis B A disease caused by the hepatitis B virus that affects the liver There is a vaccine available for hepatitis B.

59 Abstinence from Sexual Activity There is a 100 percent effective way to avoid STDs: Abstinence

60 Abstinence from Sexual Activity The media often sends messages that sexual activity is exciting. There is no mention of the risks of STDs or unplanned pregnancies. Use refusal skills to avoid being pressured to take part in sexual activity.

61 Abstinence from Sexual Activity You do not have to hide your feelings of affection. Appropriate ways for teens to show affection include holding hands and complimenting someone.

62 What I Learned Vocabulary Define sexually transmitted disease. Lesson 5 Review

63 What I Learned Explain Why are some STDs referred to as “silent” diseases? Lesson 5 Review

64 What I Learned List What are two consequences of untreated chlamydia? Lesson 5 Review

65 What I Learned Apply What is the best way to avoid STDs? Lesson 5 Review

66 What I Learned Explain What are some appropriate ways for teens to show affection? Lesson 5 Review

67 Thinking Critically Analyze How do values influence a person’s decision to practice sexual abstinence before marriage? Lesson 5 Review

68 Chapter 13 Communicable Diseases Lesson 6 HIV/AIDS Next >> Click for: Teacher’s notes are available in the notes section of this presentation. >> Main Menu >> Chapter 13 Assessment

69 The virus that causes AIDS  HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) A disease that interferes with the body’s ability to fight infection  AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency virus)

70 In this lesson, you will learn to  explain how people become infected with HIV and develop AIDS.  explain what is being done to fight AIDS.  analyze how media messages about sexual activity might influence teens.  describe how to protect yourself from HIV/AIDS.

71 Identifying Problems and Solutions After reading this lesson, identify how HIV is transmitted and what can be done to prevent the spread of HIV.

72 What Are HIV and AIDS? HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) attacks and kills T cells. HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) The virus that causes AIDS AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) A disease that interferes with the body’s ability to fight infection

73 What Are HIV and AIDS? HIV does not kill T cells immediately. An infected person can have the virus for years without showing any signs or symptoms.

74 The Spread of HIV How HIV Is Spread Sexual IntercourseContaminated NeedlesOther This is most common way that HIV spreads HIV circulates in the bloodstream and in other bodily fluids The virus circulates in the body even before it destroys the immune system Abstinence is the only protection against transmission A single drop of blood left on a needle can contain enough HIV to infect someone Contaminated tattoo needles can transmit HIV People with diabetes and other who need to use needles should do so under supervision of a medical professional A pregnant female can transmit HIV to her child during delivery A pregnant female can transmit HIV to her child through breast milk Before blood screening, people sometimes became infected during blood transfusions

75 The Spread of HIV How HIV Is NOT Spread Swimming in a pool with an infected person. Sharing utensils with an infected person. Breathing the air near an infected person. Donating blood. Being bitten by a mosquito that has bitten an infected person. Hugging or shaking hands with an infected person. Using the same shower, bathtub, or toilet as an infected person. Sharing sports equipment with an infected person.

76 Fighting AIDS In the United States, more that 14,000 people die every year from AIDS. Scientists and educators around the world work to prevent HIV infection by teaching people about the disease.

77 Fighting AIDS New drugs work to slow the progress of the disease by preventing HIV from reproducing. Many of these drugs have serious side effects and are very expensive.

78 Fighting AIDS Scientists are working on a vaccines to protect people from HIV, but it will likely take many years to develop. The best weapon in the fight against HIV and AIDS so far has been knowledge.

79 Abstinence and HIV People who inject illegal drugs face the dangers of getting diseases. People who engage in sexual activity are exposing themselves to STDs. The only 100 percent sure way to avoid getting HIV is to avoid contact with sources of this virus.

80 Abstinence and HIV If you are pressured to use injectable drugs or have sexual activity, talk to your parents or guardians right away. Stay away from people who encourage you to make dangerous choices.

81 Abstinence and HIV Abstinence can save your life.

82 What I Learned Vocabulary Define HIV and AIDS. Lesson 6 Review

83 What I Learned Identify How is AIDS related to HIV? Lesson 6 Review

84 What I Learned Give Examples People are often mistaken about how HIV is transmitted. Name four ways HIV is not transmitted. Lesson 6 Review

85 What I Learned Describe What happens to T cells that are infected with HIV? Lesson 6 Review

86 Thinking Critically Analyze Why is HIV an especially dangerous virus? Lesson 6 Review

87 Thinking Critically Apply Many people who have HIV do not know that they are infected with the virus. How can this be? Lesson 6 Review

88 Click for: End of Chapter 13 Communicable Diseases Lesson 6 HIV/AIDS >> Main Menu >> Chapter 13 Assessment


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