Presentation on theme: "Disease Prevention Glencoe Teen Health"— Presentation transcript:
1 Disease Prevention Glencoe Teen Health Chapter 13, Lesson 4 - Preventing the Spread of Disease (pp )Chapter 13, Lesson 5 - Sexually Transmitted Diseases (pp )Chapter 13, Lesson 6 - HIV/AIDS (pp )
2 Disease Prevention Description In this unit students will learn about the symptoms, spread, and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases. Discussions will include HIV/AIDS and how it attacks the immune system.
3 Disease Prevention Essential Questions How do I protect myself against disease?
4 Disease Prevention Enduring Understanding Sexually transmitted diseases are infections spread through sexual contact.Abstinence from sexual activity is the only way to avoid STDs.HIV causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a deadly disease that interferes with the body's immune system.
6 Disease Prevention Day 16 Handout “Disease Notes” packet and fill in the answers as we go
7 Organisms that are so small they can only be seen through a microscope Any condition that interferes with the normal or proper functioning of the body or minddiseasecommunicable diseaseA disease that can be spread to a person from another person, an animal, or an objectOrganisms that are so small they can only be seen through a microscopegermsClick to reveal the definitions.
8 Germs that cause disease pathogensGerms that cause diseaseA condition that happens when pathogens enter the body, multiply, and cause harminfectionvirusesThe smallest and simplest pathogensClick to reveal the definitions.
9 Simple one-celled organisms bacteriaSimple one-celled organismsOrganisms that are more complex than bacteria but cannot make their own foodfungiOne-celled organisms that are more complex than bacteriaprotozoaClick to reveal the definitions.
10 In this lesson, you will learn to identify types of germs that can cause disease.describe what an infection is.explain how germs are spread.access information on communicable diseases.
11 A disease such as the common cold is a communicable disease. Germs and DiseaseA disease such as the common cold is a communicable disease.disease Any condition that interferes with the normal or proper functioning of the body or mindcommunicable disease A disease that can be spread to a person from another person, an animal, or an object
12 Communicable diseases are spread by germs. Germs and DiseaseCommunicable diseases are spread by germs.germs Organisms that are so small they can only be seen through a microscopeThe environment is filled with many types of germs.
13 Pathogens are harmful germs. Germs and DiseasePathogens are harmful germs.pathogens Germs that cause disease
14 When the body cannot fight of an infection, a disease develops. Germs and DiseaseWhen the body cannot fight of an infection, a disease develops.infection A condition that happens when pathogens enter the body, multiply, and cause harm
15 Viruses are usually made of genetic material and protein. Kinds of PathogensViruses are not alive.viruses The smallest and simplest pathogensViruses cause upper respiratory infections and many other types of disease.Viruses are usually made of genetic material and protein.
16 Bacteria exist in every environment on earth. Kinds of PathogensBacteria exist in every environment on earth.bacteria Simple one-celled organismsHelpful bacteria live in your digestive system and help break down food.Other bacteria live on your skin and prevent harmful bacteria from infecting you.Most kinds of bacteria are not only harmless, but actually helpful.
17 Examples of fungi include molds, yeast, and mushrooms. Kinds of PathogensExamples of fungi include molds, yeast, and mushrooms.fungi Organisms that are more complex than bacteria but cannot make their own foodMost fungi are harmless, but some can cause disease.Fungi thrive in warm, moist environments.
18 Many protozoa are harmless, but some can cause disease. Kinds of PathogensMany protozoa are harmless, but some can cause disease.protozoa One-celled organisms that are more complex than bacteriaOne type of protozoa causes malaria, which is transferred to people through mosquito bites.
20 How Pathogens Spread Direct contact with others Indirect contact with othersHow Pathogens SpreadContact with animals or insectsContact with someone else’s bloodDirect contact with others:Washing your hands often with soap helps stop the spread of pathogens.Indirect contact with others:Pathogens can spread through the air. Using tissues to cover your mouth when you sneeze or cough can keep these pathogens from spreading.Pathogens can spread when people share drinking glasses, eating utensils, and other personal items.Contact with someone else’s blood:This can happened when someone injects drugs using a needle that someone else has used.In some cases, pathogens can spread when the blood from an infected person touches the broken skin of an non-infected person.Blood is screened for pathogens at blood donor clinics.Sexual contact:Pathogens can be spread through sexual contact. (Covered in lessons 5 and 6)Contact with contaminated food or water:Undercooked meat may contain bacteria that can make you sick. Illnesses people get from pathogens in food are called foodborne illnesses.Store food properly.Wash fruits and vegetables.Handle meat, poultry, eggs, and fish carefully.Wash all knives and surfaces that meat, poultry, and fish have touched.Tap water can become contaminated in times of emergency.Never drink directly from lakes and rivers.Contact with animals and insects:A deer tick can spread the virus that causes Lyme disease.Mosquitoes infected with the West Nile virus can spread that virus to birds, horses, and humans.Contact with contaminated food or waterSexual contact
21 Mosquitoes can infect humans with West Nile Virus Mosquitoes can infect humans with West Nile Virus. Controlling mosquito populations is one way to help control the spread of West Nile Virus.
22 Lesson 1 ReviewWhat I LearnedVocabulary Define communicable disease and pathogen. Write a sentence using both terms.A communicable disease can be spread to a person from another person, an animal, or an object. A pathogen is a germ that causes disease. Sentences will vary.
23 The Body’s Five Major Barriers to Block Pathogens Keeping Pathogens OutThe Body’s Five Major Barriers to Block PathogensTearsSalivaSkinPathogens are everywhere, but your body protects you. Your body can block, trap, or break down most pathogens before they make you sick.Tears:Tears cover and protect the eye from dust and pathogens. Tears carry foreign material away from the eye.Saliva:Saliva contains chemicals that kill pathogens.Skin:Skin provides a protective surface that keeps pathogens from entering the blood. Pathogens can get through this barrier if you have a cut or a scrape.Mucous membranes:Mucous membranes are the soft skin that line the nose, mouth, eyes, and other body openings. They are coated in a fluid called mucus. Mucus traps pathogens.Stomach acid:Stomach acid kills many of the pathogens that make it past the saliva and mucous membranes of your mouth.Mucous MembranesStomach Acid
24 Keeping Pathogens from Spreading Good personal hygiene helps limit the number of pathogens you encounter.hygiene CleanlinessYou can’t avoid pathogens, but you can develop good habits to protect yourself from them.
25 Protecting Yourself from Pathogens Avoid close contact with people who have a communicable disease.Never share eating utensils.Wash yourself thoroughly and often, especially before preparing foods.When washing your hands, use plenty of warm water. Remember to wash your hands after you use the bathroom, play with pets, visit a sick person, or touch garbage or any other source of pathogens.Keep your fingers and hands away from your mouth, nose, and eyes.
26 Protecting Yourself from Pathogens Handle and prepare food safely.Wipe counters thoroughly.Empty the trash can often.Handling and preparing food safely is especially important for meat, poultry, and fish. Always wash vegetables and cook meat thoroughly.Keeps pets clean and healthy.
27 Protecting Others from Pathogens If you feel sick, tell a parent or guardian.If you are ill, stay home from school and other public places.Cover your mouth and nose when you sneeze or cough.Early treatment helps keep your condition from getting worse and limits the number of people who are exposed to whatever is making you sick.If you are sick, limit your contact with other people and wash your hands often.Only use a tissue once and throw it away in the proper place. If you don’t have a tissue, sneeze or cough into the crook of your elbow rather than your hand.Don’t stop taking a medicine because you feel better.If a medical professional has told you to take medicine, follow the directions on the label exactly.
28 A Healthful Lifestyle Eat a balanced diet. Bathe or shower regularly using soap and shampoo.Here are some positive health practices that you can develop.Avoid all tobacco products, alcohol, and other drugs.Get 8–9 hours of sleep every day.
29 A Healthful LifestyleRest when you are sick.Ask a parent or guardian to make sure your immunizations are up to date.Here are some positive health practices that you can develop.Learn to manage stress.Visit the doctor for regular checkups and follow the advice of your doctor.
30 Lesson 4 ReviewWhat I LearnedDescribe How can staying home when you are sick help keep others healthy?Staying home when you are sick avoids exposing others to the illness.
31 Lesson 4 ReviewWhat I LearnedIdentify What are three strategies for protecting yourself from pathogens?Avoid close contact with people who have a communicable disease, don't share eating utensils, and wash your hands thoroughly and frequently.
32 Lesson 4 ReviewThinking CriticallyExplain Why do you think you should keep your trash can clean?Food can collect at the bottom of a trash can, and bacteria can grow.
33 Lesson 4 ReviewThinking CriticallyApply Turtles and other reptiles carry salmonella. This bacteria often makes people sick if they ingest it. What would be a good way to make sure you don’t get sick from your friend’s pet turtle?You shouldn't handle the pet turtle if you can help it. If you have to pick up the turtle, you should wash your hands thoroughly.
34 sexually transmitted diseases Infections that are spread from person to person through sexual contactA bacterial STD that may affect the reproductive organs, urethra, and anuschlamydiagenital wartsGrowths or bumps in the genital area cased by certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV)Click to reveal the definitions.genital herpesA viral STD that produces painful blisters on the genital area
35 An STD caused by the protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis trichomoniasis A bacterial STD that affects the mucous membranes of the body, particularly the genital areagonorrheaA bacterial STD that can affect many parts of the bodyClick to reveal the definitions.syphilisA disease caused by the hepatitis B virus that affects the liverhepatitis B
36 Finding the Main IdeaCreate a three-column table like the one shown below. As you go through the lesson, complete the table.STDSymptoms and EffectsPrevention
37 What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases? Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are also called sexually transmitted infections (STIs)hygiene Infections that are spread from person to person through sexual contact
38 What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases? The STD Fact FileSomeone who has an STD may not have visible symptoms, or may have symptoms that come and go. However, such a person may be contagious even when there are no symptoms.
39 What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases? The STD Fact FileSTDs can be prevented by saying no to high-risk behaviors, such as sexual activity.
40 What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases? The STD Fact FileSTDs can make a person sterile or infertile.
41 What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases? The STD Fact FileNot all STDs are curable, and some are even fatal.
42 What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases? The STD Fact FileA person who suspects that he or she is infected with an STD must see a doctor.
43 What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases? The STD Fact FileVaccines are not available for most STDs.
44 What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases? Chlamydia is often referred to as a “silent” disease because in many cases there are no symptoms.chlamydia A bacterial STD that may affect the reproductive organs, urethra, and anusWhen symptoms occur, they can include genital discharge and pain when urinating.Left untreated, chlamydia can cause infections in the body and infertility.
45 What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases? Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections like genital warts are the most common type of STD.genital warts Growths or bumps in the genital area caused by certain types of human papillomavirusGenital warts can be treated, but there is no cure for the HPV infection itself. Some strains of HPV are linked to the development of cervical cancer.Like chlamydia, HPV is often a silent disease, causing no symptoms until many years after the initial infection.
46 What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases? Even when the symptoms of genital herpes go away, the virus and the disease remain in the body.genital herpes A viral STD that produces painful blisters on the genital areaAdditional symptoms of genital herpes include pain anywhere in the lower half of the body and genital discharge.There is no known cure for genital herpes.
47 What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases? Trichomoniasis can be treated and cured with medications.trichomoniasis An STD caused by the protozoan Trichomonas vaginalisSymptoms include vaginal discharge, discomfort during urination, and irritation or itching in the genital area.
48 What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases? Gonorrhea can be treated with antibiotics.gonorrhea A bacterial STD that affect the mucous membranes of the body, particularly in the genital areaSymptoms include a thick yellowish discharge from the genitals and burning sensation when urinating.Left untreated, gonorrhea can infect other parts of the body, including the heart. It can also cause fertility problems for both males and females.
49 What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases? If diagnosed and treated in the first or second stage, syphilis can be cured with antibiotics.syphilis A bacterial STD that can affect many parts of the bodyFirst stage of syphilis:Painless sores at the place of infectionSwollen lymph glandsSecond stage of syphilis:Severe rashLater stages of syphilis:The bacteria move throughout the body and can cause damage to other organs.If left untreated, syphilis can eventually cause mental disorders, heart problems, and death.
50 What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases? Hepatitis B can be transmitted by sexual contact or through contaminated needles.hepatitis B A disease caused by the hepatitis B virus that affects the liverThere is a vaccine available for hepatitis B.
51 Abstinence from Sexual Activity There is a 100 percent effective way to avoid STDs:AbstinenceYou cannot tell by looking at people if they have an STD.
52 Abstinence from Sexual Activity The media often sends messages that sexual activity is exciting.There is no mention of the risks of STDs or unplanned pregnancies.Use refusal skills to avoid being pressured to take part in sexual activity.It’s normal to have sexual feelings when you are a teen. Talking about these feelings with a parent or guardian can help you deal with them.It also helps to understand your family’s values and what your parents expect of you.
53 Abstinence from Sexual Activity You do not have to hide your feelings of affection.Appropriate ways for teens to show affection include holding hands and complimenting someone.Your relationships are built on shared interests and trust, rather than on sexual attraction.By practicing abstinence, you get to know someone in a way that goes beyond physical attraction.
54 What I Learned Vocabulary Define sexually transmitted disease. Lesson 5 ReviewWhat I LearnedVocabulary Define sexually transmitted disease.A sexually transmitted disease is an infection that is spread from person to person through sexual contact.
55 Lesson 5 ReviewWhat I LearnedExplain Why are some STDs referred to as “silent” diseases?In many cases there are no symptoms and a person can have the disease and not know it.
56 What I Learned List What are two consequences of untreated chlamydia? Lesson 5 ReviewWhat I LearnedList What are two consequences of untreated chlamydia?other infections and infertility
57 What I Learned Apply What is the best way to avoid STDs? Lesson 5 ReviewWhat I LearnedApply What is the best way to avoid STDs?Abstain from sexual activity.
58 Lesson 5 ReviewWhat I LearnedExplain What are some appropriate ways for teens to show affection?Holding hands and complimenting someone are appropriate ways for teens to show affection.
59 Lesson 5 ReviewThinking CriticallyAnalyze How do values influence a person’s decision to practice sexual abstinence before marriage?Respecting family values can influence a person to make the decision to practice sexual abstinence before marriage.
60 HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) The virus that causes AIDS AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency virus)Click to reveal the definitions.A disease that interferes with the body’s ability to fight infection
61 In this lesson, you will learn to explain how people become infected with HIV and develop AIDS.explain what is being done to fight AIDS.analyze how media messages about sexual activity might influence teens.describe how to protect yourself from HIV/AIDS.
62 Identifying Problems and Solutions After reading this lesson, identify how HIV is transmitted and what can be done to prevent the spread of HIV.
63 HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) attacks and kills T cells. What Are HIV and AIDS?HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) attacks and kills T cells.HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) The virus that causes AIDST cells coordinate the body’s response to infections. HIV destroys T cells. As a result, the immune system cannot fight HIV or any other infection.AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) A disease that interferes with the body’s ability to fight infection
64 HIV does not kill T cells immediately. What Are HIV and AIDS?HIV does not kill T cells immediately.An infected person can have the virus for years without showing any signs or symptoms.Once a person is infected with HIV, the virus begins damaging the person’s immune system.Infected people can spread the disease to others.
65 The Spread of HIV How HIV Is Spread Sexual Intercourse Contaminated NeedlesOtherThis is most common way that HIV spreadsHIV circulates in the bloodstream and in other bodily fluidsThe virus circulates in the body even before it destroys the immune systemAbstinence is the only protection against transmissionA single drop of blood left on a needle can contain enough HIV to infect someoneContaminated tattoo needles can transmit HIVPeople with diabetes and other who need to use needles should do so under supervision of a medical professionalA pregnant female can transmit HIV to her child during deliveryA pregnant female can transmit HIV to her child through breast milkBefore blood screening, people sometimes became infected during blood transfusions
66 The Spread of HIV How HIV Is NOT Spread Swimming in a pool with an infected person.Sharing utensils with an infected person.Breathing the air near an infected person.Donating blood.Being bitten by a mosquito that has bitten an infected person.Hugging or shaking hands with an infected person.Using the same shower, bathtub, or toilet as an infected person.Sharing sports equipment with an infected person.
67 Fighting AIDSIn the United States, more that 14,000 people die every year from AIDS.Scientists and educators around the world work to prevent HIV infection by teaching people about the disease.
68 Many of these drugs have serious side effects and are very expensive. Fighting AIDSNew drugs work to slow the progress of the disease by preventing HIV from reproducing.Many of these drugs have serious side effects and are very expensive.Drugs that are being used to slow the progress of HIV may be losing their effectiveness because the virus is changing.
69 Fighting AIDSScientists are working on a vaccines to protect people from HIV, but it will likely take many years to develop.The best weapon in the fight against HIV and AIDS so far has been knowledge.One challenge facing scientists is the fact that there are many forms of HIV.When people learn how HIV is spread, they can take steps to avoid getting it.
70 People who inject illegal drugs face the dangers of getting diseases. Abstinence and HIVPeople who inject illegal drugs face the dangers of getting diseases.People who engage in sexual activity are exposing themselves to STDs.The only 100 percent sure way to avoid getting HIV is to avoid contact with sources of this virus.
71 Abstinence and HIVIf you are pressured to use injectable drugs or have sexual activity, talk to your parents or guardians right away.Stay away from people who encourage you to make dangerous choices.
72 Abstinence can save your life. Abstinence and HIVAbstinence can save your life.
73 What I Learned Vocabulary Define HIV and AIDS. Lesson 6 Review HIV, human immunodeficiency virus, is the virus that causes AIDS. AIDS, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, is a deadly disease that interferes with the body's ability to fight infection.
74 What I Learned Identify How is AIDS related to HIV? Lesson 6 Review AIDS is the disease a person gets who is infected with HIV.
75 Lesson 6 ReviewWhat I LearnedGive Examples People are often mistaken about how HIV is transmitted. Name four ways HIV is not transmitted.Any four: by swimming in a pool with an infected person, sharing utensils with an infected person, breathing the air near an infected person, or donating blood
76 Lesson 6 ReviewWhat I LearnedDescribe What happens to T cells that are infected with HIV?When T cells are infected with HIV, the virus uses the T cells to make copies of the virus, then the T cells are destroyed.
77 Thinking Critically Analyze Why is HIV an especially dangerous virus? Lesson 6 ReviewThinking CriticallyAnalyze Why is HIV an especially dangerous virus?HIV cripples the immune system by killing the T cells that control immune responses.
78 Lesson 6 ReviewThinking CriticallyApply Many people who have HIV do not know that they are infected with the virus. How can this be?A person can have the virus without showing any signs or symptoms.
79 Disease Prevention Day 17 STD and STI Fact Hunt around the Room Activities below with Option 1 or 2
80 Disease Prevention Activities Create a pamphlet that warns teens of the dangers of STDs. On your brochure, explain different STDs and their symptoms, and how many STDs cause harm without showing symptoms for a long time. Also point out how sexual abstinence keeps teens safe and healthy.You are a reporter for a news station in St. Louis and your job is to inform the public on HIV/AIDS. After researching HIV/AIDS, you have found that in the early days of the AIDS epidemic, some people proposed that anyone infected with the HIV should be quarantined. Your goal is to explain why such quarantining of people infected with HIV is unnecessary. Also, be sure to explain to the reader how HIV is spread and how it is not spread. In order to complete this report, you can either make a small commercial using a Flip Camera or create a PowerPoint. Constructed Response:What are three strategies for protecting yourself from pathogens?How do values influence a person's decision to practice sexual abstinence before marriage?
81 Disease Prevention Rubric 1: Brochure Performance Task:Create a brochure to summarize chapter 13Directions: Create a brochure that warns teens of the dangers of STDs. On your brochure, explain how many STDs cause harm without showing symptoms for a long time. Also point out how sexual abstinence keeps teens safe and healthy. RubricCreate a brochureExplain symptoms of STDs (all 7 STDs we went over in class) ____14 pointsList the STDs that do not have visible symptoms ____3 pointsName three strategies to protect yourself from pathogens ____3 pointsExplain the importance of abstinence (How do valuesinfluence a person's decision to practice sexual abstinencebefore marriage?) ____5 pointsTotal Points ___/25points
82 Disease Prevention Rubric 2: Reporter Disease Prevention /Performance Task (60 Points)*Not completing a project will result in zero pointsCategoryNeeds Improvement (5pts)Good (10pts)Outstanding (15pts)Completed the research on HIV/AIDS using technologyStudent completed one category with little or no technology.Student completed two categories with technology.Student completed all three categories with technology.Explain why quarantining is NOT necessaryStudent provides one examples of why quarantining is NOT necessary.Student provides two examples of why quarantining is NOT necessary.Student provides all three examples of why quarantining is NOT necessary.Explain how HIV is spreadStudent will provide one example of how HIV is spread.Student will provide two examples of how HIV is spread.Student will provide three examples of how HIV is spread.Explain how HIV is NOT spreadStudent provides one example of explain how HIV is NOT spread.Student provides two examples of explain how HIV is NOT spread.Student provides three examples of how HIV is NOT spread.
83 Disease Prevention Day 18 “Understanding HIV and AIDS” handout, fill in answers as you watch the video
84 Disease Prevention Students will know: The students will be able to: Positive health practices that help them stay well.Common types of STDs.The spread of HIV.Abstinence and prevention of STDs.vocabularyThe students will be able to:describe how to protect themselves against pathogens.practice a positive health behavior to prevent the spread of disease.explain how people become infected with HIV and develop AIDS.develop a logical argument for choosing abstinence.The students will be able to:describe how to protect themselves against pathogens.practice a positive health behavior to prevent the spread of disease.explain how people become infected with HIV and develop AIDS.develop a logical argument for choosing abstinence.